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Full name Open Researcher and Contributor ID
Number issued > 1,500,000
Introduced 16 October 2012 (2012-10-16)
Managing organisation ORCID, Inc.
Number of digits 16
Check digit MOD 11-2
Website .orgorcid

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors.[1][2][3][4] This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).[5]

The ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services [6][7] and started issuing user identifiers.[8]


  • Development and launch 1
  • Uses 2
  • Members, sponsors and registrants 3
  • Integrations 4
  • National implementations 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Development and launch

ORCID was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative".[9] A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by

  • Official website
  • 2010 paper discussing structure of ORCID identifiers (updated 2012)
  • Interview with ORCID Executive Director, Laurel Haak, on Editage Insights: A vision to transform the research ecosystem

External links

  1. ^ a b c d Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi:10.1038/462825a
  2. ^ ORCID website
  3. ^ News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications.", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi:10.1038/485564a
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  5. ^ CrossRef & ORCID
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  26. ^ ORCID: About us
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  33. ^ ORCID Sponsors
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See also

Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID identifier.[54]

In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the universities,research institutions, and the Ministry of Education.[52] In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all researchers applying for funding to have an ORCID identifier".[53]

National implementations

Some ORCID data may also be retrieved as RDF/XML, RDF Turtle, XML or JSON.[49][50] ORCID uses GitHub as its code repository.[51]

Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example ODIN, for DataCite[47] and Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley.[48]

Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus,[41] Figshare,[42] Thomson Reuters' ResearcherID system,[43] Researchfish.[44] the British Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue),[45] ProQuest (for their ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service),[46]

In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience,[34][35] Springer Publishing,[36] the Hindawi Publishing Corporation,[17] Europe PubMed Central,[37] the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver,[38] WorldHeritage,[39] and Wikidata.[40]

Nick Jennings' ORCID in his Wikidata entry


By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants.[28][29][30] On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration.[31] As of 16 October 2015, the number of registered accounts reported by ORCID was 1,689,260.[32] The organizational members include many publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. Others are research institutions (among them Caltech and Cornell University), commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and a charitable foundation, the Wellcome Trust.[33]

Members, sponsors and registrants

In April 2014, ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review.[27]

It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of WorldHeritage entries and much else besides".[1]

The aim of ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature".[26] Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list."[1] The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID database to build their own services.


In June 2014, ORCID announced that it had appointed Andy Mabbett as its WorldHeritagen in Residence.[25]

[24] An ORCID account for a fictitious person,

standard. ISO/IEC 7064:2003 conforming to the check digit), is a MOD 11-2 [23][17] The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, [17] using the digits 0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens.[19] Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers,

ORCID is a subset of the books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID,[18][19] in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001.[20] It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID[21][22] - effectively, two ISNIs.

[17][16] However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385".[15]

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