World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Soweto

Article Id: WHEBN0000028573
Reproduction Date:

Title: Soweto  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Johannesburg, University of Johannesburg, Reneilwe Letsholonyane, 2012 MTN 8 Final, 2012 MTN 8
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Soweto

Soweto
RDP Housing in Soweto
RDP Housing in Soweto
Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station
Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station
Soweto is located in South Africa
Soweto
Soweto
 Soweto shown within South Africa
Coordinates:
Country South Africa
Province Gauteng
Municipality City of Johannesburg
Established +00000001963-01-01T00:00:00Z
Area[1]
 • Total 200.03 km2 (77.23 sq mi)
Elevation 1,600 m (5,200 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 1,271,628
 • Density 6,400/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)[1]
 • Black African 98.5%
 • Coloured 1.0%
 • Indian/Asian 0.1%
 • White 0.1%
 • Other 0.2%
First languages (2011)[1]
 • Zulu 37.1%
 • Sotho 15.5%
 • Tswana 12.9%
 • Tsonga 8.9%
 • Other 25.7%
Postal code (street) 4309
Website http://www.soweto.gov.za/

Soweto (, , or ) is an urban area of the city of Johannesburg in Gauteng, South Africa, bordering the city's mining belt in the south. Its name is an English syllabic abbreviation for South Western Townships.[2] Formerly a separate municipality, it is now incorporated in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Suburbs of Johannesburg.

History

The history of South African townships south west of Johannesburg that would later form Soweto was propelled by the increasing eviction of black South Africans by city and state authorities. Black South Africans had been drawn to work on the gold mines that were established after 1886. From the start they were accommodated in separate areas on the outskirts of Johannesburg, such as Brickfields (Newtown). In 1904 British-controlled city authorities removed black South African and Indian residents of Brickfields to an "evacuation camp" at Klipspruit municipal sewage farm (not Kliptown, a separate township) outside the Johannesburg municipal boundary, following a reported outbreak of plague.[3] Two further townships were laid out to the east and the west of Johannesburg in 1918. Townships to the south west of Johannesburg followed, starting with Pimville in 1934 (a renamed part of Klipspruit) and Orlando in 1935.[4]

World War I

Industrialization during [5][6] Partly as a result of Mpanza's actions, the city council was forced to set up emergency camps in Orlando and Moroka, and later in Central Western Jabavu.

Chris Hani-Baragwanath Hospital

The Imperial Military Hospital Baragwanath, named after Cornishman John Albert Baragwanath Hospital (as it became known after 1948), reputedly the world's third largest hospital.[8] In 1997 another name change followed, with the sprawling facility now known as Chris Hani-Baragwanath Hospital in honour of the South African Communist Party leader who was assassinated in 1993 by white extremists.[9]

Government policy from 1948

After the Afrikaner-dominated National Party gained power in 1948 and began to implement apartheid, the pace of forced removals and the creation of townships outside legally designated white areas increased. The Johannesburg council established new townships to the southwest for black Africans evicted from the city's freehold areas of Martindale, Sophiatown, and Alexandra. Some townships were basic site and service plots (Tladi, Zondi, Dhlamini, Chiawelo, Senaoane, 1954), while at Dube middle-class residents built their own houses. The first hostel to accommodate migrant workers evicted from the inner city in 1955 was built at Dube. The following year houses were built in the newly proclaimed townships of Meadowlands and Diepkloof.[10]

In 1956 townships were laid out for particular ethnic groups as part of the state's strategy to sift black Africans into groupings that would later form the building blocks of the so-called "independent homelands". Spurred by a donation of $6 million to the state by Sir Ernest Oppenheimer in 1956 for housing in the area, Naledi, Mapetla, Tladi, Moletsane and Phiri were created to house Sotho- and Tswana-speakers. Zulu- and Xhosa-speakers were accommodated in Dhlamini, Senaoane, Zola, Zondi, Jabulani, Emdeni and White City. Tshiawelo was established for Tsonga- and Venda-speaking residents.[10]

In 1963, the name Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnships) was officially adopted for the sprawling township that now occupied what had been the farms of Doornkop, Klipriviersoog, Diepkloof, Klipspruit and Vogelstruisfontein.

Soweto housing (about 2009)

Soweto Uprising

Soweto came to the world's attention on 16 June 1976 with the Soweto Uprising, when mass protests erupted over the government's policy to enforce education in Afrikaans rather than English. Police opened fire in Orlando West on 10,000[11] students marching from Naledi High School to Orlando Stadium. The rioting continued and 23 people died on the first day in Soweto, 21 of whom were black, including the minor Hector Pieterson, as well as two white people, including Melville Edelstein, a lifelong humanitarian.

