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Ukrainian Air Force

 

Ukrainian Air Force

Ukrainian Air Force
Повітряні Сили України
Povitriani Syly Ukrayiny
Ukrainian Air Force emblem
Country Ukraine
Type Air force
Size 40,300 personnel
187 aircraft[1][2]
Headquarters Vinnytsia
Battle honours Ukrainian–Soviet War
Polish–Ukrainian War
War in Donbass[3]
Commanders
Commander[4] Serhiy Drozdov[4]
Insignia
Ensign
Roundel
Fin flash
Aircraft flown
Attack Su-25, Mi-24
Bomber Su-24M
Fighter Su-27, MiG-29
Reconnaissance An-30, Su-24MR
Trainer L-39, Yak-52
Transport An-70, Il-76, An-24, An-26, An-30, Mi-8

The Ukrainian Air Force (Ukrainian: Повітряні Сили України, Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.[5] Ukrainian Air Force headquarters is located in the city of Vinnytsia. When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, a large number of aircraft were left on Ukrainian territory. Ever since, the Ukrainian air force has been downsizing and upgrading its forces. In spite of these efforts, the main inventory of the air force consists of Soviet-made aircraft. Currently 36,300 personnel and 187 aircraft are in service in the Ukrainian air force and air defense forces [6][7] but approximately only eighty aircraft are airworthy.[8] All ICBMs and strategic bombers have been taken out of service (some however were given to Russia).[9]

Since 1991's Ukrainian independence the air force has suffered from chronic underinvestment, leading to the bulk of its inventory becoming mothballed or otherwise becoming inoperable.[10] Despite this Ukraine still possesses the world's 27th largest air forces and the 7th largest air force in Europe, largely due to the ability of its domestic defense industry Ukroboronprom to upkeep its older aircraft.[11] Ukraine possesses the Antonov aircraft manufacturer which designs, manufactures, and services civilian and military aircraft.

The air force currently takes part in the War in Donbass.[3] Following the 5 September 2014 ceasefire Ukraine Air Force has been forbidden from carrying out missions in the contested areas of Donbass.[12]

Contents

  • Mission 1
  • History 2
    • Collapse of the USSR 2.1
    • Chronic underinvestment period 2.2
    • Role in the 2014 Crimean crisis and the War in Donbass 2.3
  • Training 3
  • Air Defense Forces 4
  • Aircraft Inventory 5
    • Weapons Inventory 5.1
  • Former Aircraft 6
  • Structure 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Mission

Ukrainian Air Corps patch

The tasks of the Air Force of Ukraine are: winning operational air superiority, delivering air strikes against enemy units and facilities, covering troops against enemy air strikes, providing air support to the Land Force and the Navy, disrupting enemy military and state management, damaging and destroying enemy communication, and providing support by air in the form of reconnaissance, air drops, troops and cargo transportation.

The major mission of the Air Force is to protect the air space of Ukraine. In peace-time, this is carried out by flying air-space control missions over the entire territory of Ukraine (603,700 square km), and by preventing air space intrusion along the aerial borders (totaling almost 7,000 km, including 5,600 km of land and 1,400 km of sea). Every single day, more than 2,200 service personnel and civilian employees of the Air Force, employing 400 items of weapons and equipment, are summoned to perform defense duties. On average, the Ukrainian radar forces detect and track more than 1,000 targets daily. As a result, in 2006 two illegal crossings of the state border were prevented and 28 violations of Ukrainian air space were prevented. Due to such increased strengthening of air space control, the number of air space violations decreased by 35% compared to the previous year, even though the amount of air traffic increased by 30%.[13]

History

Airplane of the Ukrainian Galician Army

Ukrainian military aviation takes its roots from 1917 when in autumn was created an aviation of Ukrainian Army headed by former commander of the Kiev Military District Lieutenant Colonel Viktor Pavlenko. Previously during the World War I on the Eastern Front, Pavlenko was in charge of air security of the Russian Stavka.

Sometimes in 1918 the aviation school of the Ukrainian Galician Army Command Center which was active until 1920.

