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Punjab, Pakistan

پنجاب ਪੰਜਾਬ

Counter-clockwise from top left: Chenab River, Lahore Fort, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad, Noor Mahal – Bahawalpur, Masjid Wazir Khan – Lahore.
Counter-clockwise from top left: Chenab River, Lahore Fort, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad, Noor Mahal – Bahawalpur,

Masjid Wazir Khan – Lahore.
Flag of Punjab
Official seal of Punjab
Location of Punjab in Pakistan
Location of Punjab in Pakistan
Map of Punjab, Pakistan
Map of Punjab, Pakistan
Country Pakistan
Established 1 July 1970
Capital Lahore
Largest city Lahore
 • Type Province
 • Body Provincial Assembly
 • Governor Chaudhary Muhammad Sarwar (PML N)
 • Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif (PML-N)
 • High Court Lahore High Court
 • Total 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi)
Population (2013)[1]
 • Total 101,000,000
 • Density 490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
ISO 3166 code PK-PB
Main Language(s)
Other languages Saraiki, Pashto, Baluchi
Assembly seats 371[2]
Districts 36
Tehsils/Towns 127

Punjab (Urdu: پنجاب‎, Shahmukhī Punjabi: پنجاب, panj-āb, "five waters":    ), also spelled Panjab, is the most developed and populous province of Pakistan with approximately 56% of the country's total population.[3][4][5] Lahore is the provincial capital and Punjab's main cultural, historical, administrative and economic center.[6]


  • Etymology 1
  • Geography 2
  • Language 3
  • History 4
    • Ancient history 4.1
    • Central Asian, Greek, and Persian Empires 4.2
    • Arrival of Islam 4.3
    • Mughal Empire 4.4
    • Afghan Empire 4.5
    • Maratha Empire 4.6
    • Sikh Empire 4.7
    • British Empire 4.8
    • Independence 4.9
    • Recent history 4.10
  • Climate 5
  • Demographics and society 6
  • Religion 7
  • Provincial government 8
  • Divisions and districts 9
  • Major cities 10
  • Economy 11
  • Education 12
    • Public universities 12.1
    • Private universities 12.2
  • Culture 13
  • Fairs and festivals 14
    • Religious and seasonal fairs and festivals 14.1
    • Devotional fairs (Urs) 14.2
    • Industrial and commercial fairs 14.3
    • Other festivals 14.4
  • Arts and crafts 15
  • Major attractions 16
  • Music and dance 17
  • Folklore 18
  • Social issues 19
  • Notable people 20
  • Gallery 21
  • See also 22
  • Notes 23
  • External links 24


The word Punjab was formally introduced by the Mughals in the early 17th Century CE. It is a combination of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (water), thus the (land of) five rivers.[7] The five rivers are the tributaries of the Indus River namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. From the Himalayas they all end up in the down-stream of Panjnad, eventually to the Arabian Sea.


Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province in terms of Land area at 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi) after Balochistan and is located at the north western edge of the geologic Indian plate in South Asia. The province is bordered by Kashmir (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir, India) to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the south, the province of Balochistan to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory to the north.

The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. Other important cities include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Sialkot, Bahawalpur, Sargodha, Gujrat, Sheikhupura and Jhelum. Undivided Punjab is home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistani Punjab. From west to east, these are: the Indus, Jhelum, Beas, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. Nearly 60% of Pakistan's population lives in the Punjab. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad. In the acronym P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N, the P is for Punjab.

The province is a mainly a fertile region along the river valleys, while sparse deserts can be found near the border with Rajasthan and the Sulaiman Range. The region contains the Thal and Cholistan deserts. The Indus River and its many tributaries traverse the Punjab from north to south.

The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well.


The main language of the province is Punjabi.[8]


Ancient history

Location of Punjab, Pakistan in the Indus Valley and extent of Indus Valley Civilization (green).

Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada.[9][10] Punjab was part of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years old.[11] The main site in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. The arrival of the Indo-Aryans led to the flourishing of the Vedic civilization along the length of the Indus River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia and Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts have nevertheless been found. Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas, Achaemenids, Macedonians, Mauryas, Kushans, Guptas, Hindu Shahi, and Gurjara-Pratihara.[12][13][14] Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan and Lahore) grew in wealth.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization

Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from the west and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks, and Afghans. The city of Taxila, founded by son of Taksh the son Bharat who was the brother of Ram. It was reputed to house the oldest university in the world, Takshashila University. One of the teachers was the great Vedic thinker and politician Chanakya. Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, valued for its archaeological and religious history.

Central Asian, Greek, and Persian Empires

Mahmud and Ayaz
The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. Mahmud of Ghazni appointed Malik Ayaz as the ruler of Lahore, Punjab during the Ghaznavid era.

The northwestern part of the South Asia, including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, such as those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan. Having conquered Drangiana, Arachosia, Gedrosia and Seistan in ten days, Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains. Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii (mountaineers), who offered vigorous resistance, but were subdued. Alexander then marched through Ghazni, blockaded Magassa, and then marched to Ora and Bazira. Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa (at the site of modern day Mong) was situated. A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan, who were very skillful in war. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing seventeen thousand Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. Alexander left Punjab in 326 B.C. and took his army to Persia and Susa.

Arrival of Islam

Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Muslim Sufi poet

The Punjabis followed a diverse plethora of faiths, mainly comprising Hindus, when the Muslim Umayyad army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Southern Punjab in 712, by defeating Raja Dahir. The Umayyad Caliphate was the second Islamic caliphate established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca, their capital was Damascus. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first to bring message of Islam to the population of Punjab. Over the next millennium Punjab was part of Muslim Empires consisting of Afghans, Pashtoon, and Turkic in cooperation with local Punjabi tribes and others, which facilitated a millennium long Islamic dominance across South Asia and with its peak during large parts of the Mughal Empire . During the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the province became an important center with Lahore as its second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire based out of Afghanistan. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

Mughal Empire

The Mughals controlled the region from 1524 until around 1739 and would also lavish the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi Mosque, both situated in Lahore. Muslim soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and some may have settled in the Punjab. Following the decline of the Mughals, the Shah of Iran and founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Nader Shah crossed the Indus and sacked the province in 1739. Later, the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani, incidentally born in Panjab, in the city of Multan made the Punjab a part of his Durrani Empire lasting until 1762.

Afghan Empire

Rohtas Fort, Jhelum built by the Afghan ruler, Sher Shah Suri

The founder of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun (Afghan) established the first united Afghan Kingdom (Greater Afghanistan) that during its greatest extent included modern-day Afghanistan, some western fringes of Punjab and northeastern Iran. Many ethnic Afghan or Pashtun tribes have made Pakistan's Punjab their home over the centuries. These tribes include the Khugyanis known as Khakwanis, Alizais, Tareens, Durranis, Mullazais, Niazis, Khattaks, Yousafzais, Sadozais, Tahirkheli, Utmanzais, Bangash, Mashwani, Lodhis, Kakars, Kakazais, and Barakzais, to name a few.

Maratha Empire

"Zamzama" displayed in front of the Lahore Museum, was used at Third Battle of Panipat (1761)

The Millennium long period of Muslim Empires were coming to an end, and a turbulent period would follow. In 1758, the general of the Hindu Maratha Empire, Raghunath Rao invaded Lahore and Attock.Timur Shah Durrani who was the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali and was already weakened by Sikh army, and was drove out of Punjab with the important and necessary help of Sikhs. Lahore, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Peshawar, were under the Maratha rule for the most part.[15] In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players.[16][17] The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded the Maratha territory of Punjab and captured remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab and Kashmir regions and re-consolidated control over them.[18]

