World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Shigeru Yoshida

Article Id: WHEBN0000174171
Reproduction Date:

Title: Shigeru Yoshida  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hitoshi Ashida, Kijūrō Shidehara, Tarō Asō, Ichirō Hatoyama, Masayoshi Ōhira
Collection: 1878 Births, 1967 Deaths, Ambassadors of Japan to Italy, Ambassadors of Japan to the United Kingdom, Cold War Leaders, Collars of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, Foreign Ministers of Japan, Grand Cordons of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, Honorary Knights Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, Japanese Anti-Communists, Japanese Politicians, Japanese Prisoners and Detainees, Japanese Roman Catholics, Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Politicians, Liberal Party (Japan, 1945) Politicians, Members of the House of Peers (Japan), Members of the House of Representatives (Japan), Members of the House of Representatives of Japan, People from Kōchi Prefecture, People from Yokosuka, Kanagawa, People of the Korean War, Politicians from Tokyo, Prime Ministers of Japan, Prisoners and Detainees of Japan, Roman Catholic Heads of Government, University of Tokyo Alumni
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Shigeru Yoshida

Shigeru Yoshida
吉田 茂
Yoshida in 1950
Prime Minister of Japan
In office
15 October 1948 – 10 December 1954
Monarch Shōwa
Governor Douglas MacArthur
Matthew Ridgway
Preceded by Hitoshi Ashida
Succeeded by Ichirō Hatoyama
In office
22 May 1946 – 24 May 1947
Monarch Shōwa
Governor Douglas MacArthur
Preceded by Kijūrō Shidehara
Succeeded by Tetsu Katayama
Personal details
Born (1878-09-22)22 September 1878
Yokosuka, Japan
Died 20 October 1967(1967-10-20) (aged 89)
Tokyo, Japan
Political party Liberal Democratic Party (1955–1967)
Other political
affiliations
Japan Liberal Party (1945–1948)
Democratic Liberal Party (1948–1950)
Liberal Party (1950-1955)
Spouse(s) Yukiko Yoshida
Children Ken'ichi Yoshida
Kazuko Yoshida
Alma mater Tokyo Imperial University
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru), KCVO (22 September 1878 – 20 October 1967) was a Japanese diplomat and politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Prime ministership 2
  • Policies 3
  • Later years 4
  • Honours 5
  • Selected works 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
    • Further reading 8.1
  • External links 9

Early life

Yoshida was born in Yokosuka near Tokyo and educated at Tokyo Imperial University. He entered Japan's diplomatic corps in 1906 just after Japan's victory against Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. He was Japan's ambassador to Italy and the United Kingdom during the 1930s and finally retired from his last appointment as ambassador to London in 1938. Throughout the 1930s and before the war ended in the 1940s, Yoshida continued to participate in Japan's imperialist movement; in early 1945 he was the Munitions Minister, and attempted to construct underground armament-manufacturing facilities to protect them from aerial bombing.[1] After several months' imprisonment in 1945, he became one of Japan's key postwar leaders.

Prime ministership

Yoshida became the 45th prime minister on 22 May 1946. His pro-American and pro-British ideals and his knowledge of Western societies, gained through education and political work abroad are what made him the perfect candidate in the eyes of the postwar Allied occupation. He is de facto the last prime minister of the Empire of Japan, before it was abolished following the signing of the constitution.

After being replaced with Tetsu Katayama on 24 May 1947, he returned to the post as the 48th prime minister on 15 October 1948.

According to CIA files that were declassified in 2005, there was a 1952 plot to assassinate Yoshida and replace him with Ichirō Hatoyama as Prime Minister. The plot was led by Takushiro Hattori, who served as an Imperial Japanese Army officer, and had the support of 500,000 Japanese.[2]

Policies

Yoshida's policies, emphasizing Japan's economic recovery and a reliance on United States military protection at the expense of independence in foreign affairs, became known as the Yoshida Doctrine and shaped Japanese foreign policy during the Cold War era and beyond.[3]

Under Yoshida's leadership, Japan began to rebuild its lost industrial infrastructure and placed a premium on unrestrained economic growth. Many of these concepts still impact Japan's political and economic policies. However, since the 1970s environmental movement, the bursting of Japan's economic bubble, and the end of the Cold War, Japan has been struggling to redefine its national goals.