Among the airplanes used by the Ukrainian aviation, there were Belgium-built SPAD S.VII. The Ukrainian Galician Army used biplanes Nieuport 17.

Collapse of the USSR

Armed Forces of Ukraine
Main branches
Air Force
Ground Forces
Navy
Other Corps
Naval Infantry
Mechanized Forces
Airmobile Forces
Related Services
Ministry of Defence
General Staff
Ministry of Internal Affairs
National Space Agency
Intelligence
Security Service
Foreign Intelligence Service
Military Intelligence Service
History of the Ukrainian Military
History of Ukraine
History of Ukraine during WWII
History of Ukraine during WWI

The Ukrainian Air Force was established on March 17, 1992, in accordance with a Directive of the General Staff Chief of the Armed Forces. The headquarters of the 24th Air Army of the Soviet Air Force in Vinnytsia served as the basis to create Air Force headquarters. Also present on Ukrainian soil were units of the former Soviet 5th, 14th, and 17th Air Armies, plus five regiments (185th, 251st, 260th, 341st Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiments and 199th Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment) of the 46th Air Army, Long Range Aviation. In addition, the 161st Maritime Fighter Aviation Regiment, at Limanskoye in Odessa Oblast, came under Ukrainian control.[14] It had formerly been part of the 119th Maritime Fighter Aviation Division of the Black Sea Fleet.

The new Air Force inherited the 184th Guards Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment (Полтавсько-Берлінський_полк_дальньої_авіації) (201st Heavy Bomber Aviation Division) of Tupolev Tu-160 'Blackjack' which were based at Pryluky.[15] Discussions with Russia concerning their return bogged down. The main bone of contention was the price. While Russian experts, who examined the aircraft at Pryluky in 1993 and 1996, assessed their technical condition as good, the price of $3 billion demanded by Ukraine was unacceptable. The negotiations led to nowhere and in April 1998, Ukraine decided to commence scrapping the aircraft under the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Agreement. In November, the first Tu-160 was ostentatiously chopped up at Pryluky.[16] In April 1999, immediately after NATO began air attacks against Serbia, Russia resumed talks with Ukraine about the strategic bombers. This time they proposed buying back eight Tu-160s and three Tu-95MS models manufactured in 1991 (those in the best technical condition), as well as 575 Kh-55MS missiles. An agreement was finally reached and a contract valued at $285 million was signed. That figure was to be deducted from Ukraine's debt for natural gas. A group of Russian military experts went to Ukraine on 20 October 1999 to prepare the aircraft for the trip to Engels-2 air base. Between November 1999 and February 2001 the aircraft were transferred to Engels.[16] One Tu-160 remains on display in Poltava.

Ukraine also had Tupolev Tu-22s, Tupolev Tu-22Ms and Tupolev Tu-95s for a period after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The 106th Heavy Bomber Aviation Division, part of the 37th Air Army operated some of them.[17] However, these have all been scrapped, apart from a handful displayed in museums. TU-16 and TU-22M bombers were among the aircraft destroyed under the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty.[18] It is reported that Tu-16s based with the 251st Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment at Belaya Tserkov were dismantled in 1993.[19] By 1995, the IISS Military Balance 1995/96 listed no Tu-22 Blinders in service, though a listing for one division HQ and two regiments of Tu-22M Backfires remained in the Military Balance from 1995/96 to 2000/01.

