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Ben Carson

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Ben Carson

Ben Carson
Carson speaking at CPAC, February 2015
Born Benjamin Solomon Carson
(1951-09-18) September 18, 1951
Detroit, Michigan, United States
Ethnicity African American
Alma mater Yale University (B.A.)
University of Michigan (M.D.)
Known for Separation of conjoined twins
Conservative political commentary
Political party Republican (1981–99; 2014–present)
Democratic Before 1981
Independent (1999–2014)[1]
Religion Seventh-day Adventist
Spouse(s) Lacena "Candy" (Rustin) Carson (m. 1975)
Children 3 sons:
Benjamin, Jr.
Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom
Ford's Theatre Lincoln Medal
Website .com.bencarsonwww

Benjamin Solomon "Ben" Carson, Sr. (born September 18, 1951) is a former neurosurgeon who is a candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 presidential election. He was the Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Maryland from 1984 until his retirement in 2013. Among his achievements as a surgeon were separation of conjoined twins and a technique for controlling brain seizures. Both achievements were recognized in 2008 with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Upon delivering a widely publicized speech at the 2013 National Prayer Breakfast, Carson became a popular conservative figure in political media for his views on social and political issues.[2] On May 4, 2015, Carson announced he was running for the Republican nomination in the 2016 presidential election at a rally in his hometown of Detroit.[3]


  • Early life 1
  • Career 2
    • Surgeon 2.1
    • Speaker, writer, board member 2.2
    • Relationship with Mannatech 2.3
    • Political affiliation and 2016 candidacy 2.4
  • Carson Scholars Fund 3
  • Personal life 4
    • Family and religion 4.1
    • Vegetarianism 4.2
    • Personal finances 4.3
  • Political and other positions 5
    • Abortion and human fetal tissue 5.1
    • Climate change 5.2
    • Economic issues 5.3
    • Education 5.4
    • Evolution 5.5
    • Firearms regulation 5.6
    • Healthcare 5.7
    • Immigration 5.8
    • Marijuana and drug policy 5.9
    • Marriage and homosexuality 5.10
    • National Prayer Breakfast speech and its impact 5.11
    • Religious freedom 5.12
  • Awards and honors 6
  • Books by Carson 7
  • Biographical works about Carson 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life

Carson was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Sonya (née Copeland) and Robert Solomon Carson, a Baptist minister and later Cadillac factory worker. Both of Carson's parents came from rural Tennessee. Carson's mother was only 13 when she married Carson's father. Carson's mother discovered her husband had another family, to which Carson's father eventually moved.[4][5] Following his parents' divorce when Carson was eight years old, both he and his older brother, Curtis, were raised by their mother, who worked two or three jobs at a time, usually as a domestic servant. They were very poor.[4]

In his book Gifted Hands, Carson relates that, in his youth, he had a violent temper. Once, while in the ninth grade, he nearly stabbed a friend during an argument.[6] After this incident, he began reading the Book of Proverbs and applying verses on anger. As a result, Carson states he "never had another problem with temper".[7][8][9]

Carson attended Southwestern High School in Southwest Detroit where he excelled in JROTC, a program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces, where he quickly rose in rank. While he was offered an appointment to West Point,[10] Carson turned it down and remained a civilian.[11] He graduated from Yale University, where he majored in psychology.[12] He received his M.D. from the University of Michigan Medical School,[13][14] and completed his residency in neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.[15]

In 2006, the television mini-series African American Lives conducted a DNA test as part of its segment on Carson. The test indicated that his ancestry is 20% European and 80% African, including ancestors within the Makua people.[16]



Carson believes his hand–eye coordination and three-dimensional reasoning made him a gifted surgeon.[17] After medical school, he became a neurosurgery resident at Johns Hopkins Hospital, with an interest in pediatrics.[17] As a surgeon, Carson specialized in traumatic brain injuries, brain and spinal cord tumors, achondroplasia, neurological and congenital disorders, craniosynostosis, epilepsy, and trigeminal neuralgia.[18] He was a professor of neurosurgery, oncology, plastic surgery, and pediatrics, and director of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital.[18] In 1984, at age 33, he became the youngest major division director in the hospital's history. He was also a co-director of the Johns Hopkins Craniofacial Center.