He was retained in three succeeding elections (49th: 16 February 1949; 50th: 30 October 1952; and 51st: 21 May 1953). Power slipped away as he was ousted on 10 December 1954, when he was replaced by Ichirō Hatoyama.

Yoshida retired from the Diet of Japan in 1963.

Later years

In 1967, Yoshida was baptized on his deathbed after hiding his Catholicism throughout most of his life. His funeral was held in St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo.

Yoshida's grandchildren are Princess Tomohito of Mikasa and Tarō Asō, a Japanese politician who served as the 92nd Prime Minister of Japan from 2008 to 2009.

Honours

From the corresponding article in the Japanese WorldHeritage

Selected works

Yoshida's published writings encompass 159 works in 307 publications in 6 languages; His work can be found in the collections of 5,754 libraries worldwide (as of 5 June 2001).[4]

The most widely held works by Yoshida include:

  • The Yoshida Memoirs: the Story of Japan in Crisis; 15 editions published between 1957 and 1983 in English and Japanese and held by 875 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • Japan's Decisive Century, 1867–1967; 1 edition published in 1967 in English and held by 650 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • Yoshida Shigeru: Last Meiji Man; 2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 286 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • 日本を決定した百年; 7 editions published between 1967 and 2006 in 3 languages and held by 46 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • 大磯隨想; 5 editions published between 1962 and 1991 in Japanese and held by 34 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • 吉田茂書翰; 2 editions published in 1994 in Japanese and held by 31 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • 世界と日本; 3 editions published between 1963 and 1992 in Japanese and held by 26 libraries worldwide.[4]
  • Japan im Wiederaufstieg; die Yoshida Memoiren (German); 1 edition published in 1963 in German and held by 9 libraries worldwide.[4]

Notes

  1. ^ "Industry Hide-Out Sped," New York Times, January 28, 1945
  2. ^ "CIA Papers Reveal 1950s Japan Coup Plot".  
  3. ^ Beeson, Mark. (2001). "Japan and Southeast Asia: The Lineaments of Quasi-Hegemony," p. 4 of linked e-reprint, citing Pyle, Kenneth B. (1998) "Restructuring Foreign Policy and Defence Policy: Japan," in McGrew, A. et al. (1998). Asia-Pacific in the New World Order, pp. 121–36.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i WorldCat Identities: Yoshida, Shigeru 1878–1967

References

  • Rodan, Garry, Hewison, Kevin and Robison, Richard. (1997). The Political Economy of South-East Asia: An Introduction. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-53736-9; OCLC 464661946
  • McGrew, Anthony and Christopher Book. (1998) Asia-Pacific in the New World Order. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-17272-1; ISBN 978-0-415-17271-4; OCLC 60184921
  • Shigeru Yoshida and Hiroshi Nara. (2007). Shigeru: Last Meiji Man. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-742-53932-7 ISBN 978-0-742-53933-4 ISBN 0-742-53933-4; OCLC 238440967

Further reading

  • Dower, John W. Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese Experience, 1878–1954.
  • Edström, Bert. Yoshida Shigeru and the Foundation of Japan's Postwar Foreign Policy.
  • Finn, Richard B. Winners in peace: MacArthur, Yoshida, and Postwar Japan.
  • Takashi Hirose(広瀬隆); 『私物国家 日本の黒幕の系図』 Tokyo:Kobunsha (1997) Genealogy14

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Mamoru Shigemitsu
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1945–1947
Succeeded by
Hitoshi Ashida
Preceded by
Kijūrō Shidehara
Prime Minister of Japan
1946–1947
Succeeded by
Tetsu Katayama
Preceded by
Hitoshi Ashida
Minister for Foreign Affairs
1948–1952
Succeeded by
Katsuo Okazaki
Prime Minister of Japan
1948–1954
Succeeded by
Ichirō Hatoyama
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.