Sikh Empire

Badshahi Mosque with damaged minarets during Sikh rule
Ranjit Singh's Empire

In mid fifteenth century, the religion of Okara but with no decisive result. In a major battle near the town of Balakot in 1831, Sayyid Ahmad and Shah Ismail Shaheed with volunteer Muslims were defeated and martyred by the professional Sikh Army. In 1841, during the Sikh civil war, Ranjit Singh's son, Sher Singh, used the Badshahi Mosque's large minarets for placement of zamburahs or light guns, which were placed atop the minarets of Badshahi Mosque to bombard the supporters of the Sikh Maharani Chand Kaur taking refuge in the besieged Lahore Fort, inflicting great damage to the Fort itself. In one of these bombardments, the Fort's Diwan-e-Aam (Hall of Public Audience) was destroyed (it was subsequently rebuilt by the British but never regained its original architectural splendour).[22] During this time, Henri De la Rouche, a French cavalry officer employed in the army of Sher Singh,[23] used a tunnel connecting the Badshahi Mosque to the Lahore Fort to temporarily store gunpowder.[24] Only during the rule of British colonial government, the Punjabi Muslims started reclaiming and rebuilding of the Muslim monuments occupied, damaged and destroyed by the Sikhs during their heavy handed rule in the Punjab region.

British Empire

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation in 1849 of territory south of the Satluj to British India. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the Sikh Empire became the last territory to be merged into British India. Some parts of Pakistani Punjab also served as the centre of resistance in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.


In 1947 the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan, while East Punjab became a part of modern-day India. This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees.

Punjab (Pakistan), which once formed a major region of British Punjab, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus up to 1947 apart from the Muslim majority.[25]

Migration between India and Pakistan was continuous before independence. By the 1900s Western Punjab was predominantly Muslim and supported the Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After independence, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Western Punjab and across Pakistan.[26]

Recent history

Since the 1950s, Punjab industrialized rapidly. New factories were established in Lahore, Multan, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Wah. In the 1960s the new city of Islamabad was built near Rawalpindi.

Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families.

In the 1950s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. In order to address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in 1955. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan. In 1972, after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh, Punjab again became a province.

Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Since the 1990s Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in 2004, has helped pacify the situation. Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib.

Starting in the 1980s, large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunities, forming the large Punjabi diaspora. Business and cultural ties between the United States and Punjab are growing.


Tilla Jogian, considered sacred by Hindus and scenic peak in Punjab
Sunset in Punjab, during summer

Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro

The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 °C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 °C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 °C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.

Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years. Experts are suggesting that this is because of global warming.[27]

Punjab's region temperature ranges from −2° to 45 °C, but can reach 47 °C (117 °F) in summer and can touch down to −5 °C in winter.

Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons:[28]

  • Hot weather (April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110 °F.
  • Rainy season (July to September). Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cm sub-mountain region and 46 cm in the plains.
  • Cooler / Mild weather (October to March). Temperature goes down as low as 40 °F.

Demographics and society

The population of the province is estimated to be 93,963,240[1] in 2010 and is home to over half the population of Pakistan. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi (which is written in a Shahmukhi script in Pakistan) and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in country. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab. The language is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at National level. Punjabis themselves are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribes, clans (Urdu: برادری‎) and communities. In Pakistani Punjab these tribes have more to do with traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans as opposed to rigid social stratifications.[31]

The biradari, which literally means brotherhood is an important unit of Punjabi society, and includes people claiming descent from a common ancestor. The biradaris collectively form larger units known as tribes. Historically, these tribes were endogamous, but latterly, especially in the large cities, there is considerable intermarriage between members of different tribes, and differences are getting blurred. Important within the Punjab include Jats, Kashmiris, Arains, Gujjars, Awans, Rajputs, Gakhars, Khokhars, Sheikhs, Aheers, Kambohs, Mughals, Maliks, Niazis, Khosas, Dogars, Ranghars, mirani, Qureshis, and Syeds. Other smaller tribes are the Rawns, Khetran, and Rehmanis (Muslim Labana)[32]


Religions in Punjab
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs, Parsis, Hindus .

