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USS California (BB-44)

USS California at sea, mid-1930s
History
United States
Name: USS California
Namesake: State of California
Ordered: 28 December 1915
Builder: Mare Island Naval Shipyard
Laid down: 25 October 1916
Launched: 20 November 1919
Sponsored by: Barbara Stephens Zane
Commissioned: 10 August 1921
Decommissioned: 14 February 1947
Struck: 1 March 1959
Nickname(s): "The Prune Barge"
Honors and
awards:
7 Battle Stars
Fate: Sold for scrap, 10 July 1959
General characteristics [1]
Class & type: Tennessee-class battleship
Displacement: 32,300 tons (40,950 after refit)
Length: 624.5 ft (190.3 m)
Beam:
  • 97.3 ft (29.7 m) (original)
  • 114 ft (35 m) (rebuilt)
Draft: 30.3 ft (9.2 m)
Speed: 21 kn (24 mph; 39 km/h)
Complement: 57 officers, 1,026 men
Sensors and
processing systems:
CXAM radar from 1940[2]
Armament:
Armor:
  • Belt: 8–13.5 in (203–343 mm)
  • Barbettes: 13 in (330 mm)
  • Turret face: 18 in (457 mm)
  • Turret sides: 9–10 in (229–254 mm)
  • Turret top: 5 in (127 mm)
  • Turret rear 9 in (229 mm)
  • Conning tower: 11.5 in (292 mm)
  • Decks: 3.5 in (89 mm)

USS California (BB-44), one of two Tennessee-class battleships completed shortly after World War I, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 31st state.[3] She was the last American battleship built on the West Coast, and the only one to be a dreadnought type.[4] She served in the Pacific her entire career, and for twenty years was the flagship of the Pacific Fleet. She was sunk in the attack on Pearl Harbor at her moorings in Battleship Row, but was salvaged and reconstructed. She served again for the remainder of World War II before being decommissioned in 1947. She was sold for scrap in 1959.

Contents

  • Construction and early service years 1
  • World War II 2
  • Awards 3
  • In fiction 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

Construction and early service years

Her keel was laid down on 25 October 1916 by the Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California. She was launched 20 November 1919 sponsored by Mrs. R.T. (Barbara Stephens) Zane, daughter of California governor William D. Stephens; and commissioned on 10 August 1921, Captain Henry Joseph Ziegemeier, USN, in command.[5] She immediately reported to the Pacific Fleet as flagship.

For 20 years, from 1921 to 1941, California served first as flagship of the Pacific Fleet, then as flagship of the

At high speed, 1921

In the summer of 1925, California led the Battle Fleet and a division of cruisers from the Scouting Fleet on a good-will cruise to Australia and New Zealand. She took part in the Presidential reviews of 1927, 1930, and 1934. She was modernized in late 1929 and early 1930 and equipped with an improved anti-aircraft battery of eight 5 in (130 mm)/25 cal guns replacing the earlier 3 in (76 mm) guns.[6] Also, the elevation of the ship's 14-inch guns was increased for improved range.[7]

In the mid-to-late-1930s, California and the 14 battleships of the United States Fleet were stationed in San Pedro, California. During that time, they participated in numerous fleet exercises taking them up and down the West Coast, to Hawaii, and in 1939 through the Panama Canal, to Cuba, to New York City for the 1939 World's Fair.

Firing a broadside

California was also active in sports competitions. Along with other Pacific Fleet battleships, her crew competed for the Navy Department General Excellency Trophy for Capital Ships of the Pacific Fleet – which because of its design quickly became known as the "Iron Man Trophy". Since 1919, the capital ships competed for this coveted award, which was awarded by COMSERVPAC on a system of points figured on the basis of participation and standings of athletic teams of ships of the Fleet. California was first awarded the "Iron Man" in 1924 and held it for three years.[8] In 1939, California won the "Iron Man" for the last time with a total score of .733 to beat out New Mexico. During those years the competition for the "Iron Man" was fierce among the capital ships of the Pacific Fleet, until most of them were reassigned to Hawaii in May 1940 after Fleet Problem XXI due to the growing concerns with relations with Japan. Competition for the trophy was suspended during the war, and was not revived until 1948, after California was out of commission.

California was one of six ships to receive the new RCA CXAM radar in 1940.[2]

World War II

California after rebuilding
California's aft triple 14-inch (356 mm) 50-caliber gun turrets in August 1945.

On 7 December 1941, California was moored at the southernmost berth of  (DE-156)ReevesUSS  and USS Scott (DE-214) were named in their honor.

On 25 March 1942, California was refloated and dry-docked at Pearl Harbor for repairs. On 7 June, she departed under her own power for Puget Sound Navy Yard where a major reconstruction job was accomplished, including improved protection, watertight compartmenting, stability, antiaircraft battery, and fire control system. Her original twin funnels were combined into a single funnel faired into the superstructure tower as with the newer South Dakota class. The original 5 in (130 mm)/51 cal guns of the secondary battery and the 5 in (130 mm)/25 cal guns of the anti-aircraft battery were replaced by 16 5 in (130 mm)/38 cal guns in new twin mountings.[6] Her appearance was nearly identical to that of Tennessee and West Virginia, which were rebuilt after the Pearl Harbor attack to resemble South Dakota-class battleships. Like her sisters, she was a virtually new ship built on the bones of the old.[12]

As part of the two ocean navy policy, U.S. battleships had been designed within a beam constraint of 108 feet (33 m) in order to transit the Panama Canal; after their similar rebuilds, Tennessee, California and West Virginia were widened to 114 feet (35 m) feet, in effect limiting deployment to the Pacific theater.

