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Title: Bhatt  
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Subject: Garhwal division, Parveen Babi, Goa Inquisition, Garhwali language, Batta, Indian people, Gangadhara Vajapeyi, Daivadnya Brahmin, Bhatraju, Bhat clan
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Bhat, Bhatt, Bhatta or Bhatra meaning a priest or scribe in Sanskrit, is a surname common in most parts of India. This is title given to learned Brahmins. A predominantly Hindu last name, it is found most commonly in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Kumaon and Garhwal in Uttarakhand, Doti, some parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal (as Bhattācharya) and some parts of Karnataka.

Among the communities in India with this last name are the Nagar Brahmins, Bhattmewada Brahmins, Audichya Brahmins, Gouda Saraswat Brahmins Gurjargaur Brahmins, Konkanastha and the Smartha Brahmins. Some families in Karnataka also share the surname belong to Havyaka, Shivalli (and or) madhva and even Daivajna.

In the olden days, the kings used to have the presence of Brahmins for various purposes. People who belonged to the class of Brahmins mainly gave highly influential judgements on the right and wrong decisions in the court, later came to be known as 'Bhatt'.

It is believed that because of this, these people possess excellent communication,Judgement and logical argument skills in them. Bhatts was known to keep genealogies of Rajput kings.

The earliest reference of Bhatt can be found in Chandragupta's empire. In Mudrarakshasa, while describing different divisions in Chandragupta's army, a reference can be found to Bhatt-Bala. Here Bala means a division, hence Bhatt-Bala would mean a division composed of Bhatt.

Sikh Bhats

Sikh Bhat also known as Bhatra, tradition and Sikh text states their ancestors came from Punjab, where the Raja Shivnabh and his kingdom became the original 16th century followers of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. The Raja's grandson Prince Baba Changa earned the title ‘Bhat Rai’ – the ‘Raja of Poets, and then settled himself and his followers all over India as missionaries to spread the word of Guru Nanak, where many northern Indians became Bhat Sikhs.[1] The Bhats also contributed 123 compositions in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (pp.1389–1409), known as the "Bhata de Savaiyye".[2] As Guru Nanak and Sikhism do not support the caste system, the Bhat people do not consider themselves as a caste in the typical sense due to the message of Guru Nanak, but a clan within Sikhism created by Guru Nanak which is not shackled by the caste system. The majority were from the northern Brahmin caste (Bhat clan),(Bhat (surname)) as the Prince Baba Changa shared the Brahmin heritage. The sangat also had many members from different areas of the Sikh caste spectrum, such as the Hindu Rajputs and Hindu Jats who joined due to Bhat sikh missionary efforts. There hereditary occupations consisted of bards, poets, missionaries, astrologists, genealogists, salesmen. According to Nesfield as quoted in W. Crooke, The Tribes and Castes of the North Western India, 1896, Bhatts frequently visited the courts of princes and the camps of warriors, recited their praises in public, and kept records of their genealogies.

Notable Bhatts

Notable Bhatt(a)s include:



Sages, scholars and philosophers




The term Bhattaraka has been used in spirituality. In Jainism the term is used to mean priest.

There exists the deity Vaidyanatha Bhattarka, whose idol exists in the Pulindeshvara Temple of Orissa.[2]

The Buddhist goddess Tara is also known as Bhattarika.

In the Bengal and Orissa, worship of another goddess Bhattarika exists. There is a festival in her name in Sasanga (near Badamba Tehsil of Cuttack), Orissa.[3]

See also


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