From January 24, 1992, after the collapse of the USSR, 28th Air Defense Corps, previously subordinate to 2nd Air Defence Army was transferred under the 8th Air Defence Army of Ukraine.[20] Units stationed in Moldova were transferred to the Moldovan Armed Forces (275th Guards Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade, battalions and companies from the 14th Radio-Technical Brigade). There were about 67,000 air defense troops in 1992. The headquarters of the Ukrainian Air Defence Force was formed on the basis of HQ 8th Air Defence Army. There were also three air defence corps: the 28th (Lvov), 49th (Odessa), and 60th (Dnepropetrovsk). Holm reports that all three air defence corps were taken over by Ukraine on 1 February 1992, and that the 28th ADC became the Western AD Region on 1 June 1992. The first issue of the Military Balance after the Soviet collapse, 1992–93, listed one Air Defence army, 270 combat aircraft, and seven regiments of Su-15s (80), MiG-23s (110) and MiG-25s (80).[21] By March 1994 Air Forces Monthly reported three air defence regions: the Southern with the 62nd and 737th Fighter Aviation Regiments, the Western with the 92nd (transferred from 14th Air Army and based at Mukachevo), 179th, and 894th Fighter Aviation Regiments (from 28th AD Corps/2nd Air Defence Army), and the Central with the 146th (Vasilkov), 636th (Kramatorsk, seemingly disbanded 1996 and its Su-15s broken up for scrap),[22][23] and 933rd Fighter Aviation Regiments.[24] The Military Balance 95/96 said that six fighter regiments had been disbanded. (p. 71)

On 18 March 1994 the 5th Air Army was redesignated the 5th Air Corps.[25] By 1996 there were two air corps: the 14th in the Carpathian MD and the 5th in the Odessa MD, which by that time incorporated the former Kiev MD area.[26] The long-range bomber division at Poltava was still operational, reporting directly to Air Force headquarters.[27]

Chronic underinvestment period

Since 1991's Ukrainian independence the air force has suffered from chronic underinvestment, leading to the bulk of its inventory becoming mothballed or otherwise becoming inoperable.[10]

The structural reorganization of the Air Force had set as goals for itself the sufficient reduction in the total number of command and control levels, and increasing the efficiency of command and control processes. The reorganization of command and control elements of the air force is still underway. The first step of this organization was to transition from the existing air commands to the

The Verkhovna Rada, the Defense Industrial Complex of Ukraine, in cooperation with foreign companies and manufacturers, is capable of fully renewing the aircraft arsenal of the Ukrainian armed forces.[28][29]

In 2005, the UAF was planning to restructure in an effort to improve efficiency. Moreover, Ukraine was planning to put more advanced jet aircraft into service in upcoming years. Possibly buying newer SU-27s and MiG-29s from Russia. The plans were that from approximately 2012, Ukraine would have to either take bold steps to create a new combat aircraft or purchase a large number of existing combat aircraft. Due to the lack of funding however, technical modernization was continually postponed. The Ukrainian air-force continued to use armament and military equipment which functioned mainly thanks to so-called ‘cannibalization’ (obtaining spare parts from other units), thus gradually depleting their total capabilities. Faced with the threat of losing military capability, initiating the process of technical modernization became a necessity.[30]

In 2006, a large number of aging weapons and equipment were decommissioned from combat service by the Air Force. This presented an opportunity to use the released funds to the modernization of various items of aviation and anti-aircraft artillery weapons and equipment, radio communication equipment, and flight maintenance equipment, as well as an improvement of Air Force personnel training.

Sukhoi Su-27 in July 2011.

In 2011 International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates that Ukraine's Air Force includes one Sukhoi Su-24M regiment, 5 regiments with Mikoyan MiG-29s and Sukhoi Su-27, one regiment with Sukhoi Su-25,[31] two squadrons with Sukhoi Su-24MR, three transport regiments, some support helicopter squadrons, one helicopter training regiment, and some air training squadrons with L-39 Albatros.[32] They are grouped into the 5th and 14th Aviation Corps, the 35th Aviation Group, which is a multi-role rapid reaction formation, and a training aviation command. The IISS assesses the overall force size as 817 aircraft of all types and 43,100 personnel. Russian sources disagree and list three aviation groups (West, South, and Center).[33]

The automated systems of collection, processing and transmission of radio information have been adopted as a component part of the Automated Command and Control System for aviation and air defense. Operational service testing of the circular surveillance radar station has also been completed. Prototypes of high-precision weapons systems, electronic warfare devices, and navigation equipment have been created and developed for state testing. [34]

Role in the 2014 Crimean crisis and the War in Donbass

Following the March 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea and the following violence and insurgency in east Ukraine, Ukraine tried to increase its defence spending - with returning equipment to service being a key part of the spending drive.[10]

During the 2014 Crimean crisis the air force did not fight but lost several aircraft to Russia; most were returned to Ukraine.[35] The air force is currently taking part in the conflict against the 2014 insurgency in Donbass.[3] During this conflict it has lost several planes and helicopters.

