World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Orson Scott Card

Article Id: WHEBN0006097209
Reproduction Date:

Title: Orson Scott Card  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Speaker for the Dead, List of science fiction novels, Vorkosigan Saga, Hidden Empire, Neuromancer
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Orson Scott Card

Orson Scott Card
Born (1951-08-24) August 24, 1951
Richland, Washington
Residence Greensboro, North Carolina
Nationality American
Alma mater Brigham Young University
University of Utah (M.A.)
University of Notre Dame (1980s graduate student)
Occupation Author, critic, playwright / script writer, poet, public speaker, essayist, political activist, Prof. of Writing and Literature[1]
Notable work Ender's Game series,
The Tales of Alvin Maker
Style Science fiction, fantasy, thriller, horror, historical fiction and fantasy and biblical fiction, LDS fiction
Board member of Public television station UNC-TV (2013–present)[2]
[3]
Religion Latter-day Saint (Mormon)[4]
Spouse(s) Kristine Allen Card
Awards Selected list:
Hugo Award (Ender's Game, 1986
Speaker for the Dead, 1987
How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, 1991)

Nebula Award (Ender's Game, 1986
Speaker for the Dead, 1987
"Eye for Eye," 1988)
Website .com.hatrackwww
 
Signature

Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[5] is an American novelist, critic, public speaker, essayist and columnist. He writes in several genres but is known best for science fiction. His novel Ender's Game (1985) and its sequel Speaker for the Dead (1986) both won Hugo[6][7] and Nebula Awards,[6][8] making Card the only author to win both science fiction's top U.S. prizes in consecutive years.[9][10] A feature film adaptation of Ender's Game, which Card co-produced, was released in late October 2013 in Europe and on November 1, 2013, in North America.[11][12]

Card is a professor of English at Southern Virginia University,[13] has written two books on the subject of creative writing, hosts writing bootcamps and workshops, and serves as a judge in the Writers of the Future contest.[14] A great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, Card is a practicing member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). In addition to producing a large body of fiction works, he has also offered political, religious, and social commentary in his columns and other writing.

Early life

Card is the son of Peggy Jane (née Park) and Willard Richards Card, the third of six children and the older brother of composer and arranger Arlen Card.[15][16][17] Card was born in Richland, Washington, and grew up in Santa Clara, California as well as Mesa, Arizona and Orem, Utah. He served as a missionary for the LDS Church in Brazil and graduated from Brigham Young University (BYU) and the University of Utah; he also spent a year in a Ph.D. program at the University of Notre Dame.

For part of the 1970s Card worked as an associate editor of the Ensign, an official magazine of the LDS Church.[18]

Card lives in Greensboro, North Carolina,[15] a place that has played a significant role in Ender's Game and many of his other works.

Fiction

Card began his writing career primarily as a poet, studying with Clinton F. Larson at BYU. During his studies as a theater major, he began "doctoring" scripts, adapting fiction for readers theater production, and finally writing his own one-act and full-length plays, several of which were produced by faculty directors at BYU. He also explored fiction writing, beginning with stories that eventually evolved into The Worthing Saga.

After returning to Provo, Utah from his LDS mission in Brazil, Card started the Utah Valley Repertory Theatre Company, which for two summers produced plays at "the Castle", a Depression-era outdoor amphitheater behind the state psychiatric hospital in Provo; his company's were the first plays ever produced at the Castle. Meanwhile, he took part-time employment as a proofreader at BYU Press, then made the jump to full-time employment as a copy editor. In 1976, in the midst of a paid role performing in the church's musical celebrating America's Bicentennial, he secured employment as an assistant editor at the Ensign, and moved to Salt Lake City. It was while working at Ensign that Card published his first piece of fiction. His short story "Gert Fram" appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of that magazine under the pseudonym Byron Walley.

Science fiction

He wrote the short story "Ender's Game" while working at the BYU press, and submitted it to several publications. The idea for the later novel of the same title came from the short story about a school where boys can fight in space. It was eventually purchased by Ben Bova at Analog Science Fiction and Fact and published in the August 1977 issue. Meanwhile, he started writing half-hour audioplays on LDS Church history, the New Testament, and other subjects for Living Scriptures in Ogden, Utah; on the basis of that continuing contract, some freelance editing work, and a novel contract for Hot Sleep and A Planet Called Treason, he left Ensign and began supporting his family as a freelancer.