Carson figured in the revival of the hemispherectomy, a drastic surgical procedure in which part or all of one hemisphere of the brain is removed to control severe pediatric epilepsy. He refined the procedure in the 1980s, encouraged by John M. Freeman,[19] and performed it many times.[20][21]

In 1987, Carson successfully separated conjoined twins, the Binder twins, who had been joined at the back of the head (craniopagus twins). The 70-member surgical team, led by Carson, worked for 22 hours. Both twins survived.[22][23][24] He is also an author of many articles in peer-reviewed journals.[25] In March 2013, Carson announced he would retire as a surgeon, saying "I'd much rather quit when I'm at the top of my game".[26] His retirement became official on July 1, 2013.[27]

Speaker, writer, board member

Carson has written six bestselling[28] books published by Zondervan, an international Christian media and publishing company. The first book, in 1992, was an autobiography. Two books are about his personal philosophies of success involving focused, high-quality work in the context of stabilizing religious understanding.

In July 2013, Carson was hired by The Washington Times as a weekly opinion columnist.[29] In October 2013, Fox News hired Carson as a contributor, to provide analysis and commentary across Fox News Channel's daytime and primetime programming, a relationship which lasted to the end of 2014.[30]

Relationship with Mannatech

According to a CNN headline, Carson had an "extensive relationship" from 2004 to 2014 with Mannatech, Inc., a company that produces dietary supplements made from substances such as aloe vera extract and larch-tree bark.[31][32][33] Carson gave four paid speeches at company events, but he denies having been paid by Mannatech to do anything else, and says he has been a "prolific speaker" who has spoken before many groups.[34]

In a 2004 speech at a Mannatech event, Carson credited the company's products for the disappearance of his prostate cancer symptoms.[31][32] Carson's relationship with Mannatech continued after the company paid $7 million in 2009 to settle a deceptive-marketing lawsuit in Texas over claims that its products could cure autism and cancer.[35][36][31] Carson's most recent paid speech for Mannatech was in 2013, for which he was paid $42,000; his image appeared on the corporation's website as recently as 2014.[31]

When questioned about his relationship with the company at the October 28, 2015, CNBC GOP debate, Carson said, "That's easy to answer. I didn't have any involvement with them [Mannatech]. Total propaganda. I did a couple speeches for them. I did speeches for other people - they were paid speeches. It is absolutely absurd to say I had any kind of relation with them. Do I take the product? Yes. I think it is a good product." [37] Politifact rated that statement as "false," pointing to Carson's paid speeches for the firm and his appearences in promotional videos in which he gave favorable reviews to its products, despite not being "an official spokesman or sales associate."[33] But when the CNBC moderator stated in a follow question that Carson was on the company's website, Carson said that he did not give the company permission to do so, and the debate crowd loudly booed the moderator's follow-up question. Carson had earlier attempted to distance himself from the company, stating that he was unaware of the company's legal history.[38]

Political affiliation and 2016 candidacy

In the 1990s, Carson, who had been registered as a Republican, changed his registration to independent after watching Republicans impeach President Clinton for perjury and obstruction of justice regarding an extramarital affair; "I just saw so much hypocrisy in both parties," Carson said.[39] In February 2013, Carson said that he was not a member of any political party.[40]

In his book America the Beautiful, published in 2013, Carson said: "I believe it is a very good idea for physicians, scientists, engineers, and others trained to make decisions based on facts and empirical data to get involved in the political arena."[41][42] On November 4, 2014, the day the 2014 midterms took place, he rejoined the Republican Party, saying it was "truly a pragmatic move" because he was considering running for president in 2016.[39]

Campaigning in New Hampshire, August 2015

In January 2015, The Weekly Standard reported that the Draft Carson Committee had raised $13 million by the end of 2014, shortly after Carson performed well in a CNN/ORC poll of potential candidates in December 2014, coming in second in two different versions. He came in second with 10% behind Mitt Romney's 20%, but in the same poll with Romney removed from the list, Carson closed the gap with 11% to Jeb Bush's 14%.[43][44] The Wall Street Journal mentioned that the Draft Carson Committee had chairmen in all of Iowa's 99 counties, and that Carson had recently come in first place in two separate Public Policy polls for the state of Pennsylvania.[45][46]