In 2014, the air force announced that it will be bringing back 68 aircraft that have been in reserve since the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the Tupolev Tu-141 reconnaissance drone.[10][36][37]

Since 12 July 2014 the Ukrainian Air Force has been put on full combat alert.[3] Around this date the Air Forces started restoring its former military airfields in Voznesensk, Buyalyk and Chervonohlynske (both in Odessa Oblast).[38] Wall Street Journal published USA embassy in Kiev report that Ukraine lost 19 planes and helicopters in the period 22 April - 22 July 2014.[39]

Ukraine inherited a large inventory of aircraft from the Soviet Union, these were mostly decommissioned and stored as the nation had little use or funding to keep a large fleet active. However, in 2014 Ukraine began a program of restoring the stored aircraft to active order. In April 2014 two Mig-29 aircraft were restored.[40] In August a decommissioned An-26 transport aircraft was also restored to active service by a volunteer group.[41] On 5 January 2015 the air force received another 4 newly restored airplanes, two Mig-29s and two Su-27s, as well as two Mi-8 and Mi-2 helicopters.[42][43]

Ukrainian Tu-141
As a result of the War in Donbass the government of Ukraine has realized the importance of drone surveillance in locating enemy troops and recommissioned 68 Soviet era Tu-141 drones to be repaired. Analysts point out that despite being designed in 1979 the Tu-141 has a powerful camera, it likely uses similar airborne radar and infrared sensor with the Soviet-era Su-24 which would make it prone to jamming by Russian forces as they use the same equipment.[44]

A crowd funding project for a "people's drone" was also conducted. The goal was to collect funds to purchase an already functioning American or Israeli drone. However, Ukrainian designers and engineers were able to build their own model based on the commercially available DJI Phantom 2 drone.[45]

In October 2014 Students of students from Ivano-Frankivsk designed their own drone to be used in the War in Donbass. The newly build drone has the ability to broadcast footage live, unlike the Tu-141 which relies on film that must be recovered. The drone was build from over the shelf components and funded by volunteers. The drone was also stated to have an operational ceiling of 7,000 meters, a range of 25 kilometers, and cost about 4,000 USD to build.[46][47]

Ukroboronprom has received an order for 2.5 million hryvnia ($166,000) to refit several Mil Mi-24 helicopter gunships part of which included fitting them with night vision capabilities. The Mi-24 proved to be highly vulnerable to Russian separatist attacks during the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. Besides captured planes on Crimea airbases the Mi-24 had the highest loss rate of all aircraft in Ukraine's inventory, with 5 being shot down and 4 damaged during the conflict.[48]

Training

Ukrainian MiG-29
Ukrainian Su-25UB

Training activities have taken on a qualitatively new character due to their complexity, including the simultaneous employment of all branches of the Air Force aviation, anti-aircraft artillery and radar troops in close teamwork with units of other armed services of the Armed Forces. Operational and combat training has included the following activities:

  • aviation units have performed more than 6,000 tasks in combat scenarios (including more than 1,500 air battles and interceptions, 629 firing at land-based targets, 530 bombings, 21 launches of air missiles, 454 tasks in aerial surveillance, 454 airborne landings, 740 airlifts, 575 flight shifts for a total of 10,553 flying hours);
  • five tactical flying missions in a squadron, 14 in a pair and 5 in a flight organization have been carried out to perform the assigned combat tasks, and 54 pilots have been trained to perform specific tasks in difficult meteorological conditions;
  • the number of flight crews being trained to defend the air space of the country and counter-terrorism air operations has almost doubled from 46 in 2005 to 90 in 2006; the units of anti-aircraft artillery and radar troops carried out 50 maneuvers involving redeployment, with each operator tracking 70 and 140 real and simulated targets, respectively.