The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is estimated to be 97.21% Muslim with a Sunni Hanafi majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31% of the population. The other minorities include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis and Bahá'í.[33]

Provincial government

The Government of Punjab is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province. The Chief Minister of Punjab (CM) is elected by the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab to serve as the head of the provincial government in Punjab, Pakistan. The current Chief Minister is Shahbaz Sharif, who became the Chief Minister of Punjab as being restored after Governor's rule starting from February 25, 2009 to March 30, 2009. Thereafter got reelected as a result of May 11, 2013 elections. The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore in eastern Pakistan. The Assembly was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan as having a total of 371 seats, with 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims.

Divisions and districts

Map of the Pakistani Punjab Divisions
Map of Pakistani Punjab Districts

There are 36 Districts[34] districts in Punjab, Pakistan.[35]

Sr. District Headquarters Area (km²) Population (1998) Density (people/km²)
1 Attock Attock 6,858 1,274,935 186
2 Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar 8,878 2,061,447 232
3 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 24,830 2,433,091 98
4 Bhakkar Bhakkar 90000 1,051,456 129
5 Chakwal Chakwal 6,524 1,083,725 166
6 Chiniot Chiniot 965,124
7 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 11,922 2,043,118 138
8 Faisalabad Faisalabad 5,856 5,429,547 927
9 Gujranwala Gujranwala 3,622 3,400,940 939
10 Gujrat Gujrat 3,192 2,048,008 642
11 Hafizabad Hafizabad 2,367 832,980 352
12 Jhang Jhang 8,809 2,834,545 322
13 Jhelum Jhelum 3,587 936,957 261
14 Kasur Kasur 3,995 2,375,875 595
15 Khanewal Khanewal 4,349 2,068,490 476
16 Khushab Khushab 6,511 905,711 139
17 Lahore Lahore 1,772 6,318,745 3,566
18 Layyah Layyah 6,291 1,120,951 178
19 Lodhran Lodhran 2,778 1,171,800 422
20 Mandi Bahauddin Mandi Bahauddin 2,673 1,160,552 434
21 Mianwali Mianwali 5,840 1,056,620 181
22 Multan Multan 3,720 3,116,851 838
23 Muzaffargarh Muzaffargarh 8,249 2,635,903 320
24 Narowal Narowal 2,337 1,265,097 541
25 Nankana Sahib[36] Nankana Sahib 2,960 1,410,000
26 Okara Okara 4,377 2,232,992 510
27 Pakpattan Pakpattan 2,724 1,286,680 472
28 Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan 11,880 3,141,053 264
29 Rajanpur Rajanpur 12,319 1,103,618 90
30 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 5,286 3,363,911 636
31 Sahiwal Sahiwal 3,201 1,843,194 576
32 Sargodha Sargodha 5,854 2,665,979 455
33 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 5,960 3,321,029 557
34 Sialkot Sialkot 3,016 2,723,481 903
35 Toba Tek Singh Toba Tek Singh 3,252 1,621,593 499
36 Vehari Vehari 4,364 2,090,416 479

Major cities

List of major cities in Punjab
Rank City District Population




1 Lahore Lahore 10,500,000
2 Faisalabad Faisalabad 5,280,000
3 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 3,391,656
4 Multan Multan 2,606,481
5 Gujranwala Gujranwala 2,569,090
6 Sargodha Sargodha 600,501
7 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 543,929
8 Sialkot Sialkot 510,863
9 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 426,980
10 Jhang Jhang 372,645
11 Gujrat Gujrat 530,645
12 D.G.Khan D.G.Khan 630,645
Source: World Gazetteer 2010[37]
This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations


GDP by Province

Punjab has the largest economy in Pakistan, contributing most to the national GDP. The province's economy has quadrupled since 1972.[38] Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7% in 2000 and 59% as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the Service & Agriculture sectors of the Pakistan Economy. With its contribution ranging from 52.1% to 64.5% in the Service Sector and 56.1% to 61.5% in the Agriculture Sector. It is also major manpower contributor because it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the Manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions raging from a low of 44% to a high of 52.6%.[39] In 2007, Punjab achieved a growth rate of 7.8%[40] and during the period 2002–03 to 2007–08, its economy grew at a rate of between 7% to 8% per year.[41] and during 2008–09 grew at 6% against the total GDP growth of Pakistan at 4%.