On May 3, 2015, Carson confirmed his candidacy for President in an interview with a local television station in Cincinnati, Ohio. The next day, on May 4, 2015, he officially announced he was running for the Republican nomination in the 2016 U.S. presidential election at a rally in his hometown of Detroit.[3] As of October 2015, Carson's improbable political career has been surging in the polls and in fundraising, while he continues to participate in nationally-televised Republican debates.[47][48]

Carson Scholars Fund

In 1994, Carson and his wife started the Carson Scholars Fund, which awards scholarships to students in grades 4–11 for "academic excellence and humanitarian qualities".[49] They founded it after reading that U.S. students ranked second to last in terms of math and science testing among 22 countries. They also noticed that schools awarded athletes with trophies whereas honor students only received "a pin or certificate".

Recipients of the Carson Scholars Fund receive a $1,000 scholarship towards their college education. It has awarded 6,700 scholarships.[49][50] In recognition for his work with the Carson Scholars Fund and other charitable giving throughout his lifetime, Carson was awarded the William E. Simon Prize for Philanthropic Leadership in 2005.[51]

Personal life

Family and religion

Carson and his wife, Lacena "Candy" Rustin, met in 1971 as students at Yale University. They married in 1975 and have three adult sons: Murray, Benjamin Jr., and Rhoeyce as well as several grandchildren. They lived in West Friendship, Maryland, before moving to West Palm Beach, Florida in 2013.[52][53] They are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA).[54][55]

Carson was baptized at Burns Seventh-day Adventist Church on Detroit's eastside. A few years later he told the pastor at a church in Inkster, Michigan, he was attending that he had not fully understood his first baptism and wanted to be baptized again, so he was.[56] He has served as a local elder and Sabbath School teacher in the Seventh-day Adventist Church.[57] His mother is a devout Seventh-day Adventist.[58] Although Carson is an SDA, the church has officially cautioned church employees to remain politically neutral.[59]


Consistent with Adventist teachings, Carson is largely vegetarian[60][61][62] He has said that his main reason for becoming vegetarian was health concerns, including parasites and heart disease, and also emphasizes the environmental benefits of vegetarianism.[60] His transition was made easier because he had eaten little meat for aesthetic reasons as a child,[60] and he readily adopted his wife's vegetarianism because she does much of the cooking in their household.[60][61] Speaking in 1990, he said that with the increasing availability of meat substitutes, "It might take 20 years. But eventually there will no longer be a reason for most people to eat meat. And animals will breathe a sigh of relief."[60] To avoid causing others discomfort, he is willing to occasionally eat chicken or turkey, although he finds eating pork highly unpleasant.[61] His campaign spokesman Doug Watts confirmed in 2015 that Carson is ovo-lacto vegetarian, consuming eggs and dairy "and occasionally (but not preferably) chicken."[62]

Personal finances

In financial disclosure forms, Carson and his wife reported income of between $8.9 million and $27 million from January 2014 to May 3, 2015, when he announced his presidential campaign.[63] Over that period, Carson received over $4 million from 141 paid speeches; between $1.1 million and $6 million in book royalties; between $200,000 to $2 million as a contributor to the Washington Times and Fox News; and between $2 million and $10 million as a member of the boards of Kellogg Co. and Costco Wholesale Corp.[63] He resigned from Costco's board in mid-2015, after serving on it for more than 16 years.[64]

Political and other positions

Abortion and human fetal tissue

Carson believes that abortion should be outlawed in all circumstances, including in cases of rape and incest.[65] He has said that he would consider allowing abortion for the health and safety of the mother.[66] Carson has equated abortion to slavery.[65][66][67] Carson has said that he would "love" to see the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade be overturned.[66]

