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Samoan New Zealander

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Samoan New Zealander

Samoan New Zealanders
Total population
131,103
Languages
English, Samoan
Religion
Christianity

Samoan New Zealanders are Samoan immigrants in New Zealand, their descendants, and New Zealanders of Samoan ethnic descent. They constitute one of New Zealand's most sizeable ethnic minorities. In the 2006 census, 131,103 New Zealanders identified themselves as being of Samoan ethnicity, 50,649 stated they were born in Samoa, and 489 stated they were born in American Samoa. 3.2% of New Zealand's population is of Samoan descent, as of 2006.[1]

History

Overview

The country of Samoa (distinct from American Samoa) has a unique historical relationship with New Zealand, having been administered by New Zealand from 1914 to 1962.

Notable levels of Samoan migration to New Zealand began in the 1950s. In the 1970s, Samoan illegal immigrants were the targets of notorious "Pacific Islander New Zealanders, for example by providing information on their legal rights.[2] The number of Samoan-born residents in New Zealand doubled to over 24,000 during the 1970s.[2]

In 1982, a number of Samoan-born residents were granted citizenship with the Citizenship (Western Samoa) Act. Samoan immigration in New Zealand has subsequently been regulated by quotas. Since 2002, 1,100 Samoans are granted entry each year.[2]

Demographics

The 1874 census recorded 6 Samoans in New Zealand. Numbers have increased steadily ever since, to 279 in 1936, 1,336 in 1951, 19,711 in 1976, 24,141 in 1981, and 47,118 in 2001.[1]

A majority of New Zealanders of Samoan ethnicity today are New Zealand-born.[2] Almost all Samoan New Zealanders live in urban areas, and two out of three live in the Auckland region.[3]

Culture

In 2001, 64% of ethnic Samoan New Zealanders were able to speak the Samoan language.[3] Samoan is the third most-spoken language in New Zealand, behind English and Maori.[4]

Samoan cultural values, the "Samoan way of life" (fa‘asamoa), are reportedly retained particularly by elderly members of the community, and include respect and mutual help within the extended family (‘aiga), as well as fa‘alavelave (ceremonial and family obligations), and attendance at a Christian church.[3]

Traditional tattooing (tatau) is embraced by some Samoan New Zealanders, both men and women, as an expression of cultural identity.[5]

Samoans have contributed significantly to New Zealand culture in the fields of art, music, literature and sport (see below).[6]

Growing Tensions

With so many ethnicities in one place, tensions, and disagreements are inevitable, considering the fact that each group has their own opinion about their identity and culture. According the article “Ambivalent Kinships? Pacific People in New Zealand”, written by authors Teresia Teaiwa and Sean Mallon, they talked about how some tensions arose when the Tangata Whenua in New Zealand opposed the growing amount of Pakeha immigrating to New Zealand, fearing that New Zealand would lose its European culture and identity and become just another “Pacific Island” economically and socially. Because the Samoan migrants continued to grow rapidly in New Zealand, the Tangata Whenua continued to have tensions amongst each other. They feared that in the increase in population would make their scarce resources much more scarce.

Despite the growing tensions that the Tangata Whenua had amongst the Samoans, who were considered half the population of outsiders in New Zealand, all islanders used sports, mainly rugby and football, television shows, and theatre plays. “it is in rugby, theatre, and television that there are overt engagements and debates around notions of national identity.” (Teaiwa & Mallon, pg 208) [7] Samoans were exceptional in the sport of Rugby, with the world-renowned All-Black Rugby team making headline news around the world. Because of this sport, “All Blacks represented as the coming together of people” (Teaiwa & Mallon, pg 212) It viewed as a multicultural image of New Zealand where both Maori and Samoan would compete against the world’s best.

Television shows were also used to establish the identity of the Samoans and share the important stories of their identity. An example of a television show is “Bro Town”, a show that stars 3 different Samoan teenagers and how they use their identity and culture to fit in their daily lives. This show also portrays the type of issues and tensions that has happened within the community and transforms them into a humorous and comedic way for viewers to enjoy. (Teaiwa & Mallon, pg 221) Oscar Kightley, a Samoan born, yet who lived most of his life in New Zealand voiced one of the boys in "Bro Town." His resume also included being a sports commentator, author of Niu Sila, and also member of the Naked Samoans.

