World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

National Committee of the Republic of Estonia

Article Id: WHEBN0020091877
Reproduction Date:

Title: National Committee of the Republic of Estonia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Timeline of World War II (1944), Occupation of the Baltic states, Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, Jüri Uluots, Public holidays in Estonia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

National Committee of the Republic of Estonia

The September 18, 1944 appointed Government of Estonia in Riigi Teataja

The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Rahvuskomitee, EVRK) was formed by the underground resistance movements in German-occupied Estonia in March 1944.[1] By April 1944 a large number of the committee members were arrested by the German security agencies.[2]

The original initiative to form the committee came from the Estonian pre-war opposition parties but it was quickly joined by Jüri Uluots, the last constitutional pre-war Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia and his supporters. The Committee aimed to establish of a provisional government during expected German withdrawal as the Red Army had reached the border of Estonia on February 2, 1944.

The Committee succeeded in establishing a communication network with the Estonian diplomats in Finland and Sweden.[3]

On 20 April 1944, the National Committee selected the Electoral Committee of the Republic of Estonia (Vabariigi Presidendi Asetäitja Valimiskogu, the institution specified in the Constitution for electing the Acting President of the Republic) held a clandestine meeting in Tallinn. The participants included:

The Committee determined that the Soviet-era appointment of Johannes Vares as Prime Minister by Konstantin Päts had been illegal and that Uluots had assumed the President's duties from June 21, 1940 onwards.[4] On 21 June 1944, Jüri Uluots appointed Otto Tief as deputy prime minister.[5] On 18 September 1944, Uluots, suffering from cancer, named Otto Tief the Acting Prime Minister and appointed a Government which consisted of 11 members. On 20 September 1944, Uluots departed for Sweden. Tief assumed office in accordance with the constitution and took the opportunity with the departure of the Germans to declare the legitimate Estonian government restored. Most of members of this government left from Tallinn on 21 September and Tief on 22 September. As reported by the Royal Institute of International Affairs at the time: the Estonian national government was proclaimed in Estonia, the Estonian military units seized the national government buildings in Toompea Castle and ordered the German forces to leave.[6] The flag of Germany was replaced with the flag of Estonia in the Pikk Hermann tower of Toompea. Tief’s government however failed to keep control as Estonian military units led by Johan Pitka clashed with both Germans and Soviets. On 22 September, the Soviet Leningrad Front took control of Tallinn. Most of the members and officials including Tief were caught, jailed, deported, or executed by the advancing Soviets. Tief managed to survive a decade in Siberia and after return from deportation died back in Estonia in 1976. Only Kaarel Liidak, Minister of Agriculture, died in hiding on 16 January 1945.

After Uluots died on January 9, 1945 in Sweden, August Rei, as the most senior surviving member of the government, assumed the role of acting head of state. Rei was supported by the surviving members of the Tief's government in Sweden. Rei was the last Estonian envoy in Moscow before the Soviet annexation and had managed to escape from Moscow through Riga to Stockholm in June 1940.[7]

On 12 January 1953, the Estonian Government in Exile was established in Oslo, Norway.


  1. ^ Smith, David James (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 36.  
  2. ^ Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Scarecrow Press. p. 21.  
  3. ^ Laar,, Mart; Tiina Ets; Tonu Parming (1992). War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944-1956.  
  4. ^ L. Mälksoo, Professor Uluots, the Estonian Government in Exile and the Continuity of the Republic of Estonia in International Law, Nordic Journal of International Law, Volume 69, Number 3 / March, 2000
  5. ^ Chronology at the EIHC
  6. ^ By Royal Institute of International Affairs. Information Dept. Published 1945
  7. ^ Diplomats Without a Country By James T. McHugh, James S. Pacy; p. 183 ISBN 0-313-31878-6
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.