After undercover videos recorded by an anti-abortion group showed Planned Parenthood officials discussing the donation of tissue from aborted fetuses for medical research, Carson condemned Planned Parenthood, saying that there is "nothing that can't be done without fetal tissue" and that fetuses at 17 weeks were clearly human beings.[68] Subsequently, a blogger highlighted a 1992 paper by Carson, reporting research that he and others had done using two fetuses.[68][69][70] Carson subsequently defended the use of fetal tissue for medical research, telling the Washington Post: "If you're killing babies and taking the tissue, that's a very different thing than taking a dead specimen and keeping a record of it."[68]

Climate change

Carson rejects the scientific consensus that human activity causes climate change, expressing this belief at a Commonwealth Club forum in San Francisco in 2015.[71] After this statement, Governor Jerry Brown of California sent Carson a flash drive containing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Synthesis Report, which details the scientific evidence of human impact on climate change.[71][72] Asked about the letter, Carson told the San Francisco Chronicle that "There is no overwhelming science that the things that are going on are man-caused and not naturally caused."[71][72]

In November 2014, Carson said that "there's always going to be either cooling or warming going on" and that he found the debate on climate change to be "irrelevant" and a distraction from protecting the environment.[73]

Economic issues

Carson has not "fleshed out enough for a tax policy for experts to really run the numbers," according to CNN Money,[74] but has suggested that the U.S. abandon its current personal income tax system in favor of a flat tax.[74][75][76] Along with a flat tax, Carson has advocated for a national luxury tax on "very expensive items."[77][78]

Carson supports a balanced budget amendment to the United States Constitution, in order to combat the national debt.[74] Carson also supports raising the minimum age to receive Social Security benefits, "because people are living longer, straining the solvency of the program."[79]

While most of Carson's economic-policy beliefs reflect "current Republican orthodoxy," he diverges from other Republican presidential candidates in his support for reinstating Glass-Steagall, a Depression-era law that separated commercial and investment banks and was repealed in 1999.[77] Carson believes that the repeal of Glass-Steagall helped foster growth in banks that made them too big to fail.[77]

During the 2015 presidential campaign, Carson has said that the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 should "possibly" or "probably" be higher.[80][81] He supports a two-tiered minimum wage system, with a lower "starter" minimum wage for young workers.[81][82] He also supports indexing the minimum wage to inflation, "so that we never have to have this conversation again in the history of America."[81] As for the size of the federal workforce, Carson calls it "absurd" and would reduce it by cutting back on hiring people, as an alternative to layoffs.[76]

Regarding international trade, Carson has said that free trade "is a wonderful thing" but voiced objections to the Trans-Pacific Partnership. He wants to see the TPP renegotiated, "because right now we have a lot of special interest groups who benefit."[76]


In an October 2015 interview, Carson stated: "I actually have something I would use the Department of Education to do. It would be to monitor our institutions of higher education for extreme political bias and deny federal funding on that basis."[83][84] On the AP U.S. History curriculum, Carson said it overemphasizes wrongdoing by the United States: "I think most people, when they finish that course, they'd be ready to go sign up for ISIS."[85]

In February 2015, at the annual Conservative Political Action Conference, Carson said: "I've found that homeschoolers do the best, private schoolers next best, charter schoolers next best, and public schoolers worst." On that basis, he advocated school choice.[86]


Carson's views on evolution and creationism have been controversial.[87] In a 2006 debate, Carson stated: "I don't believe in evolution... I simply don't have enough faith to believe that something as complex as our ability to rationalize, think, and plan, and have a moral sense of what's right and wrong, just appeared."[88] Carson believes that portions of Darwin's Theory of Evolution are correct, including the idea of natural selection, according to news reports in October 2015.[89] Carson maintains that a "wise creator" was responsible for setting the evolutionary process in motion — a creator "who gave his creatures the ability to adapt to their environment so that he wouldn't have to start over every 50 years".[89]

Firearms regulation

Carson stated in 2013 that semi-automatic firearms should be better regulated in large cities and high-crime areas.[90] This statement attracted criticism from conservative opponents of gun control. Carson has declined to backtrack from that view, but also says he is strongly in favor of the Second Amendment and that while guns being used on innocent people "is horrible", it is not nearly as horrible as having a population that is defenseless against a group of tyrants who have arms".[91][92][93]