The impact of the Soweto protests reverberated through the country and across the world. In their aftermath, economic and cultural sanctions were introduced from abroad. Political activists left the country to train for guerrilla resistance. Soweto and other townships became the stage for violent state repression. Since 1991 this date and the schoolchildren have been commemorated by the International Day of the African Child.

Aftermath

Diepmeadow Town Council, Greater Soweto.

In response, the apartheid state started providing electricity to more Soweto homes, yet phased out financial support for building additional housing.[3]

Soweto became an independent municipality with elected black councilors in 1983, in line with the Black Local Authorities Act.[12] Previously the townships were governed by the Johannesburg council, but from the 1970s the state took control.[3]

Soweto's black African councilors were not provided by the apartheid state with the finances to address housing and infrastructural problems. Township residents opposed the black councilors as puppet collaborators who personally benefited financially from an oppressive regime. Resistance was spurred by the exclusion of blacks from the newly formed tricameral Parliament (which did include Whites, Asians and Coloreds). Municipal elections in black, coloured, and Indian areas were subsequently widely boycotted, returning extremely low voting figures for years. Popular resistance to state structures dates back to the Advisory Boards (1950) that co-opted black residents to advise whites who managed the townships.

Further popular resistance: incorporation into the City

In Soweto, popular resistance to apartheid emerged in various forms during the 1980s. Educational and economic boycotts were initiated, and student bodies were organized. Street committees were formed, and civic organizations were established as alternatives to state-imposed structures. One of the most well-known "civics" was Soweto's Committee of Ten, started in 1978 in the offices of The Bantu World newspaper. Such actions were strengthened by the call issued by African National Congress's 1985 Kabwe congress in Zambia to make South Africa ungovernable. As the state forbade public gatherings, church buildings like Regina Mundi were sometimes used for political gatherings.

In 1995, Soweto became part of the Southern Metropolitan Transitional Local Council, and in 2002 was incorporated into the City of Johannesburg. A series of bomb explosions rocked Soweto in October 2002. The explosions, believed to be the work of the Boeremag, a right wing extremist group, damaged buildings and railway lines, and killed one person.

Demographics

As Soweto was counted as part of Johannesburg in South Africa's 2008 census, recent demographic statistics are not readily available. It has been estimated that 40% of Johannesburg's residents live in Soweto. However, the 2008 Census put its population at 1,3 million [13] (2010) or about one-third of the city's total population.

Soweto's population is predominantly black. All eleven of the country's official languages are spoken, and the main linguistic groups (in descending order of size) are Zulu, Sotho, Tswana, Venda, and Tsonga.

Key statistics (2011)[14]

  • Area: 200.03 square kilometres (77.23 sq mi)
  • Population: 1,271,628: 6,357.29 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,465.3/sq mi)
  • Households: 355,331: 1,776.42 per square kilometre (4,600.9/sq mi)
Gender Population %
Female 640,588 50.38
Male 631,040 49.62
Race Population %
Black 1,253,037 98.54
White 1,421 0.11
Coloured 13,079 1.03
Asian 1,418 0.11
Other 2,674 0.21
First language Population %
IsiZulu 350,940 40.87
IsiXhosa 88,474 10.3
Afrikaans 5,639 0.66
Sepedi 41,179 4.8
Setswana 106,419 12.39
English 3,047 0.35
Sesotho 157,263 18.32
Xitsonga 62,157 7.24
SiSwati 8,696 1.01
Tshivenda 29,498 3.44
IsiNdebele 2,801 0.33
Other 2,531 0.29

Key statistics (2001)[15]

Soweto
  • Area: 106.44 square kilometres (41.10 sq mi)
  • Population: 858,644: 8,066.81 inhabitants per square kilometre (20,892.9/sq mi)
  • Households: 237,567: 2,231.9 per square kilometre (5,781/sq mi)
Gender Population %
Female 437,268 50.93
Male 421,376 49.07
Race Population %
Black 852,649 99.3
White 325 0.04
Coloured 5,472 0.64
Asian 198 0.02
First language Population %
IsiZulu 469,873 37.07
IsiXhosa 109,977 8.68
Afrikaans 16,567 1.31
Sepedi 65,215 5.14
Setswana 163,083 12.87
English 29,602 2.34
Sesotho 196,816 15.53
Xitsonga 112,346 8.86
SiSwati 9,292 0.73
Tshivenda 29,498 3.44
IsiNdebele 56,737 4.48
Other 14,334 1.13