He completed his master's degree in English at the University of Utah in 1981 and began a doctoral program at the University of Notre Dame, but the recession of the early 1980s caused the flow of new book contracts to temporarily dry up. He returned to full-time employment as the book editor for Compute! magazine in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1983. In October of that year, a new contract for the Alvin Maker "trilogy" (now up to six books) allowed him to return to freelancing.

Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead were both awarded the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award, making Card the only author (as of 2013) to win both of science fiction's top prizes in consecutive years. Card continued the series with Xenocide, Children of the Mind, Ender's Shadow, Shadow of the Hegemon, Shadow Puppets, "First Meetings in the Enderverse", Shadow of the Giant, Shadows in Flight, the 2007 release of A War of Gifts, and the 2008 release of Ender in Exile, a book that takes place after Ender's Game and before Speaker for the Dead. Card has also announced his plan to write Shadows Alive, a book that connects the "Shadow" series and "Speaker" series together. He later also wrote the first formic war saga: Earth Unaware, Earth Afire, and Earth Awakens as a prequel to the Ender novels. This trilogy relays, among other things, the history of Mazer Rackham. In 2008 Card announced that Ender's Game would be made into a movie, but that he did not have a director lined up (Wolfgang Petersen had previously been scheduled to direct the movie subsequently moved on to other projects.) It was to be produced by Chartoff Productions, and Card was writing the screenplay himself.[19] The film was made several years later, and released in 2013, with Asa Butterfield in the title role and Gavin Hood directing.

Other works include the alternative histories The Tales of Alvin Maker, Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus, The Homecoming Saga, and Hidden Empire, a story about a near-future civil war in the United States, based on the Xbox Live Arcade video game Shadow Complex. He collaborated with Star Wars artist Doug Chiang on Robota and with Kathryn H. Kidd on Lovelock.

Other genres

He has since branched out into other areas of fiction with novels such as Lost Boys, Treasure Box and Enchantment. Other works include the novelization of the James Cameron film The Abyss, and the comic book Ultimate Iron Man for Marvel Comics' Ultimate Marvel Universe series. Outside the world of published fiction, Card contributed dialog to at least three video games: Loom, The Secret of Monkey Island and The Dig in the early 1990s.[20]

In 1983 Card published the novel Saints, a historical fiction based loosely on one of his ancestors and her experiences coming into the LDS Church during the early portion of its movement. It continues through her eyes into subsequent events up until the granting of Statehood to Utah.

In 2000, Card published the first novel in The Women of Genesis series. This series explores the lives of the principal women mentioned in the first book of the Bible and includes Sarah (2000), Rebekah (2002), and Rachel and Leah (2004).

In the fall of 2005, Card launched Orson Scott Card's InterGalactic Medicine Show.[21] He edited the first two issues, but found that the demands of teaching, writing, and directing plays for his local church theater group made it impossible to respond to writers' submissions in a timely manner; former Card student and experienced freelance writer and editor Edmund R. Schubert took over as editor on June 1, 2006.

The dialog and screenplay (but not the story) for the Xbox video game Advent Rising was written by Card and Cameron Dayton.[22]

In 2008, Card's novella Hamlet's Father, a retelling of Shakespeare's Hamlet, was published in the anthology The Ghost Quartet (Tor Books). The work re-interpreted all of the characters' personalities and motivations.

Pseudonyms

Over the years Orson Scott Card has used at least seven pseudonyms.

The names Frederick Bliss and P.Q. Gump were used by Card when he was asked to write an overview of Mormon playwrights "Mormon Shakespears: A Study of Contemporary Mormon Theatre" for Spring 1976 issue of Sunstone magazine. According to Card he used these pseudonyms because the article included a brief reference to himself and his play "Stone Tables".[23]

The name Byron Walley was used by Card on his first published piece of fiction "Gert Fram" which appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of Ensign magazine. According to Card he used this name because he had a non-fiction article, "Family Art", a poem, "Looking West", and a short play, "The Rag Mission", appearing in the same issue.[23] Card also used the name Byron Walley in stories he published in Friend magazine, New Era magazine and in the anthology Dragons of Darkness. Stories by Byron Walley include: "Gert Fram", Ensign magazine, July 1977; "Bicicleta", Friend magazine, October 1977; "The Best Family Home Evening Ever", Friend magazine, January 1978; "Billy's Box", Friend magazine, February 1978; "I Think Mom and Dad Are Going Crazy, Jerry", New Era magazine, May 1979; and "Middle Woman", Dragons of Darkness, Ace Books, 1982.