In early September 2007, the Ukrainian Air Force conducted the most large-scale training of its aircraft to date. As the Defense Minister of Ukraine, Anatoliy Hrytsenko stated, "The most large-scale, during the whole 16 years of the Ukrainian independence, training of fighting aircraft, which defends our air space, was carried out during September 4–5". According to him, they fulfilled 45 battle launches of “air-air” missiles, out of them 22 during the day and 23- at night. 35 pilots confirmed their high skills during the training. Hrytsenko stressed that 100% of air targets were hit. [49]

The Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company has developed the KhAZ-30 ultralight trainer for the Ukrainian Airforce. The aircraft is designed for elementary pilot training as an introductory aircraft before recruits move on the more advanced Aero L-39 Albatros trainer.[50]

Air Defense Forces

The Air Defense Force is a relatively new service within the Armed Forces, established in 2004–2005, through the merging of the Air Force and the Air Defense Force. It allowed the Armed Forces of Ukraine to adopt the tri-service structure, common to most modern armies.

The Air Defense of Ukraine performs key tasks in the protection of Ukraine's sovereignty and the inviolability of its borders and air space. It has clearly defined functions in both peacetime and wartime, is intended to prevent any enemy air and missile strikes, to defend the most important administrative, political and industrial centers, to aid in the concentration of Army and Navy units, to intercept enemy aircraft and other military objects, and to protect against enemy air and cruise missile strikes.

Aircraft Inventory

During the 2014 Crimean crisis the Ukrainian Air Force equipment in Crimea was seized by Russia during its annexation of Crimea.[35] On 8 April 2014 an agreement had been reached between Russia and Ukraine "for the withdrawal of an undisclosed number of Ukrainian aircraft seized in Crimea".[35] It should be noted that the numbers below may not reflect actual inventory, due to combat losses during the current conflict in eastern Ukraine.[10] Wall Street Journal on July 22 has published USA embassy report from Kiev that rebels during the period 22 April - 22 July destroyed 19 Ukrainian aircraft and helicopters[39]

According to an October 2015 report by RUAG the Air Force had lost nearly half of its (combat) aircraft (since early 2014).[51] RUAG believed that 222 of the Air Force's 400 aircraft had been lost.[51]

