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Kostyonki, Voronezh Oblast

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Title: Kostyonki, Voronezh Oblast  
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Subject: Kostenki, List of haplogroups of historic people, Voronezh Oblast, Paleolithic dog, Megafaunal wolf
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Kostyonki, Voronezh Oblast

Kostyonki (English)
Костёнки (Russian)
-  Rural locality  -
Kostyonki is located in Voronezh Oblast
Location of Kostyonki in Voronezh Oblast
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Voronezh Oblast
Administrative district Khokholsky District
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[1]
Postal code(s)[2] 3940xx

Kostyonki (Russian: Костёнки, lit. "small bones" in Ukrainian), also spelled Kostenki, is a rural locality (a selo) in Khokholsky District of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on western middle bank of the Don River.

It is known for high concentration of cultural remains of anatomically modern humans from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic era.

Ancient human remains

A layer of Campanian volcanic ash from about 40,000 years ago has been found above some of the finds, showing that "unknown humans" inhabited the site before this.[3][4] The earliest directly dated human remains from this site are dated to 32,600 ± 1,100 14C years and consist of tibia and fibula, with traits classifying the bones to European early modern humans.[5]

In 2009, DNA was extracted from the remains of a male hunter-gatherer who lived 30,000 years BP and died aged 20–25. His maternal lineage was found to be U2. He was buried in an oval pit in a crouched position and covered with red ochre.[6]

According to John F. Hoffecker (BBC Science in Action, January 12, 2007), sewing needles were found just above the ash layer.

The eruption of the Phlegraean Fields volcano occurred about 39,000 years ago. The explosion of 500 cubic kilometers (120 cu mi) ignimbrite was the largest in the last 200,000 years of European history [7] The ornaments, perforated by hand-operated rotary drill, found at Kostyonki 17 Layer II, predate the volcanic eruption and suggest that the population was "technologically ready" for an incoming volcanic winter. In period around 40-24,000 in Europe was formed latitudinal clinal pattern of modern/Neanderthal traits. Kostyonki sites are located at the "modern" eastward end. The assemlage below volcanic CI tephra layer is associated to nontransitional local Strelec culture and analogous to Upper Paleolithic cultures from central and western Europe where Sheletian culture is most similar. The initial culture development and may be attributed to local Neanderthals.[3]



  1. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  2. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  3. ^ a b Anikovich, M. V. et al. (Jan 2007). "Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans". Science 315 (5809): 223–226.  
  4. ^ pdf
  5. ^ Higham, T. et al. (Jan 2006). "Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (3): 553–557.  
  6. ^ "DNA analysed from early European".  
  7. ^ De Vivo, B.; G. Rolandi et al. (November 2001). "New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy)". Mineralogy and Petrology (Springer Wien) 73 (1-3): 47–65.  


  • "Kostenki-12, a memorial to Upper Paleolithic culture in Eastern Europe". Institute of History of Material Culture,  
  • Anikovich, M. A.; et al. (January 12, 2007). "Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and Implications for the Dispersal of Modern Humans". Science 315 (5809): 223–226.  

Further reading

  • W. Pazynych Could volcanic ash from the Apennines reach the Kostenki site?
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