The name Brian Green was also used by Card in the July 1977 fine arts issue of Ensign magazine. He used this name for his short play "The Rag Mission" because he had three other pieces appearing in the same issue.[23]

The name Dinah Kirkham was used to write the short story "The Best Day", in 1983.[24]

The name Noam D. Pellume was used by Card for his short story "Damn Fine Novel" which appeared in the October 1989 issue of The Green Pages.[25]

Card wrote the novel Zanna's Gift (2004) under the pen name Scott Richards, saying, "I was trying to establish a separate identity in the marketplace, but for various reasons the marketing strategy didn't work as we'd hoped."[26]

On writing

Teaching

In 2005, Card accepted a permanent appointment as "distinguished professor" at Southern Virginia University in Buena Vista, Virginia, a small liberal arts college run according to the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Card has cited his frustration with dismal teaching methodology for creative writing in most universities as a reason for accepting this position, along with his desire to teach the techniques of effective fiction writing to writers whose values are more congruent with his own.[13] Card has worked closely with colleagues to develop ways to educate aspiring writers and has published two books on the subject. He was eager for the opportunity to apply these techniques in a university environment—his assorted workshops did not allow the follow-through he desired. After being deeply moved by stories of his students' parents in some of their essays, he decided to stop teaching regularly at the university to spend time with his youngest child who still lives at home.[27] Card returned to teaching for the spring semester of 2009.

Books on writing

Card has written two books on the subject of creative writing – Characters and Viewpoint, published in 1988, and How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, published in 1990. He was also a co-writer for How to Write a Million (though his contribution is actually a reprint of an earlier work).

Card also offered advice about writing in an interview in Leading Edge #23 in 1991.

Writers of the Future

Card serves as a judge in Author Services Inc., an entity that manages Hubbard's literary work.

Children's books

Card won the ALA Margaret Edwards Award in 2008 for his contribution in writing for teens, selected by a panel of YA librarians.[28] "What have I done that made some wonderfully deluded people think that I should get the [award] for lifetime achievement in writing young adult fiction?", he asked in his address, and asserted that "There is no such thing as children's literature." Furthermore:[29]

I have not worked with YA editors; my work has never been marketed that way until Tor put a YA cover and a new ISBN on Ender’s Game — fifteen years after the book first came out, and long after it had become popular with young readers. Ender's Game was written with no concessions to young readers. My protagonists were children, but the book was definitely not aimed at kids. I was perfectly aware that the rule of thumb for children’s literature is that the protagonist must be a couple of years older than the target audience. You want ten-year-old readers, you have a twelve-year-old hero.
At the beginning of the book, Ender is six. Who, exactly, is the target audience?

Poetry

Card created a website, Strong Verse that publishes poetry from authors living and dead with the aim of showcasing works that present a clear message in clear language. The following motto appears on the website's header: "Good poetry is meant to be understood, not decoded."[30]

Opinion

Since 2001, Card's commentary[31] includes the political columns "War Watch", "World Watch", or "Civilization Watch" (depending on Card's topic) and the column "Uncle Orson Reviews Everything," all published at the Greensboro Rhinoceros Times. The last-named column features personal reviews of movies, books, and restaurants in the greater Greensboro area, in addition to a variety of other topics.[32] The column also later appears on his website, Hatrack River. Since 2008 Card has written a column for the Mormon Times.

Politics

Card's vocal opposition to same-sex marriage and other views on homosexuality led to a boycott of the film version of Ender's Game[33] – a development which itself received criticism.[34] Owing to political developments, by the early 2010s Card believed the question of U.S. legalization of same-sex marriage moot.[35]

Describing himself as a political liberal[36] and moral conservative,[37] Card's ideals concerning society—as well as foundational themes within his fiction—are described communitarian.[36][38][39] In 2000, Card said, "Most of the program of both the left and the right is so unbelievably stupid it's hard to wish to identify myself with either. But on economic matters, I'm a committed communitarian. I regard the Soviet Union as simply state monopoly capitalism. It was run the way the United States would be if Microsoft owned everything. Real communism has never been tried! I would like to see government controls expanded, laws that allow capitalism to not reward the most rapacious, exploitative behavior. I believe government has a strong role to protect us from capitalism."[40]

