World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Voiceless palatal fricative

Article Id: WHEBN0000524892
Reproduction Date:

Title: Voiceless palatal fricative  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Standard German phonology, List of consonants, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Voiced palatal fricative, Kiowa phonology
Collection: Fricative Consonants
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Voiceless palatal fricative

Voiceless palatal fricative
ç
IPA number 138
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ç
Unicode (hex) U+00E7
X-SAMPA C
Kirshenbaum C
Braille ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
Sound
 ·

The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ç. The symbol ç is the letter c with a cedilla, as used to spell French and Portuguese words such as façade and ação. However, the sound represented by the letter ç in French, Portuguese and English orthography is not a voiceless palatal fricative but /s/, the voiceless alveolar fricative.

Palatal fricatives are relatively rare phonemes, and only 5% of the world's languages have /ç/ as a phoneme.[1] The sound occurs, however, as an allophone of /x/ in German, or, in other languages, of /h/ in the vicinity of front vowels.

There is also a voiceless post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

Features

Features of the voiceless palatal fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azerbaijani[2] Some dialects çörək [tʃœˈɾæç] 'bread' Allophone of /c/
Berber Kabyle til [çtil] 'to measure'
Danish Standard[3] pjaske [ˈpçæsɡ̊ə] 'splash' May be alveolo-palatal [ɕ] instead.[3] Before /j/, aspiration in /pʰ, tˢ, kʰ/ is realized as devoicing and fortition of /j/.[3] Note, however, that the sequence /tˢj/ is normally realized as an affricate [t͡ɕ].[4] See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern echt [ɛx̟t̪] 'real' Post-palatal; not all dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
English British[5][6] hue     'hue' Allophone of /hj/. See English phonology
Scouse[7] like [laɪ̯ç] 'like' Allophone of /k/; ranges from palatal to uvular, depending on the preceding vowel.[7] See English phonology
Finnish vihko [ˈʋiçko̞] 'notebook' Allophone of /h/. See Finnish phonology
German nicht     'not' Allophone of /x/. See German phonology
Greek[8] ψυχή     'soul' Post-palatal.[8] See Modern Greek phonology
Haida xíl [çɪ́l] 'leaf'
Hungarian[9] kapj [ˈkɒpç] 'get' (imperative) Allophone of /j/ between a voiceless obstruent and a word boundary. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic hérna [ˈçɛrtn̥a] 'here' See Icelandic phonology
Irish a Sheáin [ə çaːnʲ] 'John' (voc.) See Irish phonology
Japanese[10] /hito [çi̥to̞] 'person' Allophone of /h/ before /i/ and /j/. See Japanese phonology
Korean /him [çim] 'strength' Allophone of /h/ word-initially before /i/ and /j/. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[11] ich [e̠ç̠] 'I' Post-palatal; allophone of /x/ before and after front vowels.[11]
Norwegian kjekk [çek] 'handsome' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Ghilji dialect[12] پښه [pça] 'foot'
Wardak dialect
Portuguese Some Brazilian speakers risonha [çiˈzõ̞j̃ɐ] 'giggly', 'laughterful' (f.) Allophone of /ʁ/, particularly before [i] or [ɪ] in onset context. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Muntenian dialects[13] fir [çir] 'thread' Allophone of /f/ before /i/.[13] Realized as [f] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[14] eich [eç] 'horses'
Spanish Chilean[15] mujer [muˈçe̞r] 'woman' Allophone of /x/ before front vowels. See Spanish phonology
Uzbek[16] Post-palatal;[16] weakly fricated.[16] Occurs word-initially and pre-consonantally, otherwise it is post-velar.[16]
Walloon texhe [tɛç] 'to knit'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–68)
  2. ^ Damirchizadeh (1972:96)
  3. ^ a b c Basbøll (2005:65–66)
  4. ^ Grønnum (2005:148)
  5. ^ Roach (2009:43)
  6. ^  
  7. ^ a b Watson (2007), p. 353.
  8. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  9. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2007:205)
  10. ^ Okada (1991:95)
  11. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  12. ^ Henderson (1983), p. 595.
  13. ^ a b Pop (1938), p. 30.
  14. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  15. ^ Palatal phenomena in Spanish phonology Page 113
  16. ^ a b c d Sjoberg (1963), pp. 11.

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,  
  •  
  • Damirchizadeh, A (1972), Modern Azerbaijani Language: Phonetics, Orthoepy and Orthography, Maarif Publ 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597,  
  •  
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97,  
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Roach, Peter (2009), English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course 1 (4th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,  
  • Siptár, Péter; Törkenczy, Miklós (2007), The Phonology of Hungarian, The Phonology of the World's Languages, Oxford University Press 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.