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Uganda Martyrs

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Uganda Martyrs

Charles Lwanga
and Companions
Died 1885–1887,Uganda
Martyred by Mwanga II
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
Beatified

1920

by Pope Benedict XV
Canonized

18 October 1964

by Pope Paul VI
Major shrine Basilica Church of the Uganda Martyrs, Namugongo Munyonyo Martyrs Shrine
Feast 3 June
Notable martyrs Charles Lwanga
Kizito
Andrew Kaggwa

The Uganda Martyrs are a group of 23 Anglican and 22 Catholic converts to Christianity in the historical kingdom of Buganda, now part of Uganda, who were executed between November 1885 and January 1887.[1][2]

They were killed on orders of Mwanga II, the Kabaka (King) of Buganda. The deaths took place at a time when there was a three-way religious struggle for political influence at the Buganda royal court.

A few years later, the English Church Missionary Society used the deaths to enlist wider public support for the British acquisition of Uganda for the Empire.[3] The Catholic Church beatified the martyrs of its faith in 1920 and canonized them in 1964.

Contents

  • Context 1
  • Executions in 1885–1886 2
  • Political aftermath 3
  • Catholic Church veneration 4
    • Martyrs of Namugongo 4.1
  • Anglicanism 5
  • In popular culture 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Context

Publication in Britain of an 1875 letter purporting to be an invitation from the king of Buganda, Mutesa I, to send missionaries, resulted in the arrival of missionaries of the Anglican Church Missionary Society to Buganda in 1877. A group of French Catholic White Fathers appeared two years later. This was followed by a Zanzibar-based Arab attempt to introduce Islam.[4] This effectively led to a three-way religious struggle for political influence at the Buganda royal court. By the mid-1880s, many had been converted by each of the three groups, and some of the converts held important posts at the king's court.[5] Mutesa himself sympathized with Islam, but many prominent chiefs had become Christians.[6]

Kabaka Mwanga II succeeded to the throne in 1884. He was concerned at the growing influence of Christianity and the rise of a new class of officials, distinct from the traditional territorial chiefs, who were educated, had a religious orientation, and wished to reform Ganda society.[7] The German annexation of what is now Tanzania sparked further alarm. A year after becoming king he ordered the execution of Yusufu Rugarama, Makko Kakumba, and Nuwa/Noah Serwanga, who had converted to Christianity.[2] Encouraged by his prime minister, on 29 October 1885 he had the incoming Anglican bishop James Hannington assassinated on the eastern border of his kingdom. This is often taken to be the thoughtless action of a 19-year-old king, but, according to Ward, can also be interpreted as justifiable action intended to ward off any invasion.[8] Nevertheless, Mwanga did go on to appoint several Christians to important military positions.[7]

Executions in 1885–1886

In 1886 Mwanga ordered the executions of a number of his pages.Heike Behrend says they were both Christian and Muslim converts; other sources speak only of Anglican and Catholic victims, and mention the killing of Muslims as having occurred ten years earlier at the hands of Mwanga's father Mutesa.[9] Joseph Mukasa, a convert to Christianity who had deplored the assassination of Hannington, and had tried to protect the court pages, was the first to be executed on 15 November 1885:[10] this was at the instigation of the Katikkiro (prime minister) Mukasa, whose successor Joseph Mukasa was tipped to become.[11] Then, between 25 May and 3 June 1886, a wider series of executions were carried out.[2][12] Mwanga instructed the killing of all the young men who disobeyed him - partly to satisfy the demands of the older chiefs. Twenty-two of the men, who had converted to Catholicism, were burned alive at Namugongo in 1886.