A vocal supporter of the U.S.'s War on Terror,[41][42] according to Salon, Card is close to neoconservative concerning foreign policy issues.[43]

Views on U.S. presidential politics

A member of the U.S. Democratic Party since 1976,[44] Card supported Republican presidential candidates John McCain in 2008[45] and Newt Gingrich.[46]

In an August 2013 essay he presented as an experiment in fictional writing, Card described an alternative future in which President Barack Obama ruled as a "Hitler- or Stalin-style dictator" with his own national police force of young unemployed men; Obama and his wife Michelle would have amended the U.S. Constitution to allow presidents to remain in power for life, as in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and Hitler's Germany.[47][48] Card's essay drew criticism, especially for alleged insensitivity in its reference to urban gangs.[49][50][51]

Views about homosexuality

Card has publicly declared his opposition to homosexuality and same-sex marriage.[43][52] In a 1990 essay he wrote that the laws prohibiting homosexual behavior should remain on the books.[43] In May 2013, Card stated that he no longer advocated this.[53]

In a 2008 essay opposing same-sex marriage, Card stated that he regarded any government that would attempt to recognize same-sex marriage as an enemy that he would act to destroy.[43] In 2009 he joined the board of directors of the [43] Card resigned from the board in mid-2013.[33]

Card has also expressed his opinion that paraphilia and homosexuality are linked. In 2004, he claimed that homosexuality was the result of child abuse.[33][43] Additionally, in Card's 2011 novella Hamlet's Father, which re-imagines the backstory of Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Card was accused of directly trying to link the king's pedophilia with homosexuality. The novella prompted public outcry and its publishers were inundated with complaints.[54][55] Trade journal Publishers Weekly criticized Card's work, stating that the main purpose of it was to attempt to link homosexuality to pedophilia.[56] Card responded to the claim: "...[T]here is no link whatsoever between homosexuality and pedophilia in this book. Hamlet's father, in the book, is a pedophile, period. I don't show him being even slightly attracted to adults of either sex. It is the reviewer, not me, who has asserted this link, which I would not and did not make."[55]

Card's 1980 novel Songmaster depicts a homosexual relationship between a young man and a 17-year-old boy. Card described this relationship as a mutually self-destructive path and that he could not describe homosexuality as beautiful or natural.[43]

In 2013, Card was selected as a guest author for DC Comics's new Adventures of Superman comic book series,[57] but controversy over Card's anti-gay views led illustrator Chris Sprouse to leave the project[58] and DC Comics to put Card's story on hold indefinitely.[59]

An LGBT group, Geeks OUT!, proposed a boycott of the movie adaptation of Ender's Game calling Card's view anti-gay,[60][61] causing the movie studio Lionsgate to publicly distance itself from Card’s opinions.[62]

In July 2013, one week after the U.S. Supreme Court issued rulings in two cases that were widely interpreted as favoring recognition of same-sex marriages, Card wrote in Entertainment Weekly that the gay marriage issue is moot due to the Supreme Court's decision on DOMA.[35] He further stated, "now it will be interesting to see whether the victorious proponents of gay marriage will show tolerance toward those who disagreed with them when the issue was still in dispute."[35]

Religion

Card's immersion in the Mormon faith has been an important facet of his life from early on. He is a great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, an important leader in the Latter Day Saint movement, and all of Card's ancestors from at least three generations have been members of the LDS Church. His ancestors include several other figures notable in the LDS Church, including the Cardston colony founder Charles Ora Card. As such, his faith has been a source of inspiration and influence for both his writing and his personal views.[16]

Since 2008 Card has written a column of Latter-day Saint devotional and cultural commentary for the Sunday national edition of the Deseret News (formerly "the Mormon Times").[63]

Personal life

Card (right) signing autographs at New York Comic Con in 2008

Card and his wife, Kristine, have had five children, each named after one or more authors he and his wife admire. Their children's names are Michael Geoffrey (Geoffrey Chaucer), Emily Janice (Emily Brontë and Emily Dickinson), Charles Benjamin (Charles Dickens), Zina Margaret (Margaret Mitchell) and Erin Louisa (Louisa May Alcott). Charles, who had cerebral palsy, died shortly after his 17th birthday and their daughter Erin died the day she was born.[15] Card and his wife live with their youngest child, Zina, in Greensboro, North Carolina.[15]