As an alternative to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Carson says: "Here's my solution. When a person is born, give him a birth certificate, an electronic medical record and a health savings account."[94] In a December 2014 op-ed, Carson elaborated: "we need to remove health care from the political arena and recognize that any government proposals affecting the health of all citizens should be free market-based and should be so appealing that it would not be necessary to force citizens into the program."[95]

To fund health savings accounts, Carson supports moving dollars out of "traditional health care" programs like Medicaid.[96] Under a proposal outlined by Carson in 2014, the government would contribute $2,000 to each individual's account annually, individuals and employers would be permitted to contribute additional funds to the accounts, and unspent funds could be shared within a family.[96] Carson has said that his plan "makes every family their own insurance company."[96]

Separately from his individual-account proposal, in a 2014 op-ed he called for a system "similar to Medicare and Medicaid" for a group that Carson terms the "5 percent of patients with complex pre-existing or acquired maladies."[96][97] In October 2015, Carson said that if someone preferred the current Medicare or Medicaid programs to the health-savings-account approach, “I'm not going to deny you the privilege of doing that.”[98]


In the Washington Times, Carson wrote: "Once illegals have legal status, it will be difficult to deny them any of the multitudinous entitlements that are freely distributed throughout our society." Carson believes that illegal immigrants should be able to register as guest workers and have a pathway to apply for permanent resident status.[79]

Marijuana and drug policy

Carson has said that "I think medical use of marijuana in compassionate cases certainly has been proven to be useful," but opposes legalization of recreational marijuana.[99] Carson believes that marijuana is a gateway drug.[99] On the legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, Carson said "I don't think this is something that we really want for our society. You know, we're gradually just removing all the barriers to hedonistic activity and you know, it's just, we're changing so rapidly to a different type of society and nobody is getting a chance to discuss it because, you know, it's taboo".[99][100][101] In an appearance on Glenn Beck's show, Carson said he would "intensify" the War on Drugs.[102]

Marriage and homosexuality

In March 2013, Carson described his views about same-sex marriage on Hannity, saying: "Marriage is between a man and a woman. No group, be they gays, be they NAMBLA, be they people who believe in bestiality, it doesn't matter what they are. They don't get to change the definition."[103] Carson's apparent comparison of gay marriage advocates to pedophiles and practitioners of bestiality caused a controversy.[104] Carson later said that "the examples were not the best choice of words", adding that the Bible "says we have an obligation to love our fellow man as ourselves, and I love everybody the same—all homosexuals."[105][106] According to Carson, "I was trying to say that as far as marriage was concerned, it has traditionally been between a man and a woman and no one should be able to change that."[107] In a Facebook post, Carson said that he supports civil unions for gay couples and that he has "for many years".[108] Carson, while on the board for Costco and food manufacturer Kellogg's supported initiatives for employment non-discrimination, health insurance for domestic partners and diversity training.[109]

In a March 2015 interview with Chris Cuomo, Carson stated that homosexuality was "absolutely" a choice, claiming that "a lot of people go into prison straight, and when they come out, they're gay".[110] In a Facebook post, Carson later apologized, saying that he "[does] not pretend to know how every individual came to their sexual orientation."[111][112]

National Prayer Breakfast speech and its impact

At White House for 2008 award

Carson was the keynote speaker at the National Prayer Breakfast on February 7, 2013.[113] The speech garnered Carson considerable attention because the event is normally apolitical in nature, and the speech was critical of the philosophy and policies of President Barack Obama, who was sitting 10 feet away.[114]

About the speech, Carson said: "I don't think it was particularly political...You know, I'm a physician".[115] Regarding the policies of President Obama, he said: "There are a number of policies that I don't believe lead to the growth of our nation and don't lead to the elevation of our nation. I don't want to sit here and say all of his policies are bad. What I would like to see more often in this nation is an open and intelligent conversation".[115]