"The reasons behind the persecution are still heavily debated", Behrend states.[13] Political factors certainly played a part. Those killed included minor chiefs, some of whom, such as Joseph Mukasa, were "the victims of particular grudges by their seniors ... jealous that these up and coming young men would soon be ousting them from power".[8][11] Ward has argued that the motivation was the perecption that "these Christians were rebels against the Kabaka, unwitting tools of foreign imperialism". Yet he adds: "Historical reality is complex and does not admit of simplistic explanation. The martyrs are part of that complex reality."[8]

A witness of the event, the French missionary priest Lourdel, considered that the principal cause was Mwanga's feeling of being despised by the literate Christians who claimed a superior knowledge of religion. Lourdel gave as a secondary cause of Mwanga's action "the impossibility of satisfying his shameful passions".[14] Later scholars give first place instead to the second of these factors. Ward notes that "the immediate cause of the killings was the refusal of the pages to engage in homosexual practices". The king, who by tradition had the power of life and death over his subjects, was angered by this refusal to obey his wishes.[2] Marie de Kiewet-Hemphill concludes that the immediate pretext, if not the whole cause, was the refusal of the pages to yield to what she calls Mwanga's "unnatural desires."[15] Roland Oliver rejects resentment against Christianity as a sufficient reason, since it does not explain why Mwanga took action against these young men and not against prominent chiefs and women among the converts.[16] Sylvia Antonia Nannyonga-Tamusuza draws attention to the same point.[17] In J.P. Thoonen's book on the question, he agrees with Kiewet-Hemphill's analysis, while recognizing the existence of other political factors.[18] Particularly as some of those that renounced their faith were spared death."[19]

In the week leading to the executions, the Christian Matthias Gayinga rejected the sexual demands of Mwanga's close friend, the Muslim Lutaya, to whom the king had sent him for that purpose. For this he was severely punished, though not killed. His gesture was described as a "splendid refusal" by the English missionary A.P. Ashe, who later said it set the spark to the already laid trail of gunpowder. This action was followed by the refusal of another convert, Anatole Kirrigwajjo, to accept nomination to a high post "which he could only exercise at the peril of his soul".[20]

While many of the Christian pages often arranged to be missing when Mwanga wanted them or gave an outright refusal to his demands, one page Muwafi did comply. Mwanga is said to have caught another page teaching Christianity to Muwafi. He saw this as an attempt "to rob him of his favourite and so far always compliant toy by teaching him the religion which made them prefer death to submission to his shameful demands".[11][17][21][22] Mwanga summoned the pages and asked those who prayed to stand to one side. These, most of whom were between 15 and 30 years old, were then taken on a long journey to execution by being burnt alive. By displaying what courage Christianity demanded, they helped remove any notion that the new religion was inconsistent with traditional ideals of heroism.[11]

The converts, at least the Catholics, had been taught they risked martyrdom.[11] The secular press of the time described them as martyrs.[23][24] The same description appeared also, of course, in religious publications, both Protestant, such as the journal of the missionary Mackay published in the Intellegencer of 1886,[25] and Catholic, such as the accounts of the missionaries Lourdel, Denoit, and Delmas published in Enquête relative au martyre des chrétiens: Ste Marie de Rubaga, Buganda 1888 and Les Missions Catholiques 18 (1886).[11]

Political aftermath

News of Mwanga's actions provoked contradictory reactions in England. Some saw it as a sign of the futility of missionary efforts in Buganda, others as a call to renewed efforts. The Times of 30 October 1886, quoting the dictum, "the blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church", stated: "On the success of the Uganda experiment, with its alternation of favourable and adverse circumstances, depends the happiness of the interior of the vast continent for generations."[23] This sentiment developed into a campaign for English intervention in the region.[26]

