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Émile Picard

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Title: Émile Picard  
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Subject: Picard modular group, Finite element method, Partial differential equation, Brouwer fixed-point theorem, Pierre Duhem
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Émile Picard

Émile Picard
Born (1856-07-24)24 July 1856
Paris, France
Died 11 December 1941(1941-12-11) (aged 85)
Paris, France
Nationality French
Fields Mathematics
Institutions University of Paris
Alma mater École Normale Supérieure
Doctoral advisor Gaston Darboux
Doctoral students Sergei Bernstein
Lucien Blondel
Gheorghe Calugareanu
Paul Dubreil
Jacques Hadamard
Gaston Julia
Traian Lalescu
Philippe Le Corbeiller
Paul Painlevé
Mihailo Petrović
Simion Stoilow
Ernest Vessiot
Henri Villat
André Weil
Stanisław Zaremba
Known for Picard functor
Picard group
Picard theorem
Picard variety
Picard–Lefschetz formula
Picard–Lindelöf theorem
Painlevé transcendents
Notable awards Fellow of the Royal Society[1]

Charles Émile Picard ForMemRS[1] (French: ; 24 July 1856 – 11 December 1941) was a French mathematician. He was elected the fifteenth member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française in 1924.[2] [3]


Picard's mathematical papers, textbooks, and many popular writings exhibit an extraordinary range of interests, as well as an impressive mastery of the mathematics of his time. Modern students of complex variables are probably familiar with two of his named theorems. His lesser theorem states that every nonconstant entire function takes every value in the complex plane, with perhaps one exception. His greater theorem states that an analytic function with an essential singularity takes every value infinitely often, with perhaps one exception, in any neighborhood of the singularity. He also made important contributions in the theory of differential equations, including work on Picard–Vessiot theory, Painlevé transcendents and his introduction of a kind of symmetry group for a linear differential equation. He also introduced the Picard group in the theory of algebraic surfaces, which describes the classes of algebraic curves on the surface modulo linear equivalence. In connection with his work on function theory, he was one of the first mathematicians to use the emerging ideas of algebraic topology. In addition to his path-breaking theoretical work, Picard also made important contributions to applied mathematics, including the theories of telegraphy and elasticity. His collected papers run to four volumes.

Like his contemporary, Henri Poincaré, Picard was much concerned with the training of mathematics, physics, and engineering students. He wrote a classic textbook on analysis and one of the first textbooks on the theory of relativity. Picard's popular writings include biographies of many leading French mathematicians, including his father in law, Charles Hermite.

See also



  1. ^ a b  
  2. ^ "Charles Émile Picard". MacTutor Archive. Retrieved June 12, 2005. 
  3. ^ Émile Picard at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  4. ^ Craig, T. (1893). "Traité d'Analyse"Picard's . Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 3 (2): 39–65.  
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