Historic Population

Cityscape

Orlando Power Station Cooling Towers

Landmarks

Soweto landmarks include:

Climate

[16]

Climate data for Soweto
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.5)
22.1
(71.8)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.4
(74.1)
25
(77)
25.3
(77.5)
26.1
(79)
22.74
(72.93)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
19.8
(67.6)
18.5
(65.3)
15.5
(59.9)
12.1
(53.8)
9
(48)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.7
(60.3)
18
(64)
19
(66)
19.9
(67.8)
15.77
(60.32)
Average low °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
13.9
(57)
12.3
(54.1)
8.9
(48)
4.6
(40.3)
1.2
(34.2)
1.2
(34.2)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
12.7
(54.9)
13.7
(56.7)
8.83
(47.86)
Precipitation mm (inches) 136
(5.35)
101
(3.98)
84
(3.31)
63
(2.48)
20
(0.79)
8
(0.31)
7
(0.28)
7
(0.28)
24
(0.94)
73
(2.87)
112
(4.41)
115
(4.53)
750
(29.53)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1667m[16]

Transport

The N1 next to Soweto
The Soweto Highway with dedicated taxiways

The suburb was not historically allowed to create employment centres within the area, so almost all of its residents are commuters to other parts of the city.

Rail

Metrorail operates commuter trains between Soweto and central Johannesburg. Soweto train stations are at Naledi, Merafe, Inhlazane, Ikwezi, Dube, Phefeni, Phomolong, Mzimhlophe, Mlamlankunzi, Orlando, Nancefield, Kliptown, Tshiawelo and Midway.[17]

Road

The N1 Western Bypass skirts the eastern boundary of Soweto. There is efficient road access for many parts of the region along busy highways to the CBD and Roodepoort, but commuters are largely reliant on trains and taxis.

The N12 forms the southern border of Soweto.

A new section of the N17 road (South Africa) is under construction that will provide Soweto with a 4 lane highway link to Nasrec.[18]

The M70, also known as the Soweto Highway, links Soweto with central Johannesburg via Nasrec and Booysens. This road is multi lane, has dedicated taxiways and passes next to Soccer City in Nasrec.

A major thoroughfare through Soweto is the Golden Highway. It provides access to both the N1 as well as the M1 highways.

Minibus taxis are a popular form of transport. In 2000 it was estimated that around 2000 minibus taxis operated from the Baragwanath taxi rank alone.[19]

A Bus rapid transit system, Rea Vaya, provides transport for around 16 000 commuters daily.[20]

PUTCO has for many years provided bus commuter services to Soweto residents.

Housing

The area is mostly composed of old "matchbox" houses, or four-room houses built by the government, that were built to provide cheap accommodation for black workers during apartheid. However, there are a few smaller areas where prosperous Sowetans have built houses that are similar in stature to those in more affluent suburbs. Many people who still live in matchbox houses have improved and expanded their homes, and the City Council has enabled the planting of more trees and the improving of parks and green spaces in the area.

Hostels are another prominent physical feature of Soweto.[21] Originally built to house male migrant workers, many have been improved as dwellings for couples and families.

In 1996, the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality awarded tenders to Conrad Penny and his company Penny Brothers Brokers & Valuers (Pty) Ltd. for the valuation of the whole of Soweto (which at the time consisted of over 325 000 properties) for rating and taxing purpose. This was the single largest valuation ever undertaken in Africa.[22]

Society and culture

Media

Being part of the urban agglomerations of Gauteng, Soweto shares much of the same media as the rest of Gauteng. There are however some media sources dedicated to Soweto itself:

Museums, monuments and memorials

The Soweto Marimba Youth League during a public performance

Music

Soweto is credited as one of the founding places for Kwaito and Kasi Rap, which is a style of hip-hop specific to South Africa.[25][26] This form of music, which combined many elements of house music, American hip-hop, and traditional African music, became a strong force amongst black South Africans. The spread of Soweto in popular culture worked both ways, as American hip-hop artists Hieroglyphics rap about the terrible conditions and changing social order in their song "Soweto," saying that cowardice has ruled this area, but how now the "gems," or black youth, need to express themselves.[27] This appears to be Hieroglyphics attempt to urge a critical, political version of hip-hop in South Africa.