The life of their son, Charles, influenced some of Card's fiction, most notably the Homecoming series, Lost Boys and Folk of the Fringe. Their daughter, Emily, along with two other writers, adapted Card's short stories "Clap Hands and Sing", "Lifeloop" and "A Sepulchre of Songs" for the stage in Posing as People.[64]

In 2008, he appeared in the short film The Delivery, which starred his daughter, Emily. He plays an author reading an audiobook in this film, which won First Place in Fantasy at Dragon*Con Film Festival. He wrote an original story, "The Emperor of the Air," specifically for the short film by Gabrielle de Cuir and Stefan Rudnicki.[65]

Card is an avid fan of the science fiction television series Firefly and makes an appearance in the documentary Done the Impossible about Firefly fandom.

Card suffered a mild stroke on January 1, 2011, and was briefly hospitalized. He reported expecting to make a full recovery despite impairment of his left hand.[66][67]

Awards

The ALA Margaret A. Edwards Award recognizes one writer and a particular body of work for "significant and lasting contributions to young adult literature". Card won the annual award in 2008, citing Ender's Game (1985), which inaugurated the science fiction Ender Saga, and Ender's Shadow (1999), the so-called parallel novel featuring another boy in the Battle School. According to the citation, the two boys' "experiences echo those of teens, beginning as children navigating in an adult world and growing into a state of greater awareness of themselves, their communities and the larger universe."[28] In the same year, Card won the Lifetime Achievement Award for Mormon writers (Whitney Awards).[68]

He has also won numerous awards for single works.

Works

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d e
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Ender's Game (2013) - Release dates
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b "Why I Am Teaching at SVU... and Why SVU is Important" from LDSMag.com
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ a b c d
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^ Ensign reference to Card as Associate Editor
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Advent RisingCard's comments on working on from his official website
  23. ^ a b c Pseudonyms "Orson Scott Card's website The Hatrack".
  24. ^ Card bio from FantasticFiction.co.uk
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b "2008 Margaret A. Edwards Award". Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA). American Library Association (ALA).
      "Edwards Award". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
  29. ^ "Looking Back". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 2013-10-13. Card won the 20th anniversary Edwards Award in 2008, when YALSA asked previous winners to reflect on the experience. Some live remarks by Card are published online with the compiled reflections but transcripts of acceptance speeches are available to members only.
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ a b c
  34. ^
  35. ^ a b c
  36. ^ a b
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ a b c d e f g
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^ "Hamlet's FatherFlood, Alison. "Outcry over Hamlet novel casting old king as gay pedophile: Publisher showered with complaints over Orson Scott Card's The Guardian 8 September 2011
  55. ^ a b
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^ a b c
  71. ^ a b
  72. ^

Further reading

  • Critics, community and 'Ender's Game': An interview with Orson Scott Card, Deseret News, October 31, 2013.
  • Card Catalogue: The Science Fiction and Fantasy of Orson Scott Card, Michael R. Collings, Hypatia Press, 1987, ISBN 0-940841-01-0
  • In the Image of God: Theme, Characterization and Landscape in the Fiction of Orson Scott Card, Michael R. Collings, Greenwood Press, 1990, ISBN 0-313-26404-X
  • The Work of Orson Scott Card: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, Michael R. Collings and Boden Clarke, 1997
  • Storyteller: The Official Guide to the Works of Orson Scott Card, Michael R. Collings, Overlook Connection Press, 2001, ISBN 1-892950-26-X

External links

  • Official website
  • Strong Verse, Online poetry magazine published by Card
  • The Ornery American, Orson Scott Card's political site; includes his column
  • Orson Scott Card at the Internet Book List
  • Orson Scott Card at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
  • Orson Scott Card at Goodreads
  • Orson Scott Card at the Internet Movie Database
  • Orson Scott Card at Library of Congress Authorities — with 113 catalog records and point of entry to records under other names

Interviews and videos

  • Audio interview with Orson Scott Card at National Review Online
  • Interview at SFFWorld.com
  • "Behind the Scenes": Orson Scott Card on Ender's Game,
  • Marvel.com: "Videos"
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.