Aircraft Origin Type Versions Numbers[52][53][51] Comments
Trainer Aircraft
Aero L-39 Albatros Czechoslovakia Training L-39/L-39M1 34[54] 3 L-39M1 Ukrainian upgrade (1 in 2011, 2 in June 2012). In 2012 12 additional aircraft were repaired.[55]
Yakovlev Yak-52 USSR Training Yak-52M 20 80 delivered.
Fighter Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-27 USSR Air Superiority Fighter Su-27
Su-27S
Su-27C
Su-27P
Su-27UB
16 (active combat aircraft)[51] 55 delivered.[55][56]
Mikoyan MiG-29 USSR Multirole Aircraft MiG-29
MiG-29S
MiG-29A
MiG-29UB
MiG-29MU1
19 (active combat aircraft)[51] 80 in service in 2013, 45 MiG-29s aircraft were captured by the Russian Armed Forces on Belbek Air Base during the 2014 Crimean crisis,[57] 3 MiG-29S and one MiG-29UB.[58][59][60] 37 MiG-29s were handed back to Ukraine by late May 2014.[61] Five MiG-29MU1 Ukrainian upgrade (1 in 2011). Additional two were renovated in 2012. Initially mothballed, the fleet of MiG-29s was in April 2014 restored to active service as a result of the unrest in Ukraine,[62]
Ground Attack
Sukhoi Su-25 USSR Close air support Su-25
Su-25UB
Su-25K
Su-25UTG
Su-25M1
Su-25UBM1
15 (active combat aircraft)[51] 46 delivered. Four Su-25M1 and one Su-25UBM1 were upgraded in 2010-2011.[63][64]
8 upgraded to Su-25M1: #04 Blue, #05 Blue, #06 Blue, #07 Blue, #08 Blue, #38 Blue, #40 Blue, #41 Blue.
1 upgraded to Su-25UBM1: #62 Blue.
Bomber Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-24 USSR Tactical Bomber Su-24M 11 (active combat aircraft)[51] 120 delivered. 95 are in reserve
Reconnaissance
Sukhoi Su-24 USSR Reconnaissance Su-24MR 11[54] 23 delivered.
Antonov An-30 USSR Reconnaissance An-30B 1[54] 1 was shot down over Slavyansk during the Donbass War
UAV
Tupolev Tu-143 USSR Reconnaissance drone/UAV Tu-143 50, most in storage or decommissioned Several were spotted during the War in Donbass and Russian separatist forces downed a Tu-143 in August 2014 suggesting that the Ukrainian military has brought it back into operational status
Tu-141 USSR Reconnaissance drone/UAV Tu-141 68 In 2014, the air force announced that it will be bringing back 68 aircraft that have been in reserve since the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the Tu-141 reconnaissance drone.
Transport Aircraft
Ilyushin Il-76 USSR Transport Il-76MD 19[65]
Antonov An-70 USSR Transport An-70 2
Antonov An-70 Ukraine Transport An-70 2 To date, Ukraine has received two AN-70 prototypes.
Antonov An-2 USSR
Poland
Transport An-2 2
Antonov An-24 USSR Transport An-24 2 4 are in reserve
Antonov An-26 Ukraine Transport An-26 28 Several upgraded as An-26 "Vita" flying hospitals. 14 modernized AN-26 will be transferred to the Ukrainian Army in the ATO Area.[66]
Helicopters
Mil Mi-8/17 USSR Transport helicopter Mi-17
Mi-8MT
42 (active combat aircraft)[51] Around 100 delivered. By the beginning of the 2014 combat in southeastern Ukraine had 14-16 operational Mi-17.
Mi-8MSB1 Mi-8MSB-B USSR Transport helicopter Mi-8MT 7 Modernized by the Ukrainian Air Force, was due to enter the serial modernization/production in late 2011.[67][68][69]
Mil Mi-24 USSR Attack/Transport helicopter Mi-24P
Mi-24V
Mi-24VP
Mi-24PM
34 (active combat aircraft)[51]
H125 France Light Transport helicopter ? [70]
Mi-2MSB2 Poland
USSR
Light Transport helicopter Mi-2 7[69] Modernized by the Ukrainian Air Force, was due to enter the serial modernization/production in late 2011.[67]

Weapons Inventory

Model Image Origin Type Details
Air-to-air missiles
AR-8L  Ukraine Short Range Missile Produces by Luch Design Bureau.
R-73 (NATO: AA-11)  Soviet Union Short Range Missile
R-27 (NATO: AA-10)  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Medium Range Missile
R-60 (NATO: AA-8)  Soviet Union Short Range Missile
Air-to-surface missiles
Unknown  Ukraine TV-command guided missile Produces by Luch Design Bureau.
Kh-29 (NATO: AS-14)  Soviet Union TV-command guided missile
Kh-25 (NATO: AS-10)  Soviet Union Laser-guided missile
Kh-23 (NATO: AS-7)  Soviet Union Radio-command missile
Unguided Rockets
S-13 rocket  Soviet Union Unguided Rockets
S-8 rocket  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Unguided Rockets
S-5 rocket  Soviet Union Unguided Rockets
Bombs
FAB-500  Soviet Union 500 kg Bomb
FAB-250  Soviet Union 250 kg Bomb
FAB-100  Soviet Union 100 kg Bomb

Former Aircraft

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[71]
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 USSR Fighter MiG-21 Former
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 USSR Fighter MiG-23 Former
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 USSR Interceptor MiG-25 Former
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27 USSR Attack MiG-27 Former
Sukhoi Su-17 USSR Fighter-bomber Su-17 Former
Sukhoi Su-15 USSR Interceptor Su-15 Former
Yakovlev Yak-28 USSR Medium bomber Yak-28 Former
Tupolev Tu-160 USSR Strategic bomber Tu-160 Former
Tupolev Tu-95 USSR Strategic bomber Tu-95 Former
Tupolev Tu-22M3 USSR Strategic bomber Tu-22M3 Former
Tupolev Tu-22 USSR Medium bomber Tu-22 Former
Tupolev Tu-16 USSR Bomber Tu-16 Former
Tupolev Tu-154 USSR VIP transport Tu-154 Former
Tupolev Tu-134 USSR VIP transport Tu-134A-3 Former
Former Ukrainian Tu-22M
A Tu-22M being scrapped as a result of defence cuts in the Ukrainian military

Structure

Ukrainian Air Commands:
   Air Command West
   Air Command Center
   Air Command South

An incomplete structure of the Ukrainian air force.