  • Azola Gospel Group staying opposite Maponya Mall

Sport

Football (soccer)

Soweto is home to two soccer teams that play for the top South African football league: the Kaizer Chiefs and the Moroka Swallows. Another club, the Orlando Pirates, originated from Soweto but moved to Parktown. Both the Chiefs and the Pirates feud in the rivalry known as the Soweto derby.

Events

Festivals

The Soweto Wine Festival 2009
The Soweto Wine Festival was started in 2004. The three-night festival is hosted at the FNB Stadium, South Africa's largest stadium; home ground of both the national team and the Kaizer Chiefs
  • Eldorado Park Stadium
  • Dobsonville Stadium, home ground of Moroka Swallows
  • Jabavu Stadium
  • Noordgesig Stadium
  • Orlando Stadium, home ground of Orlando Pirates
  • Meadowlands Stadium
  • Suburbs

    By 2003 the Greater Soweto area consisted of 87 townships grouped together into Administrative Regions 6 and 10 of Johannesburg.[28]

    Estimates of how many residential areas make up Soweto itself vary widely. Some counts say that Soweto comprises 29 townships,[29] whilst others find 34.[30] The differences may be due to confusion arising from the merger of adjoining townships (such as Lenasia and Eldorado Park) with those of Soweto into Regions 6 and 10. The total number also depends on whether the various "extensions" and "zones" are counted separately, or as part of one main suburb. The 2003 Regional Spatial Development Framework arrived at 87 names by counting various extensions (e.g. Chiawelo's 5) and zones (e.g. Pimville's 7) separately. The City of Johannesburg's website groups the zones and extensions together to arrive at 32, but omits Noordgesig and Mmesi Park.

    The list below provides the dates when some of Soweto's townships were established, along with the probable origins or meanings of their names, where available:

    Suburbs of Soweto
    Name Established Origin of name
    Braamfischerville
    Tshiawelo 1956 "Place of Rest" (Venda)
    Diepkloof
    Dlamini 1956 Unknown, Nguni family name. Michael Mabaso also comes from here.
    Dobsonville including Dobsonville Gardens
    Doornkop "Hill of Thorns" (Afrikaans)
    Dube 1948 Named for John Langalibalele Dube (1871–1946), educator,[31] newspaper founder, and the first ANC president (1912–17)[32]
    Emdeni 1958 "A border, last township before Mogale City (then Krugersdorp Municipality)" (Xhosa), including extensions
    Greenvillage
    Jabavu 1948 Named for Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu (1885–1959), educator and author
    Jabulani 1956 "Rejoice" (Zulu)
    Klipspruit 1904 "Rocky Stream" (Afrikaans), originally a farm.
    Kliptown " Rocky Town", Constructed from Afrikaans for rock (klip), and the English word "town".
    Lakeside
    Mapetla 1956 Someone who is angry (Setswana)
    Meadowlands
    Mmesi Park Sotho name for somebody who burns things on fire
    Mofolo 1954 Named for Thomas Mofolo (1876–1948), Sotho author, translator, and educator
    Molapo 1956 Name of a Basotho tribe, sotho name for fetique
    Moletsane 1956 Name of a Batuang chief
    Moroka 1946 Named for Dr James Sebe Moroka (1891–1985),[33] later ANC president (1949–52) during the 1952 Defiance Campaign
    Naledi 1956 "Star" (Sotho/Pedi/Tswana), originally Mkizi
    Noordgesig "North View" (Afrikaans)
    Orlando 1932 Named for Edwin Orlando Leake (1860–1935), chairman of the Non-European Affairs Department (1930–31), Johannesburg mayor (1925–26)
    Phefeni
    Phiri 1956 "Hyena" (Sotho/Tswana)
    Pimville 1934 Named for James Howard Pim, councillor (1903–07), Quaker, philanthropist, and patron of Fort Hare Native College ; originally part of Klipspruit
    Power Park In the vicinity of the power station
    Protea Glen Unknown (The protea is South Africa's national flower)
    Protea North
    Protea South
    Senaoane 1958 Named for Solomon G Senaoane (−1942), first sports organiser in the Non-European Affairs Department
    Tladi 1956 "Lightning" (Sotho)
    Zola 1956 "Calm" (Zulu/Xhosa)
    Zondi 1956 Unknown family name (Zulu)

    Other Soweto townships include Phomolong and Snake Park

    Economy

    Slums, Soweto.
    Housing development project, Kliptown.

    Many parts of Soweto rank among the poorest in Johannesburg, although individual townships tend to have a mix of wealthier and poorer residents. In general, households in the outlying areas to the northwest and southeast have lower incomes, while those in southwestern areas tend to have higher incomes.