In September 1888, Mwanga planned to get rid of the Christian and Muslim leaders by leaving them all to starve on an island in crocodile-infested Lake Victoria.[27] Word of his plan leaked out and a rebellion by Christians and Muslims together brought Mwanga's brother Kiweewa to the throne. In October 1888, the Muslims seized power, expelled the Christian leaders and, when Kiweewa refused to be circumcised, deposed and killed him, replacing him with another brother, Kalema. In December 1888, Mwanga won support from Christians and in April 1889 advanced against the Buganda capital. He was defeated, but the Christian forces, led by the Protestant chief Apolo Kagwe, retook the capital, enabling Mwanga to enter it triumphantly on 11 October 1889. The Muslims took refuge in the neighbouring kingdom of Bunyoro, which helped them to return victoriously in November 1899, but they suffered a decisive defeat in February 1890 and withdrew again to Bunyoro.[28][29]

In 1888, Britain authorized the Imperial British East Africa Company to administer the East African territory assigned to Britain in its 1886 treaty with Germany. In November 1889, Mwanga asked the Company's agent Frederick Jackson for help. Jackson hesitated to accept the request, because he had been given orders not to enter Buganda. Carl Peters, an agent of the corresponding German company, learning of Mwanga's appeal, decided to respond to it. He arrived at Mengo, Mwanga's new capital, a fortnight after the February 1890 defeat of the Muslims. Since these still presented a threat, Mwanga accepted his offer of a treaty. Jackson then arrived and offered a treaty, which Mwanga rejected, since even the English missionaries considered its terms too onerous.[28]

The agreement that Peters made with Mwanga was nullified by the 1 July 1890 treaty between Britain and Germany, which extended inland the line of division between their areas of influence in East Africa, leaving Buganda in the British sphere and moving the centre of interest from the coast to the hinterland.[29] The Imperial British East Africa Company sent Frederick Lugard, its military administrator, to Mengo, where in December 1890 he got Mwanga to accept for a period of two years an agreement with the Company. This agreement was advantageous for Mwanga when the Muslims in Bunyoro made another attempt to recover power. Friction between the Catholic and the Protestant parties led to fighting in January 1892 in Mengo. Lugard supported the Protestants against the stronger Catholic side in the fighting, forcing Mwanga and the Catholics to flee. Lugard managed to persuade Mwanga to return from German territory, where he had taken refuge, to Mengo on 30 March 1892 and to make a new treaty. This treaty assigned separate areas to Protestants (the largest area), Catholics, and (only a small area) Muslims; Mwanga himself nominally became a Protestant.[30]

With the aid of the Church Missionary Society, which used the deaths of their martyrs to win broad public support in Britain for acquiring Uganda, Lugard then successfully dissuaded Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and his cabinet from abandoning Uganda.[3] The powers of the company were transferred to the British Crown on 1 April 1893 and on 27 August 1894 Mwanga accepted Buganda being made a British protectorate. However, on 6 July 1897 he declared war on the British. Defeated on 20 July in Buddu (in today's Masaka District), an area assigned to Catholics in the 1892 treaty, he again fled to German East Africa. He was declared deposed on 9 August. After a failed attempt to recover his kingdom, he was exiled in 1899 to the Seychelles, where he was received into the Anglican Church. He died in 1903, aged 35.[31]

Catholic Church veneration

Following the deaths, the Roman Catholic Church used the episode to make the victims the focus of a "cult of martyrs".[13]

In 1897 Archbishop Henry Streicher founded in Uganda the Uganda Martyrs Guild to participate in evangelization. Some chapters of the Guild became politicized in the 1950s. Under the influence of the Charismatic Movement, it later developed into an important anti-witchcraft movement in Tooro.[13]

The honour paid to the Uganda martyrs elsewhere in Africa serves to Africanize Catholicism, as for instance in Senegal, where a church built in 1890 contains their relics and where there are several churches dedicated to Kisito, the youngest of their number.[13]

[33] Their 3 June feast day is included in the General Roman Calendar.

