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Battle of Kars (1920)

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Title: Battle of Kars (1920)  
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Subject: Revolts during the Turkish War of Independence, Battle of Karboğazı, Second Battle of İnönü, Battle of Alexandropol, First Battle of İnönü
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Battle of Kars (1920)

Battle of Kars
Part of Turkish-Armenian War

Armenian civilians fleeing Kars after its capture by Kazım Karabekir's forces.
Date October 30, 1920
Location Kars (present-day Turkey)
Result Turkish victory
Democratic Republic of Armenia Grand National Assembly
Commanders and leaders
Daniel Bek Pirumian  (POW)
Christophor Araratov  (POW)
Shaghubadian  (POW)
Vekilian  (POW)
Babajanov  (POW)
Ter Arakyalian  (POW)
Kâzım Karabekir
Rüştü Pasha
Osman Nuri Koptagel
Halit Karsıalan
8,000-10,000 men[1] 7,700 men[1]
Casualties and losses
150+ killed soldiers[1]
3,000+  (POW)[2]
9 killed and 47 wounded soldiers[1]

The Battle of Kars was the largest battle of the Turkish-Armenian War. The battle was between the Turkish Revolutionaries operating under the command of the newly formed Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) and the Democratic Republic of Armenia. After launching a massive assault on the city, the Turkish Army re-captured the city of Kars after losing it just a few months before. The whole battle took place on 20 October, 1920.


  • Background 1
  • Active Stage 2
  • Results 3
  • References 4


By September 28, Karabekir's forces had retaken Sarıkamış and the following day Kağızman.[3] They then moved towards Kars but this assault was delayed by Armenian resistance. In Kars, the Armenians were numerically superior and positioned in strong emplacements. Before the battle Kâzım Karabekir attempted to set the Armenians on the wrong track by dispatching false messages about troop movements.[1]

Active Stage


General Pirumian, General Araratov, Colonel Shaghubadian, Colonel Vekilian, Colonel Babajanov, Lieutenant-Colonel Ter-Arakyalian, thirty-odd officers and about 3,000 soldiers, Minister A. Babalian, Garegin Archbishop Hovsepiants, provincial sub-governor Chalkhushian, mayor Norhatian and many civilians were taken prisoner.[2]

Turkish forces continued to advance and soon captured the city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri, Armenia) one week after the capture of Kars. On November 12, the Turks also captured the strategic village of Agin, northeast of the ruins of the former Armenian capital of Ani and then planned to move towards Yerevan.


  1. ^ a b c d e Ömer Selvi, Turkish-Armenian relationship during the Turkish national independence struggle and the Gumru Agreement, Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Institute of Social science), June 2007, pg 108-110 (Turkish)
  2. ^ a b Christopher J. Walker, Armenia: The Survival of a Nation, Croom Helm, 1980, p. 310.
  3. ^ Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p. 237. ISBN 0-226-33228-4

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