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Turners

Gymnastics room in Turner Hall, Milwaukee, ca. 1900
3,000 Turners performed at the Federal Gymnastics Festival in Milwaukee, 1893.

Turners (

  • Website of the American Turners
  • History of the American Turners By Henry Metzner
  • Archives of the American Turners
  • American Turner Topics newsletter
  • Website of the Los Angeles Turners with history, photos, newsletters, and links to other Turners Organizations
  • The American Turners, Wilmington Records and the Roxborough Turners Records, including by-laws, correspondence, minutes and photographs, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

External links

  • Gertrud Pfister. "The Role of German Turners in American Physical Education," International Journal of the History of Sport 26 (no. 13, 2009) 1893-925

Further reading

  1. ^ Claire E. Nolte. "The German Turnverein". Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  2. ^ Gruen, Mardee. "Milwaukee Turners, local Jews go back 141 years." Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle April 29, 1994; p. 6, col. 1
  3. ^ a b Annette R. Hofmann (August 3, 1998). "150 years of Turnerism in the United States". Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Max Kade Center. 
  4. ^ John B. Jentz. "Turnvereins". Encyclopedia of Chicago. 
  5. ^ a b Mary Lou LeCompte. "TURNVEREIN MOVEMENT". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ Scott Williams. "THE ROLE OF GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN CIVIL WAR - MISSOURI". The Missouri Civil War Museum. Retrieved January 10, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Welcome to American Turners". American Turners. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 

References

See also

Turner Halls

Jahn Monument in Berlin with memorial plaques from American Turnvereine

Other Wisconsin Turners in 1915

Vintage photos of the Milwaukee Turnverein

Gallery

Cultural assimilation and the two World Wars with Germany took a gradual toll on membership, with some halls closing and others becoming regular dance halls, bars or bowling alleys.[5] Fifty-four Turner societies still exist around the U.S. as of 2011. The current headquarters of the American Turners is in Louisville, Kentucky.[7]

In 1948, the U.S. Post Office issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp marking the 100th anniversary of the movement in the United States.

Like other German-American groups, the American Turners experienced discrimination during World War I. The German language was banned in schools and universities, and German language journals and newspapers were shut down, but the Turner societies continued to function.[3]

Together with Carl Schurz, the American Turners were supportive of the election of Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States. They provided the bodyguard at his inauguration on March 4, 1861, and at his funeral in April, 1865. In the Camp Jackson Affair, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal in St. Louis just prior to the beginning of the war.[6]

The Turnvereine made an important contribution to the integration of German-Americans into their new home. The organizations continue to exist in areas of heavy German immigration, such as Iowa, Texas, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Missouri, Kentucky, New York City, and Los Angeles.

Postage stamp commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the American Turners

History in the USA

Contents

  • History in the USA 1
  • Gallery 2
    • Vintage photos of the Milwaukee Turnverein 2.1
    • Other Wisconsin Turners in 1915 2.2
    • Jahn Monument in Berlin with memorial plaques from American Turnvereine 2.3
    • Turner Halls 2.4
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

. German unification Eventually the German Turner movement became involved in the process leading to [5][4][3]

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