The Basilica of the Uganda Martyrs at Namugongo was built in 1968. Since the 1980s it has become the venue of massive pilgrimages, and plans for large-scale expansion were announced in 2014.[34]

In 1993, the Uganda Episcopal Conference established a university named after the Uganda Martyrs, which received its civil charter in 2005.[35]

In 2014, Uganda celebrated 50 years since the Uganda Martyrs were canonized and elevated to sainthood by Pope Paul VI on 18 October 1964. The Munyonyo Martyrs Shrine is a thanksgiving monument for their canonization. Official groundbreaking was on 3 May 2015 by the Papal Nuncio to Uganda, Archbishop Michael August Blume, and Cardinal Emmanuel Wamala. Re-development includes construction of a new church shrine, museum, offices, and martyrdom spots of the saints.[36]

Martyrs of Namugongo

The martyrs:[37]

  1. Achilleus Kewanuka
  2. Adolphus Ludigo-Mukasa
  3. Ambrosius Kibuuka
  4. Anatoli Kiriggwajjo
  5. Andrew Kaggwa
  6. Antanansio Bazzekuketta
  7. Bruno Sserunkuuma
  8. Carl Lwanga
  9. Denis Ssebuggwawo Wasswa
  10. Gonzaga Gonza
  11. Gyavira Musoke
  12. James Buuzaabalyaawo
  13. John Maria Muzeeyi
  14. Joseph Mukasa
  15. Kizito
  16. Lukka Baanabakintu
  17. Matiya Mulumba
  18. Mbaga Tuzinde
  19. Mugagga Lubowa
  20. Mukasa Kiriwawanvu
  21. Nowa Mawaggali
  22. Ponsiano Ngondwe

The two martyrs of Paimol:

Daudi Okelo and Jildo Irwa
Born c.1900 (Daudi); 1906 (Jildo)
Died 18 October 1918,Paimol, Uganda
Means of martyrdom pierced with spears
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Beatified

20 October 2002

by Pope John Paul II
Feast October 18

There were also two Ugandan martyrs of a later period, who died at Paimol in 1918 and were beatified in 2002.[38] These have not yet been canonized.

The martyrs, Daudi Okelo and Jildo Irwa, were two young catechists from Uganda. They belonged to the Acholi tribe, a subdivision of the large Luo group. They lived and were martyred in the years immediately following the founding of the mission of Kitgum by the Comboni Missionaries in 1915.[39]

Anglicanism

When commemorating the martyrs of Uganda, the Church of England includes Archbishop Janani Luwum, who was murdered in 1977 by Idi Amin's henchmen; they also commemorate Luwum separately on 17 February.

In popular culture

The Ugandan Martyrs were featured in one episode of the film Millions.[40] In the DVD of the film it is mentioned that one of the actors who played the martyrs claimed to be a descendant of one of the real martyrs.[41]