Carson's sudden popularity among conservatives led to him being invited as a featured speaker at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). He tied for seventh place in the Washington Times/CPAC 2013 Straw Poll with 4% of the 3,000 ballots cast.[116][117] In the 2014 CPAC straw poll, he came in third place with 9% of the vote, behind senators Ted Cruz of Texas (with 11%) and Rand Paul of Kentucky (31%).[118] Carson also had a strong showing in the polls at the 2013 and 2014 Values Voter Summits.[119][120]

Religious freedom

In a 2014 op-ed article, Carson argued that the First Amendment's Establishment Clause has been "reinterpreted" by progressives away from its original intent.[121][122][123] He said in May 2015: "To try to impose one's religious beliefs on someone else is absolutely what we should not be doing. That goes in both directions."[124]

During a 2015 Meet the Press interview Chuck Todd asked Carson "Should a President's faith matter [to voters]?".[125] Carson stated that if a faith is "inconsistent with the values and principles of America, then of course it should matter." He has elaborated that Sharia (Islamic law) is "against the rights of women, against the rights of gays, subjugates other religions" and is inconsistent with the U.S. Constitution."[126] He has also said that "anybody, doesn't matter what their religious background, if they accept American values and principles and are willing to subjugate their religious beliefs to our Constitution. I have no problem with them."[127]

Some Adventists have argued that his political positions on gun rights and religious liberty conflict with historic Adventist teachings in favor of nonviolence, pacifism, and the separation of church and state.[128][59]

Awards and honors

Carson is a member of the American Academy of Achievement,[129] Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society,[130] and the Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans.[131] Carson has been awarded 38 honorary doctorate degrees and dozens of national merit citations.[132] Detroit Public Schools opened the Dr. Benjamin Carson High School of Science and Medicine[133] for students interested in pursuing healthcare careers. The school is partnering with Detroit Receiving Hospital and Michigan State University.[134]

Books by Carson

  • Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story. .  
  • Think Big: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence. Zondervan. 1996.  
  • The Big Picture: Getting Perspective on What's Really Important in Life. Zondervan. 2000. (with Gregg Lewis)  
  • Take the Risk: Learning to Identify, Choose, and Live with Acceptable Risk. Zondervan. 2009.  
  • America the Beautiful: Rediscovering What Made This Nation Great. Thomas Nelson. 2013. (with Candy Carson)  
  • One Nation: What We Can All Do to Save America's Future. Sentinel. 2014. [43] list for 20 straight weeks, with 5 weeks as #1New York Times bestsellers (with Candy Carson), on the  
  • One Vote: Make Your Voice Heard. Tyndale House. 2014. (with Candy Carson)  
  • You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. 2015. (with Gregg Lewis, Deborah Shaw Lewis)  
  • My Life: Based on the Book Gifted Hands. Zondervan. 2015. (with Cecil Murphey)  
  • A More Perfect Union: What We the People Can Do to Reclaim Our Constitutional Liberties. 2015. ISBN 978-0698195004. (with Candy Carson)[148]