Irrigated land of Punjab

Despite lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, Heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, Cement, Vehicles, Auto Parts, I.T, metals, Sugar mill plants, Aircraft, Cement Plants, Agriculture Machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.[42]

Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:[43]
Former Administrative Divisions of Punjab

Despite its tropical wet and dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo. Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting.

Punjab contributes about 76% to annual food grain production in the country. Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.

Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. The small and cottage industries are in abundance. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 7,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.

Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.

Punjab is also a mineral-rich province with extensive mineral deposits of Coal, Iron, Gas, Petrol, Rock salt (with the second largest salt mine in the world), Dolomite, gypsum, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundreds economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

The incidence of poverty differs between the different regions of Punjab. With Northern and Central Punjab facing much lower levels of poverty than Western and Southern Punjab. Those living in Southern and Western Punjab are also a lot more dependent on agriculture due to lower levels of industrialisation in those regions.

As of June 2012, Pakistan's electricity problems were so severe that violent riots were taking place across Punjab. According to protesters, load shedding was depriving the cities of electricity 20–22 hours a day, causing businesses to go bust and making living extremely hard. Gujranwala, Toba Tek Singh, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Bahawalnagar and communities across Khanewal District saw widespread rioting and violence on Sunday 17 June 2012, with the houses of several members of parliament being attacked as well as the offices of regional energy suppliers Fesco, Gepco and Mepco being ransacked or attacked.[44]


The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 40 years (see the table below). Punjab has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.670.[45]

Year Literacy Rate
1972 20.7%
1981 27.4%
1998 46.56%
2009 59.6%
2014 74.6%


This is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998.
Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment Ratio(%)
23,019,025 50,602,265 73,621,290
Below Primary 3,356,173 11,598,039 14,954,212 100.00
Primary 6,205,929 18,039,707 24,245,636 79.68
Middle 5,140,148 10,818,764 15,958,912 46.75
Matriculation 4,624,522 7,119,738 11,744,260 25.07
Intermediate 1,862,239 1,821,681 3,683,920 9.12
BA, BSc... degrees 110,491 96,144 206,635 4.12
MA, MSc... degrees 1,226,914 764,094 1,991,008 3.84
Diploma, Certificate... 418,946 222,649 641,595 1.13
Other qualifications 73,663 121,449 195,112 0.26

Public universities

A women's college in Rawalpindi

Private universities


Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukh-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)

Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 8000 years ago. Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts. The ancient Hindu Katasraj temple and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair.

The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world.

Fairs and festivals

The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints. The Sufi saints spread Islam and preached and lived the Muslim way of life. People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. These mainly fall in following categories:

Religious and seasonal fairs and festivals

Religious fairs are held on special days of Islamic significance like Eid ul-Adha, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, Ashura, Laylat al-Qadr and Jumu'ah-tul-Wida. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals. Melas are also held to mark these occasions.

Devotional fairs (Urs)

Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular

The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi saints are called urs. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint. On these occasions devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The most important urs are: urs of Data Ganj Buksh at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Sultan Bahu at Jhang, urs of Hazrat Shah Jewna at Jhang, urs of Hazrat Mian Mir at Lahore, urs of Baba Farid Ganj Shakar at Pakpattan, urs of Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria at Multan, urs of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan at Dera Ghazi Khan, urs of Shah Hussain at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Bulleh Shah at Kasur, urs of Hazrat Imam Bari (Bari Shah Latif) at Rawalpindi-Islamabad and urs of Shah Inayar Qadri (the murrshad of Bulleh Shah) in Lahore.

