Brazil

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Economy

An KC-390 military transport aircraft, developed by Brazilian company Embraer, the third largest producer of civil aircraft, after Airbus and Boeing.[198]

Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's seventh largest economy at market exchange rates and the seventh largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing,[199] provided that large investments in productivity gains are made to substitute the GDP growth of the last decade that is attributable to the increase in the number of people working.[200] Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $15,153 in 2014[4] putting Brazil in the 77th position according to IMF data. Active in agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over a 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide).[201]

The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.[202] Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[21] It has become the fourth largest car market in the world.[203] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[204] Adding up, Brazil ranks 23rd worldwide in value of exports.

Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[205] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float[206] scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[207]

Combine harvester in a soybean field in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso. Brazil is the third largest exporter of agricultural products in the world.[208]

Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[209] then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[210] One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.[211] Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[212] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[213]

Between 1993 and 2010, 7012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazlian firms have been announced.[214] The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with 115 billion USD of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at US$18.9 billion.

Corruption costs Brazil almost $41 billion a year alone, with 69.9% of the country's firms identifying the issue as a major constraint in successfully penetrating the global market.[215] Local government corruption is so prevalent that voters only perceive it as a problem if it surpasses certain levels, and only if a local media e.g. a radio station is present to divulge the findings of corruption charges.[216] Initiatives, like this exposure, strengthen awareness which is indicated by the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index; ranking Brazil 69th out of 178 countries in 2012.[217] The purchasing power in Brazil is eroded by the so-called Brazil cost.[218]

The economy of the resource-rich nation had been booming until 2010 but stagnation followed and a recession is now underway, along with inflation and charges of corruption and the bankruptcy of a major oil business. Angry demonstrators in 2014 complained beforehand at the high $11.5 billion (USD) cost of sponsoring the FIFA World Cup, but Brazilians took pride in its smooth functioning. Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff faced a conservative challenger for her re-election bid in the October 26, 2014, runoff,[219] but managed to secure a re-election with just over 51% of votes.[220]

Tourism

Iguazu Falls, Paraná, in Brazil-Argentina border, is the second most popular destination for foreign tourists who come to Brazil for pleasure.
Sancho Bay, in Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco, elected the most beautiful beach in the world by TripAdvisor.

Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 5 million visitors in 2010, ranking in terms of international tourist arrivals as the second destination in South America, and third in Latin America after Mexico and Argentina. Revenues from international tourists reached US$6 billion in 2010, showing a recovery from the 2008-2009 economic crisis.[221] Historical records of 5.4 million visitors and US$6.8 billion in receipts were reached in 2011.[222][223]

Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation, mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel, as well as cultural tourism. Among the most popular destinations are the Amazon Rainforest, beaches and dunes in the Northeast Region, the Pantanal in the Center-West Region, beaches at Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, cultural tourism in Minas Gerais and business trips to São Paulo city.[224]

In terms of the 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked 52nd in the world, 3rd among Latin American countries after Mexico and Costa Rica, and 7th in the Americas.[225] Brazil's competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of the 139 countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites. The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 116th), with the quality of roads ranking in 105th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (ranked 114th), due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in 2011, up from 128th in 2008.[225]

Snorkeling in the city of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The rivers in the region are known for their crystal clear waters.

According to the

  • Official Tourist Guide of Brazil
  • Brazilian Federal Government
  • Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
  • Brazil at UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Brazil at DMOZ
  • Country Profile from the U.S. Library of Congress (1997)
  • Video report on Brazil in 1961
  • Brazil from the BBC News
  • Key Development Forecasts for Brazil from International Futures
  • Democracy in Brazil from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • Works related to CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Brazil at Wikisource
  • Geographic data related to Brazil at OpenStreetMap

External links

  • Alves, Maria Helena Moreira (1985). State and Opposition in Military Brazil. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 
  • Amann, Edmund (1990). The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso. World Development (pp. 1805–1819). 
  • "Background Note: Brazil". US Department of State. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  • Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life. London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc. 
  • Bethell, Leslie (1991). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  • Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Furtado, Celso. The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 
  • Leal, Victor Nunes (1977). Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Malathronas, John (2003). Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul. Chichester: Summersdale. 
  • Martinez-Lara, Javier (1995). Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change. Macmillan. 
  • Prado Júnior, Caio (1967). The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  • Schneider, Ronald (1995). Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse. Boulder Westview. 
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. (1974). Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Wagley, Charles (1963). An Introduction to Brazil. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. 
  • The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil. New York, NY: World Almanac Books. 2006. 

Further reading

  • Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971. (Portuguese)
  • Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-3510-7
  • Boxer, Charles R.. O império marítimo português 1415–1825. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0292-9 (Portuguese)
  • Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (Portuguese) ISBN 85-08-08213-4
  • Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002. (Portuguese)
  • Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (Portuguese)
  • Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996. (Portuguese)
  • Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004. (Portuguese)
  • Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (Portuguese)
  • Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. ISBN 85-7326-308-3 (Portuguese)
  • Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0277-5 (Portuguese)
  • Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v.1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v.3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. ISBN 85-359-0807-2 (Portuguese)
  • Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981.
  • Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942.
  • Peres, Damião (1949) O Descobrimento do Brasil por Pedro Álvares Cabral: antecedentes e intencionalidade Porto: Portucalense. (Portuguese)
  • Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87021-295-8.
  • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. ISBN 85-7164-837-9. (Portuguese)
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. (Portuguese) ISBN 85-219-0313-8
  • Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (Portuguese) ISBN 978-85-200-0864-5.
  • Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. ISBN 85-7302-441-0 (Portuguese)
  • Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988. (Portuguese)
  • Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (Portuguese)

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