  • Task Force of Crimea peninsula is under the control of the Russian Armed Forces.[73][74] On April 8, 2014 an agreement had been reached between Russia and Ukraine "for the withdrawal of an undisclosed number of Ukrainian aircraft seized in Crimea".[35]
    • 40th Separate radio team (Liubymivka near Sevastopol)
    • 204th Tactical Aviation Brigade (Belbek, near Sevastopol). Former 62nd Fighter Aviation Regiment PVO.[75] From March 1, 2014 Belbek Air Base and its 45 MiG-29s and 4 L-39s are under the control of the Russian Armed Forces.[76][77]
    • 174th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Derhachi near Sevastopol. S-300)
    • 50th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Feodosiya. S-300, S-200)[78]
    • 55th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Yevpatoriya. Buk-M1)[79]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "White Book 2013"
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d http://www.ukrinform.ua/eng/news/ukrainian_air_force_put_on_full_combat_alert_fighter_aircraft_scrambled_323682
  4. ^ a b Serhiy Drozdov appointed commander of Ukrainian Air Force, Interfax-Ukraine (20 July 2015)
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Air Forces Monthly, December 2007 issue, p. 64.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c d e
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^ FBIS-SOV-95-141, 21 July 1995, via BICC, 'Defence Conversion in Ukraine.'
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ MilBal 1992–93, 87.
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ (air corps existence only).
  27. ^ "Ukraine Air Force Bases 2014"
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, Military Balance 2011
  33. ^ The Military Balance 2014"., February 05, 2014.
  34. ^ Defence Statistics 2014" May 15, 2014
  35. ^ a b c d Russia begins returning Ukraine naval vessels and aircraft, Jane's Defence Weekly (12 April 2014)
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ a b http://www.mycity-military.com/imgs3/143473_74012320_01un%20sdfgdfhh.jpeg
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ukraine's Diminishing Air Force, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (6 October 2015)
  52. ^ World Air Forces 2014 December 10, 2013
  53. ^ "World Air Forces 2013". Flightglobal.com, December 11, 2012.
  54. ^ a b c
  55. ^ a b
  56. ^ http://forums.airforce.ru/attachments/matchast/53291d1396696773-27-.jpg/
  57. ^ - very old and inaccurate informations
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ http://inforesist.org/en/tymchuk-ukrainian-aircraft-seized-in-the-crimea-is-going-to-be-used-for-provocations/
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^ IISS Military Balance 2011, p.156, and IISS 2014, 196.
  66. ^
  67. ^ a b
  68. ^ http://www.mil.gov.ua/index.php?lang=en&part=news&sub=read&id=34118
  69. ^ a b
  70. ^
  71. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  72. ^ http://voiceofrussia.com/news/2014_04_04/Ukraine-puts-mothballed-Mig-29-fighter-jets-back-in-service-9521/
  73. ^ "Operation Crimea 2014" March 18, 2014
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^

References

  • Operation Crimea 2014
  • Air Forces Monthly March 1994
  • The Ukrainian Army - uarmy.iatp.org.ua
  • Analysis of the Ukrainian Security Policy
  • Other images from foxbat.ru
  • Ukraine as a Post-Cold War Military Power
  • Ukrainian Air Force
  • Photos from Ukrainian Air Force museum in Kiev & Poltava

External links

  • Air Force pages on the official site of Ministry of Defence:
    • in English,
    • in Ukrainian
  • Photo gallery of the Ukrainian Air Force and Ukrainian Falcons in flight.
  • Obsolete 1990-s pennants and patches, Linden Hill imports
  • Photos of Ukrainian Air Force (Ukrainian)
  • .
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