A big fair/mela is organized at Jandiala Sher Khan in district Sheikhupura on the Mausoleum of Syed Waris Shah who is the most loved Sufi poet of Punjab due to his claasic work known as Heer Ranjha. The shrine of Heer Ranjha in Jhang has been one of the most visited shrines in Punjab.

Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore

Industrial and commercial fairs

Exhibitions and Annual Horse Shows in all Districts and National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore are held with the official patronage. National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronizes agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the Province with its strong rural roots.

Other festivals

In addition to the religious festivals, Sikh and Hindu Punjabis may celebrate seasonal and harvest festivals, which include Lohri,[48] Vaisakhi, Basant and Teej.

Arts and crafts

The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts.

Major attractions

The Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The province is home to many well known historical sites including the Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, Rohtas Fort and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa. The Anarkali Market and Jahangir's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore as is the Lahore Museum, while the ancient city of Taxila in the northwest was once a major centre of Buddhist and Hindu influence. Many important Sikh shrines are in the Pakistani portion of Punjab, including the birthplace of the first Guru: Guru Nanak (born at Nankana Sahib). There is also the largest salt mine in Asia situated the Khewra Salt Mines. Khewra salt mines is an attraction for visitors accompanied by guides due to the fact that the mines itself is very large and complex interconnected pass ways are like a maze. There is a small but beautiful Mosque inside the mines made from salt stone. The mines have a good reputation with the patients of Asthma as breathing inside the mines help to permanently cure the Asthma and some other diseases related to respiratory system. There are few famous hill stations in the province include Murree, Bhurban, Patriata and Fort Munro.

Music and dance

Various festivals in rural Punjab

Classical music forms, such as Harmonium.

Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Sultan Bahu, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Baksh, and Waris Shah and folk singers like Inayat Hussain Bhatti and Tufail Niazi, Alam Lohar, Sain Marna, Mansoor Malangi, Allah Ditta Lona wala, Talib Hussain Dard, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Gamoo Tahliwala, Mamzoo Gha-lla, Akbar Jat, Arif Lohar, Ahmad Nawaz Cheena and Hamid Ali Bela are well-known. In the composition of classical ragas, there are such masters as Malika-i-Mauseequi (Queen of Music) Roshan Ara Begum, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan. Alam Lohar has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from 1930 until 1979.

For the popular taste however, light music, particularly Ghazals and folk songs, which have an appeal of their own, the names of Mehdi Hassan, Ghulam Ali, Nur Jehan, Malika Pukhraj, Farida Khanum, Roshen Ara Begum, and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are well-known. Folk songs and dances of the Punjab reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons. Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Love legends of Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahenwal and Saiful Mulk are sung in different styles.

For the most popular music from the region, bhangra, the names of Abrar-Ul-Haq, Arif Lohar, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Jawad Ahmed, Legacy, and Malkoo are renowned.


Punjabi folk

The folk heritage of the Punjab is the traditional urge of thousands of years of its history. While Urdu is the official language of the province, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These include Majhi, Jhangochi, Pothohari, Saraiki, Jatki, Hindko, Chhachhi, Doabi, and Derewali. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti, and Sassi Punnun. The mystic folk songs include the Kafees of Khwaja Farid in Saraiki, Punjabi and the Shalooks by Baba Farid. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra, and Jugni.[49]

The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi romantic dances include Dharees, Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi.