References

  1. ^ "Martyrs of Uganda". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2014. Retrieved 3 Jun 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "The Christian Martyrs of Uganda". The Buganda Home Page. 
  3. ^ a b Apter, David (1961). The Political Kingdom in Uganda: A Study of Bureaucratic Nationalism. Princeton University. p. 77.  
  4. ^ Leggett, Ian (2001). Uganda. Oxfam. p. 13.  
  5. ^ "Long-Distance Trade and Foreign Contact". Uganda. Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1990. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  6. ^ Mark R. Lipschutz, R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography (University of California Press 1989 ISBN 978-0-52006611-3), p. 164
  7. ^ a b Mark R. Lipshutz, R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography, University of California, 1986, p. 165
  8. ^ a b c Dictionary of African Christian BiographyKevin Ward, "A History of Christianity in Uganda" in
  9. ^ "The untold story of the Uganda Muslim martyrs"
  10. ^ The Word among Us" (August 2008)Bob French, "The Uganda Martyrs: Their Countercultural Witness Still Speaks Today" in
  11. ^ a b c d e f (Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-52183785-9), pp. 172–173Honour in African HistoryJohn Iliffe,
  12. ^ Dictionary of African Christian Biography: Charles Lwanga
  13. ^ a b c d Heike Behrend, Resurrecting Cannibals: The Catholic Church, With Hunts, and the production of pagans in Western Uganda, Rochester, 2011
  14. ^ Quoted in Hoad (2007), p. 3
  15. ^ Quoted in (University of Minnesota Press 2007 ISBN 978-0-81664916-7), p. 4African IntimaciesNeville Wallace Hoad,
  16. ^ Cited in Hoad (2007), pp. 3–4]
  17. ^ a b (Routledge 2014 ISBN 978-1-13545652-8), pp. 212–213BsaakisimbaSylvia Antonia Nannyonga-Tamusuza,
  18. ^ Cited in Hoad (2007), p. 4
  19. ^ Hoad (2007, p4)
  20. ^ Hoad (2007), p. 4
  21. ^ (Paulines Publications Africa 2007 ISBN 978-9-96621629-8), pp. 137–138African HolocaustJohn F. Faupel,
  22. ^ Charles Lwanga Mubiru, The Uganda Martyrs and the Need for Appropriate Role Models in Adolescents' Moral Formation (Lit Verlag Münster 2012 ISBN 978-36-4390142-2), p. 107
  23. ^ a b (East African Publishers, 2006 ISBN 978-99-6625357-6), p. 86A History of AfricaAssa Okoth,
  24. ^ (ISPCK ISBN 978-81-7214336-7), p. 40Great Christians Commemorated by the Indian ChurchR.W. Bryan,
  25. ^ (Paulines Publications Africa, 2007, ISBN 978-99-6621629-8), p. 118African HolocaustJohn F. Faupel,
  26. ^ (Ituri Publications 1999 ISBN 978-0-95364300-4)Eating UgandaCedric Pulford,
  27. ^ (University of California Press 1971 ISBN 978-0-52001640-8), p. 31Buganda in Modern HistoryDonald Anthony Low,
  28. ^ a b (Cambridge University Press, 1957), pp. 131–133 (Questia – requires subscription)An Introduction to the History of East AfricaZoë Marsh, G. W. Kingsnorth,
  29. ^ a b (Longmans, Green. London, 1963), pp. 145–146 (Questia – requires subscription)A History of East AfricaKenneth Ingham,
  30. ^ (Allen & Unwin. London, 1958), pp. 43–49 (Questia – requires subscription)The Making of Modern UgandaKenneth Ingham,
  31. ^ Buyers, Christopher (2001). "The History and Life of Kabaka Mwanga II". 
  32. ^ "Saint Charles Lwanga and Companions, Martyrs of Uganda". Catholic News Agency. 
  33. ^ "Pope Paul VI's homily at the canonization of the martyrs of Uganda" (in Latin). 18 October 1964. 
  34. ^ , 23 October 2014)Daily Monitor"Government to launch Namugongo Martyrs Shrines fundraising campaign today" (
  35. ^ Uganda Martyrs University
  36. ^ http://www.ntv.co.ug/news/local/03/may/2015/papal-nuncio-launches-construction-munyonyo-martyrs-shrine-5886 NTV Construction of Munyonyo Shrine
  37. ^ "Martyrs of Uganda". Saints.SPQN.com. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  38. ^ ZENIT News Agency, "Ugandan Martyrs to Be beatified This Sunday"
  39. ^ "Daudi Okelo (1902 ca.-1918) and Jildo Irwa (1906 ca.-1918)". the Holy See. 
  40. ^ (McFarland 2011 ISBN 978-0-78648724-0), p. 23Roman Catholicism in Fantastic Film: Essays on Belief, Spectacle, Ritual and ImageryRegina Hansen (editor),
  41. ^ IMDb, "Millions (2004): Trivia"

External links

  • The Christian Martyrs of Uganda
  • Biographical sketches of memorable Christians of the past
  • Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  • Uganda Martyrs' Shrine, Namugongo
  • Uganda Martyrs' Shrine, Munyonyo
  • magazineThe Word Among UsThe Uganda Martyrs from the August 2008 issue of
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