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Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt

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Title: Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Agreement Between Great Britain and Denmark Relating to the Suppression of the Capitulations in Egypt, Agreement Between Great Britain and Sweden Relating to the Suppression of the Capitulations in Egypt (1921), Agreement Between Great Britain and Greece Relating to the Suppression of the Capitulations in Egypt (1920), Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, French–Armenian Agreement (1916)
Collection: 1937 in Egypt, 1937 in Switzerland, Diplomatic Conferences in Switzerland, Expatriates in Egypt, League of Nations Treaties, Legal History of Egypt, Treaties Concluded in 1937, Treaties Entered Into Force in 1937, Treaties Extended to Curaçao and Dependencies, Treaties Extended to Greenland, Treaties Extended to Surinam (Dutch Colony), Treaties Extended to the Dutch East Indies, Treaties Extended to the Faroe Islands, Treaties of Australia, Treaties of Belgium, Treaties of British India, Treaties of Canada, Treaties of Denmark, Treaties of New Zealand, Treaties of Norway, Treaties of Sweden, Treaties of the Estado Novo (Portugal), Treaties of the Ethiopian Empire, Treaties of the French Third Republic, Treaties of the Irish Free State, Treaties of the Kingdom of Egypt, Treaties of the Kingdom of Greece, Treaties of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), Treaties of the Netherlands, Treaties of the Second Spanish Republic, Treaties of the Union of South Africa, Treaties of the United Kingdom, Treaties of the United States
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt

The Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt was an international convention concluded on May 8, 1937, which led to the abolishing of the extraterritorial legal system for foreigners in Egypt, known as the capitulations. It was signed by the governments of Egypt, the United States of America, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain (the Republican side in the civil war), France, Greece, Italy, Ethiopia, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. It went into effect on October 15, 1937 and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day.[1]


  • Background 1
  • Terms of the agreement 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


The capitulations system was introduced into Egypt during the 19th century as a result of international pressure on the Egyptian government by the western powers, especially the British Empire. Following the First World War, a wave of nationalism was on the rise in Egypt, and the government, backed by the newly established Wafd Party, put growing demands before the British government - then in control of Egypt - to abolish the capitulations system while placing foreigners under the local Egyptian legal system. As a result, several of the foreign courts were abolished in 1920-1921, while their nationals were placed under British consular jurisdiction. This did not satisfy the demands of the Egyptian government regarding the total abolition of capitulations.

A new opportunity arose following the conclusion of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, after which negotiations began to settle the abolition of capitulations in Egypt. This led to the conclusion of the convention.

Terms of the agreement

The agreement provided for the total abolition of capitulations and the placing of foreigners in Egypt under the Egyptian legal system. The date set for the abolition of the consular courts was October 15, 1949, following a transition period of 12 years.

See also


  1. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 182, pp. 38-103.

External links

  • Text of the convention
  • , Issue No. 676 (5 - 11 February 2004)Al-Ahram WeeklyYunan Labib Rizk, "The way to Montreux"
  • , Issue No. 764 (13 - 19 October 2005)Al-Ahram WeeklyYunan Labib Rizk, "The end of the third reservation"
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