Lastly, theatre plays were used to further show their identity. Some notable plays are "Unlikely Places" by Gordon Dryland, a play that focused on the cultural friction and tension between the New Zealander and the Samoans. “Niu Sila” [8] is a story about a friendship spanning over thirty years, two cultures and one multicultural neighbourhood. “In 1970s New Zealand, six-year-old Ioane Tafioka, a fresh off the boat from the island of Samoa, moves in next door to six-year-old Niuen kid Peter Burton.” (Eventfinder) [9] They begin an unlikely friendship that will change their lives. These plays helped distinguish the growing tensions the Samoans had between the New Zealanders. At the same time, it helped bring a sense of unity between all islanders.

Notable Samoan New Zealanders

Arts

Sports

All Blacks (past & present)

  • John Afoa - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1062)
  • Sosene Anesi - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1054)
  • Ben Atiga - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1037)
  • Graeme Bachop - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 885)
  • Stephen Bachop former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 925)
  • William Birtwistle - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 652)
  • Andrew Blowers - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 956)
  • Olo Brown - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 910)
  • Frank Bunce - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 915)
  • Eroni Clarke - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 919)
  • Jerry Collins - rugby player & Captained the All Blacks (All Black number 1002)
  • Christian Cullen - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 952)
  • Charlie Faumuina - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1116)
  • Ross Filipo - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1070)
  • Carl Hoeft - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 971)
  • Alama Ieremia - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 942)
  • Michael Jones - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 882)
  • Jerome Kaino - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1050)
  • Josh Kronfeld - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 943)
  • Pat Lam - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 928)
  • Casey Laulala - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1048)
  • Nepo Laulala - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1139)
  • Keith Lowen - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1020)http://blog.skysport.co.nz/collegerugby/keith-lowen-st-peters-only-all-black/
  • Steven Luatua - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1121)
  • Lelia Masaga - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1092)
  • Chris Masoe - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1059)
  • Aaron Mauger - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1013)
  • Nathan Mauger - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1008)
  • Keven Mealamu - rugby player & Captained the All Blacks (All Black number 1026)
  • Brad Mika - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1024)
  • Dylan Mika - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 982)
  • Mils Muliaina - rugby player & Captained the All Blacks (All Black number 1033)
  • Ma'a Nonu - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1031)
  • Augustine Pulu - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1136)
  • Francis Saili - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1126)
  • Julian Savea - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1111)
  • John Schuster - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 889)
  • John Schwalger - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1071)
  • Kevin Senio - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1058)
  • Dave Solomon - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 415)
  • Frank Solomon - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 387)http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=816
  • Rodney So'oialo - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1028)
  • Lima Sopoaga - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1145)
  • Benson Stanley - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1102)
  • Jeremy Stanley - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 963)
  • Joe Stanley - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 874)
  • Neemia Tialata - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1060)
  • Filo Tiatia - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 993)
  • Isaia Toeava - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1064)
  • Ofisa Tonu'u - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 957)
  • Jeffery Toomaga-Allen - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1130)
  • Mose Tuiali'i - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1042)
  • Va'aiga Tuigamala - former rugby player for Manu Samoa & All Blacks (All Black number 900)
  • Patrick Tuipulotu - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1133)
  • Richard Turner - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 917)[10]
  • Tana Umaga - rugby player & Captained the All Blacks (All Black number 961)
  • Victor Vito - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1103)
  • Bryan Williams - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 689)
  • Sonny Bill Williams - rugby player for the All Blacks & former Kiwis rugby league player, boxer (All Black number 1108)
  • Rudi Wulf - rugby player for the All Blacks (All Black number 1077)

General

Politics

See also

References

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Teresia Teaiwa & Sean Mallon, "Ambivalent Kinships Pacific People In New Zealand (Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press, 2005), 207-225.
  8. ^ [1] April 21, 2013.
  9. ^ [2], March 11, 2013.
  10. ^
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