Biographical works about Carson

See also


  1. ^ Solomon, John. Ben Carson officially changes political parties, rejoins GOP, Washington Times (November 4, 2014).
  2. ^ Preston, Mark (December 3, 2014). "Ben Carson: Political phenomenon". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Katie, Glueck (April 14, 2015). "Ben Carson to announce 2016 intentions in Detroit on May 4". Politico. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Ben Carson Biography – Facts, Birthday, Life Story". September 18, 1951. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Benjamin Solomon Carson Biography - life, family, children, parents, story, history, wife, school, mother, young". Retrieved 2015-10-28. 
  6. ^ Fritze, John (December 6, 2014). "In retirement, Ben Carson moving closer to 2016". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Benjamin Carson Interview – p. 3/8 – Academy of Achievement". Retrieved February 22, 2015. 
  8. ^ Ben Carson, M.D. (9 September 2008). Gifted Hands. Zondervan. pp. 50–53.  
  9. ^ Lawton, Kim (January 11, 2008). "Dr. Ben Carson". Religion & Ethics Newsweekly (PBS). Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  10. ^ Foster, Daniel (February 13, 2013). "Five Things You Didn't Know about Dr. Carson". National Review. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  11. ^  
  12. ^ "Benjamin S. Carson, M.D.". American Academy of Achievement. Retrieved September 30, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Dr. Ben Carson: A Healer Beyond the Operating Room". The History of African Americans @ Johns Hopkins University. Johns Hopkins University. 2004. Retrieved January 22, 2015. 
  14. ^ James H. Kessler (January 1996). Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 41–42.  
  15. ^ July 2005A Healer Beyond the Operating Room
  16. ^ Gates, Jr., Henry Louis (January 27, 2009). In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 196–197.  
  17. ^ a b What do you think? (March 7, 2010). "Conversation from Penn State: Ben Carson Interview". Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Neurologists & Neurosurgeons at Johns Hopkins he also worked at K.H.M.H in Belize in 2009 where he did twelve operations. – Profile: Dr. Benjamin Carson". Hopkins Medicine. June 24, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Johns Hopkins Medicine Community Mourns the Death of Internationally Renowned Pediatric Neurologist John M. Freeman". Johns Hopkins. January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Hemispherectomy End Seizures In Many Older Children With Rare Seizure Disorder". Johns Hopkins. December 9, 2002. 
  21. ^ "For Patients with Epilepsy—Half a Brain That Works". Johns Hopkins. 1998. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Binder Twins Far From Normal Two Years After Surgery". Associated Press. June 26, 1989. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Twins Disjoined at Head Leave the Hospital". New York Times. Associated Press. April 7, 1988. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  24. ^ Karen L. Serivo (September 5, 1987). "Johns Hopkins". The Lewiston Daily Sun. Associated Press. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  25. ^ Turnier, Patricia (March 1, 2013), "A Candid Interview With Dr. Ben S. Carson, M.D.: An American Icon", MegaDiversities, We spoke to him the 3rd of August 2009. 
  26. ^ Blake, Aaron (March 16, 2013). "Ben Carson announces retirement, feeds presidential speculation". Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  27. ^ Williams, Armstrong (1 July 2013). "My Chat With Retiring Dr. Ben Carson". Newsmax. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  28. ^ "August 2008 Extended Best Sellers List".  
  29. ^ Harper, Jennifer (July 9, 2013). "Dr. Ben Carson joins The Washington Times as weekly columnist". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  30. ^ Nerz, Ashley (October 2013). "Fox News Signs Dr. Ben Carson to Contributor Role". Fox News. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d Chip Grabow, Ben Carson had extensive relationship to dietary supplement company despite denial, CNN (October 30, 2015).
  32. ^ a b Mark Maremont, Ben Carson Has Had Ties to Dietary Supplement Firm That Faced Legal Challenge, Wall Street Journal (October 5, 2015).
  33. ^ a b Lauren Carroll (October 29, 2015). "At debate, Ben Carson says he has no connection to Mannatech". Politifact. Retrieved October 30, 2015. 
  34. ^ Walker, Hunter. “Ben Carson is calling for a new debate format without ‘gotcha questions’”, Yahoo News (October 29, 2015).
  35. ^  
  36. ^ Brinker, Luke (16 January 2015). "Is the conservative love affair with Ben Carson coming to an end?". Salon. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  37. ^ Ford, Matt (October 29, 2015). "Ben Carson's Mannatech Problem".  
  38. ^ Jim, Geraghty (16 January 2015). "'"Carson to Newsmax: 'I Didn’t Know Anything About all [Mannatech's] Legal Stuff.. National Review. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  39. ^ a b Solomon, John (November 4, 2014). "Ben Carson officially switches political parties, rejoins GOP". The Washington Times. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  40. ^ Fund, John (February 15, 2013). "Dr. Carson's Prescription". National Review. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  41. ^ Carson, M.D., Benjamin; Carson, Candy (2013). America the Beautiful. Zondervan. p. 34.  
  42. ^ Carson, M.D., Benjamin; Carson, Candy (2013). America the Beautiful. Zondervan. p. 35.  
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  148. ^ Store Kobo Books
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External links

  • Carson for President campaign website
  • Ben Carson at DMOZ
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
    • interview with Carson, August 4, 2013In Depth
  • Carson's Speech at the National Prayer Breakfast on YouTube from February 7, 2013
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