    The economic development of Soweto was severely curtailed by the apartheid state, which provided very limited infrastructure and prevented residents from creating their own businesses. Roads remained unpaved, and many residents had to share one tap between four houses, for example. Soweto was meant to exist only as a dormitory town for black Africans who worked in white houses, factories, and industries. The 1957 Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act and its predecessors restricted residents between 1923 to 1976 to seven self-employment categories in Soweto itself. Sowetans could operate general shops, butcheries, eating houses, sell milk or vegetables, or hawk goods. The overall number of such enterprises at any time were strictly controlled. As a result, informal trading developed outside the legally-recognized activities.[3]

    By 1976 Soweto had only two cinemas and two hotels, and only 83% of houses had electricity. Up to 93% of residents had no running water. Using fire for cooking and heating resulted in respiratory problems that contributed to high infant mortality rates (54 per 1,000 compared to 18 for whites, 1976 figures.[3]

    The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977, spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto's inadequate bus and train transport systems.[3]

    In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg (1994 estimates). Sowetans contribute less than 2% to Johannesburg's rates. Some Sowetans remain impoverished, and others live in shanty towns with little or no services. About 85% of Kliptown comprises informal housing. The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto's poor are unable to pay for electricity. The committee believes that the South African government's privatization drives will worsen the situation. Research showed that 62% of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners.[34]

    There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement. The Johannesburg City Council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads. Private initiatives to tap Sowetans' combined spending power of R4.3 billion were also planned, including the construction of Protea Mall, Jabulani Mall, the development of Maponya Mall, an upmarket hotel in Kliptown, and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment centre. Soweto has also become a centre for nightlife and culture.

    In popular culture

    Songs alluding to Soweto

    Clarence Carter Has a song called "The Girl From Soweto" or "Where did the girl go, from Soweto."

    Soweto is mentioned in the song Burden of Shame from the British band UB40 on their 1980 album Signing off.

    Singer–songwriter Joe Strummer, formerly of The Clash, referenced Soweto in his solo album Streetcore (song: "Arms Aloft"), as well as in The Clash's track, "Where You Gonna Go (Soweto)", found on the album London Calling (Legacy Edition).[35]

    The UK music duo Mattafix have a song called "Memories Of Soweto" on their 2007 album Rhythm & Hymns.

    Soweto is mentioned in the anti-apartheid song "Gimme Hope Jo'anna" by Eddy Grant. The line "While every mother in a black Soweto fears the killing of another son" refers to police brutality during apartheid.

    Miriam Makeba's song: "Soweto Blues".

    Dr. Alban's song "Free Up Soweto" was included in the 1994 album Look Who's Talking.

    Mexican group Tijuana No! recorded the song "Soweto" for their first album "No". In reference to the city and the movements.

    It is also the name of a song by the rap group Hieroglyphics.

    American band Vampire Weekend refers to its own musical style, a blend of indie rock and pop with African influences, as "Upper West Side Soweto", based on the same description of Paul Simon's album Graceland.

    It is the title of the opening track of the album "Joined at the Hip" by Bob James and Kirk Whalum.

    Fiction and cinema

    The 1976 uprising was depicted in the 1989 film A Dry White Season, which starred Donald Sutherland, Marlon Brando and Susan Sarandon as white South Africans pursuing justice for the deaths of black Soweto residents which followed the demonstrations.

    The marches by students in Soweto are briefly mentioned in a novel by Linzi Glass named Ruby Red, which was nominated for the Carnegie Medal in 2008. Soweto is also mentioned in the novel, Waiting for the Rain by Sheila Gordon.

    Soweto was characterised in the 2003 American film Stander. The film presented the story of Andre Stander, a rogue police captain who sympathised with the state of apartheid and its corruption by becoming a bank thief. The Soweto uprising riots provided Stander's breaking point in the film.

    In 2006, Sara Blecher and Rimi Raphoto made the popular documentary Surfing Soweto, about young kids "surfing" on the rooves of Soweto trains and the social problem this represents.

    The 2009 film District 9 was shot in Soweto, specifically Tshiawelo.[36] The plot involves a species of aliens who arrive on Earth in a starving and helpless condition, seeking aid. The originally benign attempts to aid them turn increasingly oppressive due to the overwhelming numbers of aliens and the cost of maintaining them, and to increasing xenophobia on the part of humans who treat the intelligent and sophisticated aliens like animals while taking advantage of them for personal and corporate gain. The aliens are housed in shacks in a slum-like concentration camp called "District 9", which is in fact modern-day Soweto; an attempt to relocate the aliens to another camp leads to violence and a wholesale slaughter by South African mercenary security forces (a reference to historical events in "District Six", a mostly Coloured neighborhood subjected to forced segregation during the apartheid years). The parallels to apartheid South Africa are obvious but not explicitly remarked on in the film.