Under the command of Captain Henry Poynter Burnett, USN, California departed Bremerton, Washington on 31 January 1944 for shakedown at San Pedro, California, and sailed from San Francisco, California, on 5 May for the invasion of the Marianas. Off Saipan in June, she conducted effective shore bombardment and call fire missions. On 14 June, she was hit by a shell from an enemy shore battery which killed one man and wounded nine. Following Saipan, her heavy guns helped blast the way for the assault force in the Guam and Tinian operations from 18 July to 9 August. On 24 August she arrived at Espiritu Santo for repairs to her port bow damaged in a collision with her sister ship Tennessee (which was also present during the Pearl Harbor attack).

On 17 September, California sailed to Manus to ready for the invasion of the Philippines. From 17 October to 20 November, she played a key role in the Leyte operation, including the destruction of the Japanese fleet in the Battle of Surigao Strait on 25 October. In November there was a change of command with Captain Samuel B. Brewer, USN, relieving Captain Burnett. On 1 January 1945, she departed the Palaus for the Luzon landings. Her powerful batteries were an important factor in the success of these dangerous operations driven home into the heart of enemy-held territory under heavy air attack. On 6 January, while providing shore bombardment at Lingayen Gulf, she was hit by a kamikaze; 44 of her crew were killed and 155 were wounded. Undeterred she made temporary repairs on the spot and remained carrying out her critical mission of shore bombardment until the job was done. She departed on 23 January for Puget Sound Navy Yard, arriving on 15 February for permanent repairs.

A bell from California on display at the California State Capitol Museum.

California returned to action at Okinawa on 15 June, and remained in that embattled area until 21 July. Two days later, she joined Task Force 95 (TF 95) to cover the East China Sea mine-sweeping operations. After a short voyage to San Pedro Bay (Philippines) in August, the ship departed Okinawa on 20 September to cover the landing of the Sixth Army occupation force at Wakanoura Wan, Honshū. She remained supporting the occupation until 15 October, then sailed via Singapore, Colombo, Ceylon, and Cape Town, South Africa, to Philadelphia, arriving on 7 December. She was placed in commission in reserve there on 7 August 1946, out of commission in reserve on 14 February 1947, stricken on 1 March 1959, and sold for scrapping on 10 July 1959 to Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Sparrows Point, Maryland.

Awards

Bronze star
Silver star
Bronze star
Bronze star
American Defense Service Medal with "Fleet" Clasp | American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with 7 stars
World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Service Medal
with "Asia" Clasp

In fiction

California plays a role in Herman Wouk's 1971 novel The Winds of War (1971) and its 1978 sequel War and Remembrance. In them a fictional naval officer, Victor Henry, is designated as her commanding officer, but he arrives at Pearl Harbor only a few hours after the ship was sunk in Japan's attack and is reassigned. In the video game Medal of Honor: Rising Sun the ship is seen in the first level as the main character tries to escape the ship and fight off enemy aircraft in Pearl Harbor.[13]

Notes

  1. ^ Gardiner & Gray 1984, pp. 117–118.
  2. ^ a b Macintyre 1967.
  3. ^ "USS California (BB-44), 1921–1959". history.navy.mil. Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  4. ^ Newhart 1995, p. 64.
  5. ^ Cerkel 1922, pp. 663–665.
  6. ^ a b Breyer 1973, p. 226.
  7. ^ "The Big Ones Raised For Long Range Firing" Popular Mechanics, June 1930
  8. ^ Lewis 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d Wallin 1968, p. 223.
  10. ^ Wallin 1968, p. 225.
  11. ^ Wallin 1968, pp. 225–226.
  12. ^ "Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941 – Salvage and Repair of USS California, December 1941 – October 1942". history.navy.mil. Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  13. ^ Alan, Scott (3 October 2010). "Medal of Honor – Overview". allgame.com. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 

References

  • Breyer, Siegfried (1973). Battleships and Battle Cruisers 1905–1970. Doubleday and Company.  
  • Cerkel, Ivy Perkins (July 1922). "Presentation of Stand of Colors to USS California by the California Daughters of the American Revolution". Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine 56. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921.  
  • Lewis, Jim (2010). "Sports in the Navy: 1775 to 1963". history.navy.mil. Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  • Macintyre, Donald, CAPT RN (September 1967). "Shipborne Radar". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 
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Further reading

  • Madsen, Daniel (2003). Resurrection: Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor. U.S. Naval Institute Press. 
  • Mason, Theodore C. Battleship Sailor, an account of an enlisted man's life aboard California before and during World War II.

External links

  • US Navy Historical Center USS California gallery
  • Maritimequest USS California BB-44 photo gallery
  • NavSource Online: Battleship Photo Archive BB-44 USS CALIFORNIA 1916–1919
  • USS California BB-44 Pearl Harbor Damage Report
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