Social issues

One social/educational issue is the status of Punjabi language. According to Dr. Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan". Many have called for the Punjabi language to be given recognition as it has in India.[50]

Notable people


See also


  1. ^ a b "Punjab – World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Provincial Assembly – Punjab". 
  3. ^ Ian S Livingston; Micheal O'Hanlon (29 November 2011). "Pakistan Index" (PDF). Brookings. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  4. ^ The Growing Threat In Pakistan’s Punjab
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Lahore Cantonment
  7. ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. London; New York: Routledge. p. 3.  
  8. ^ The Languages of Pakistan
  9. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ... – Google Books
  10. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ..., Volume 1, Part 1-page-11
  11. ^ Punjab History – history of Punjab
  12. ^ "The Gurjara-Pratihara empire, comprising the territories stretching between Bihar, the Panjab and Kathiawar, was the last great pre-Muslim empire of north India." (Ronald Stuart McGregor: A History of Indian Literature. Page 03) Website:
  13. ^ "The best known ruler of the dynasty was Bhoja, who enjoyed a long reign of half a century (A.D. 840-890). During his reign the Gurjara-Pratiharas became an imperial power controlling Eastern Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Saurashtra. (Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, Ancient India: History and Culture. Page.84) Website:
  14. ^ "1. They are also called Gurjara-Pratihara. 2. They established their sway over Punjab, Malwas and Broach." Study Package For Clat By Bharadwaj. ....
  15. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: 1707 - 1813 - Jaswant Lal Mehta - Google Books. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  16. ^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1.  
  17. ^ Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1841). History of India. John Murray, Albermarle Street. p. 276. 
  18. ^ For a detailed account of the battle fought, see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H. G. Keene.
  19. ^
  20. ^ Khullar, K. K. (1980). Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Hem Publishers. p. 7. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  21. ^ Shaheed Gunj Mosque Incident
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Grey, C. (1993). European Adventures of Northern India. Asian Educational Services. pp. 343–.  
  25. ^ The Punjab in 1920s – A Case study of Muslims, Zarina Salamat, Royal Book Company, Karachi, 1997. table 45, pp. 136. ISBN 969-407-230-1
  26. ^ Dube, I. &. S. (2009). From ancient to modern: Religion, power, and community in India hardcover. Oxford University Press.
  27. ^ "Mercury drops to freezing point – Dawn Pakistan". 
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Population shoots up by 47 percent since 1998. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  31. ^ Muslim peoples: a world ethnographic survey / Richard V. Weekes, editor-in-chief Greenwood Press 1978
  32. ^ Wikeley, J.M. (1900). Punjabi Musalmans (PDF) (2nd ed.). The Book House.  
  34. ^ "Quick Stats | Punjab Portal". 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  35. ^ "Government of Punjab – Districts". 
  36. ^ (English) Internet Edition, Dawn Newspaper. "Nankana becomes district". Retrieved 2006-04-14. 
    No data is yet available on the recently created district of Nankana.
  37. ^ "Pakistan: Largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  38. ^ World Bank Document
  39. ^ "Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000". 
  40. ^
  41. ^ A PricewaterhouseCoopers study released in 2009, surveying the 2008 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Faisalabad's GDP (PPP) at $35 billion. The city was third in Pakistan behind Karachi ($78 billion) and Lahore ($40 billion). Faisalabad's GDP is projected to rise to $37 billion in 2025 at a growth rate of 5.7%, higher than the growth rates of 5.5% and 5.6% predicted for Karachi and Lahore.[2][ "PricewaterhouseCoopers Media Centre". 1 June 2005.]– Last Paragraph
  42. ^ "Punjab Gateway". 
  43. ^ Industrial Zone Punjab, Pakistan
  44. ^ "Another day of outrage at outages across Punjab".  
  45. ^ [2]
  46. ^ Pakistan: where and who are the world's illiterates?; Background paper for the Education for all global monitoring report 2006: literacy for life; 2005
  47. ^ The Express Tribune: Rural women uphold Pakistan’s literacy rate
  48. ^ Harvest Festival of Punjab, Harvest Festival Lohri, Cultural Festival of India, Harvest Festival in India
  49. ^ at
  50. ^ The Punjabi Language | The Realm Of The Intoxicated Mind

External links

  • Official website
  • Punjab, Pakistan at DMOZ
  • Guide to Punjab, Pakistan
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