    Famous Sowetans

    Native Sowetans

    Soweto was the birthplace of:

    Other residents

    Mandela's House in Orlando

    Other interest

    Well-known artists from Soweto, besides those mentioned above, include:

    Films that include Soweto scenes:

    • Tau ya Soweto (2005).
    • Sarafina (1992).
    • Hijack stories (2000)

    See also

    References

    1. ^ a b c d "Main Place Soweto". Census 2011. 
    2. ^ Pirie, G.H. Letters, words, worlds: the naming of Soweto. African Studies, 43 (1984), 43–51.
    3. ^ a b c d e f Carole Rakodi, ed. (1997). "5 Johannesburg: A city and metropolitan area in transformation". The urban challenge in Africa: Growth and management of its large cities. II The "mega-cities" of Africa. United Nations University Press.  
    4. ^ "Chronology of events in the making of Soweto". Official website of the City of Johannesburg. 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    5. ^ "THE STRUGGLE FOR A PLACE IN THE CITY". SAHistory. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    6. ^ "James "Sofasonke" Mpanza | South African History Online". Sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
    7. ^ "The Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, South Africa | The Best Hospital In South Africa - Contact Details (Address, Phone Numbers, Email Address) and Map". Chrishanibaragwanathhospital.co.za. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
    8. ^ "Just Another Day at the World's Biggest Hospital".  
    9. ^ "Tembisile 'Chris' Hani". SAHistory. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    10. ^ a b "Chronology of events in the making of Soweto".  
    11. ^ Soweto Uprising, africanhistory.about.com
    12. ^ David Grinker, Boris Gorelik (ed) (2014). Inside Soweto: Memoir of an Official 1960s-1980s. Johannesburg: Eastern Enterprises.  
    13. ^ "Population of Soweto, South Africa". mongabay.com. 
    14. ^ [1], Census 2011 — Main Place "Soweto"
    15. ^ [2], Census 2001 — Main Place "Soweto"
    16. ^ a b "Climate: Soweto - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
    17. ^ "West Wits".  
    18. ^ "R360m ‘Nasweto’ highway to be completed by year-end". Engineering News (Creamer Media). 26 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    19. ^ "Bara taxi rank set for major upgrade". City of Johannesburg. 19 February 2003. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    20. ^ "16 000 commuters use Rea Vaya daily".  
    21. ^ da Silva, M & Pirie, G.H. Hostels for African migrants in greater Johannesburg. GeoJournal, 12 (1986), 173–182.
    22. ^ [3]
    23. ^ "Visit the Soweto Online Portal". 
    24. ^ "Sowetan introduces jobs online". 17 January 2006. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
    25. ^ Magubane, Zine. "Globalization and Gangster Rap: Hip Hop in the Post-Apartheid City", in: Basu, Dipannita & Lemelle, Sidney J. (eds.) (2006) The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture. London: Pluto Press; pp. 208–29
    26. ^ Basu, Dipannita. "The Vinyl Ain't Final". Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
    27. ^ One Bit Trip: SowetoLyrics: Hieroglyphics
    28. ^ "Regional Spatial Development Framework".  
    29. ^ "Soweto". saweb. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    30. ^ "Background to the study area: Soweto".  
    31. ^ Millard, J. A. (1999). "Dube, John Langalibalele (Mafukuzela)". UNISA. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    32. ^ "John Langalibalele Dube".  
    33. ^ "Dr James Sebe Moroka". SAHistory. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    34. ^ "The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee".  
    35. ^ "London Calling (Legacy Edition)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
    36. ^ "The real District 9".  
    37. ^ Davie, Lucille (1 November 2004). "'"Gerard Sekoto's 'illustrious album. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 

    Bibliography

    External links

    External media
    Images
    Senator for Illinois, Barack Obama, at the Hector Pieterson Museum in August 2006
    Audio
    Guardian Unlimited audio recording of Antoinette Sithole on the Soweto uprising
    Video
    Soweto Uprising (2007) at the Internet Archive
    BBC video of the Soweto uprisings
    • Soweto uprisings.com, an extensive map mashup with info on the events on 16
    This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
     
    Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
     
    By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
     


    Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
    a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.