World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Indianola Academy

Article Id: WHEBN0014884983
Reproduction Date:

Title: Indianola Academy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: North Sunflower Academy, Segregation academies
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Indianola Academy

The Indianola Academy
Integrity and Achievement
Address
Dorsett Drive
Indianola, Mississippi
United States
Information
Type Private School (Non-Sectarian)
Established 1965
Headmaster Sammy Henderson
Grades pre-kindergarten - 12
Enrollment 500 (approximately)
Color(s) Blue, White, and Black
Mascot The Running Colonel
Affiliation Mississippi Private School Association
Website

The Indianola Academy is a K-12 private school in Indianola, Mississippi. Indianola Academy comprises an elementary school, a middle school, and a college preparatory high school. Indianola Academy is a 501-C3 nonprofit institution. It originated as a segregation academy. As of 2012 most white teenagers in Indianola attend Indianola Academy instead of the public high schools.[1]

History

In the post Brown v. Board of Education era, white Americans in the Indianola area planned to establish a segregation academy.[2] Planning for the school began in 1964 with funding from the White Citizens Council.[3] Classes started in 1965 with four sections in grades 1 and 2, with a total of 70 students. For the 1966-1967 and the 1967-1968 school years, classes were held at the First Baptist Church. In the fall of 1967 the school had nine grades, with a total of 241 students. The school conducted the 1968-1969 school year in a new building. During that year it served grades 1-10 and had 280 students.[4]

In April 1969 the [6]

Most of the white students enrolled at the Indianola Academy for the 1970 Winter semester,[7] which caused the Academy's enrollment to grow "exponentially overnight."[8] Because the school did not yet have a single facility which could hold all of the White students, it opened satellite campuses to hold extra students. One was held at a Baptist church. Funerals held on weekdays sometimes interrupted the study halls at the church campus.[1]

At the beginning of the 1969-1970 school year the school had about 600 students in grades 1-12.[9] The school accepted about 900 students after the end of the first semester, giving the school a total of 1,500 students. In the 1970-1971 school year the elementary classes continued to be held at the area Baptist and Methodist churches, while the students in grades 7-12 moved to the Educational Plant at U.S. Highway 82 East.[4]

In 1989 the Indianola Academy made national news with a plan to make drug testing mandatory for all students and employees of the school.[10] Under the plan adopted by the school a positive result would mean a mandatory retest after 100 days. Further positive results would require notification of parents and exclusion of students from extracurricular activities. Students who refuse to take the test would be dismissed.[11]

Although the United States Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory testing of teachers and administrators in public schools is a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, schools such as the Indianola Academy are exempt from scrutiny because they are privately run.[12] At the time the plan was adopted it was most stringent school drug testing program in the United States.[11] Joyce McCray, executive director of the Council for American Private Education, said of the plan that she had "never heard of anything like it. It's an unusual and unique program. It's also a little bewildering and sad. That doesn't sound like education."[11]

In 1990 the school system in Indianola was still essentially segregated, with most African-American students attending public schools and most white students attending the Indianola Academy.[13]

Administration

The headmaster, high school principal, and elementary principal are Sammy Henderson, Charles D. Mason, and Katherine B. Gibbs, respectively.[14]

Accreditation

Indianola Academy is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Mississippi Private School Association, and the Southern Association of Independent Schools.[15]

Demographics

For the 2009-2010 school year, according to the Private School Universe Survey, the school had 434 white students and 2 black students. Sammy Henderson, the headmaster, said in 2012 that for the 2012-2013 school year the school had 9 black students and that "we also have Hispanic, Indian, and Oriental students."[1] As of 2012, of the approximately 10,000 residents of Indianola, Mississippi, fewer than twenty percent of them were white.[1]

Admissions

According to the student handbook,[1] a prospective student should be among the top 30% of the takers of a student achievement test in order to gain admission to the school.[1][16] A participant of the Sunflower County Freedom Project who had a younger brother who considered applying to the school stated in an article in The Atlantic that, as paraphrased by article author Sarah Carr, "Applicants have to be top students and submit multiple letters of recommendation".[1]

Tuition and scholarships

As of 2012 tuition ranges from $3,795 to $5,080 per year depending on the grade level. This includes money for books and other fees. Sammy Henderson, the headmaster, said that the school has annual budgets for minority scholarship and uses word-of-mouth and newspaper advertisements to spread awareness of these scholarships.[1] He explained that a "minority scholarship committee" reviews applications to get into the school and awards money to prospective students who "meet the qualifications".[1] Sarah Carr of The Atlantic said that Henderson did not specify what the qualifications are.[1] Internal Revenue Service (IRS) records state that in 2012 the school budgeted $6,500 for "minority scholarships". Carr said that IA has, as shown by the IRS forms, "raised a modest amount for scholarships in recent years".[1]

Carr said "Tradition and history partly explain why the scholarships aren't more widely utilized: Black families know their children could be isolated and shunned at the academy, and those with the means and desire to avoid the public schools have long relied on other -- more historically welcoming -- private schools, including a tiny, nearly all-black Christian academy in Indianola."[1] Restoration Ministries Christian Academy is the other private school in Indianola.

Sam Wallis, who was a teacher at Gentry High School in 2012, and Katie Cooney, who was a former Gentry teacher that year, said that, as paraphrased by Carr, "some black students appear to be recruited at least partly because of their athletic abilities".[1] Henderson said that this was not true and that several black students at IA do not play sports.[1]

Academics

Students at the school, unlike students at public schools, are not required to take Mississippi state standardized tests.[1]

Interactions with government agencies

In a two year period ending in 2012, according to officials of the Indianola School District, IA received $56,000 in Title II professional development funds. Sarah Carr of The Atlantic said that Indianola residents told her that "apart from that exchange of money, there's little formal or informal interaction between the academy and the public school system".[1]

Athletics

In the Mississippi Delta typically private academies play other private academies in interscholastic sports. Indianola Academy does not play Gentry High School, the public high school in Indianola.[1]

Throughout most of its history the school held control of an American football field adjacent to the former public junior high school, which now contains the public early childhood center. The academy places its "IA" logo on the buildings of the field and it has a 6-foot (1.8 m) barbed wire fence around the perimeter of the field. It does not share the facility with other agencies. Sarah Carr of The Atlantic said that the fence is "a stark reminder that outsiders should stay away" and that the logos are "like territorial markings."[1] Leaders in the City of Indianola said that the American Legion owns the land. Carr said that the field IA maintains control of the field "for reasons that remain the subject of urban legend in town".[1]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Carr, Sarah. "In Southern Towns, 'Segregation Academies' Are Still Going Strong." The Atlantic. December 13, 2012. Retrieved on March 29, 2013.
  2. ^ a b See: p. 178
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b "Handbook 2010-2011." (Archive) Indianola Academy. 2/65. Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Moye, p. 179.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b c
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "Handbook 2012-2013." (Archive) Indianola Academy. p. 26. Retrieved on March 29, 2013. "The applicant should have achievement test scores which are in the thirtieth percentile or above."

External links

  • Indianola Academy Website - IAOnline

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.