Roman Catholicism in Transnistria

For other uses, see Transnistria (disambiguation).

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic


  • Republica Moldovenească Nistreană


  • Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika


  • Prydnistrovska Moldavska Respublika
Flag Emblem
Anthem: 

My slavim tebya, Pridnestrovye  (transliteration)
We sing the praises of Transnistria
Capital
and largest city
Tiraspol
46°50′N 29°37′E / 46.833°N 29.617°E / 46.833; 29.617
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2005)
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Yevgeny Shevchuk
 -  Prime Minister Tatiana Turanskaya
Legislature Supreme Council
Partially recognized state
 -  Independence declared 2 September 1990 
 -  War of Transnistria 2 March – 21 July 1992 
 -  Recognition 3 non-UN membersc 
Area
 -  Total 4,163 km2
1,607 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.35
Population
 -  2012 estimate 517,963[1]
 -  2004 census 555,347
 -  Density 124.6/km2
345/sq mi
Currency Transnistrian rubled (PRB)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Calling code +373e
Internet TLD nonef
a. Russian is the main official language and the lingua franca.
b. Linguistically the same as Romanian.
c. Limited to the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and South Ossetia (see Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations).
d. Moldovan leu used in those areas under Moldovan control and in the security zone.
e. +373 5 and +373 2.
f. .ru and .md sometimes used.


Transnistria (also called Trans-Dniestr or Transdniestria) is a de facto sovereign state located mostly on a strip of land between the River Dniester and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine. Since its declaration of independence in 1990, and especially after the War of Transnistria in 1992, it is governed as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as Pridnestrovie) a state with limited recognition that claims territory to the east of the River Dniester, the city of Bender, and its surrounding localities located on the west bank. The terms "Transnistria" and "Pridnestrovie" both reference the Dniester River.

The Republic of Moldova does not recognise the PMR and considers most of the territory of Transnistria as part of Moldova as the Autonomous territorial unit with special legal status Transnistria (Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria),[2] or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").[3][4][5]

After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between the newly created Moldova and the de facto sovereign state of Pridnestrovia that unlike Moldova did not want to separate from the Russian Federation escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July 1992. As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarized zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognized but independent [6][7][8][9] presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, and currency. Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem, and coat of arms. However, after a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities.[10] This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) started its activity in 2005.[11] Most Transnistrians also have Moldovan citizenship,[12] but many Transnistrians have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship.

Because of the Russian military contingent present in Transnistria, European Court of Human Rights considers Transnistria "under the effective authority or at least decisive influence of Russia".[13]

Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones.[14][15] These four unrecognized states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.[16][17][18]

Names

Main article: Names of Transnistria

The region is also known in English as "Trans-Dniestr"[19] or "Transdniestria".[20] Etymologically, these names are adaptations of the Romanian colloquial name of the region, "Transnistria" meaning "beyond the River Dniester".

The documents of the government of Moldova refer to the region as Stînga Nistrului (in full, Unităţile Administrativ-Teritoriale din Stînga Nistrului) meaning "Left Bank of the Dniester" (in full, "Administrative-territorial unit(s) of the Left Bank of the Dniester").

The name of the region according to the Transnistrian authorities is Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, abbreviated PMR (Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР, Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika; Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ, РМН, Romanian: Republica Moldovenească Nistreană; Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка, ПМР, Prydnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika). The short form of this name is Pridnestrovie (Russian: Приднестровье, Pridnestrovye; Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Нистрения,[21] Nistrenia; Ukrainian: Придністров'я, Prydnistrovya). "Pridnestrovie" is a transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье" meaning "[a land] by the [River] Dniester".

History

Antiquity and Middle Ages

Indo-European tribes for millennia had inhabitated the area where Transnistria now is because it was a borderland between Dacia and Scythia. The Tyragetae (a Getae Thracian tribe) inhabited the area around the River Dniester (called "Tyras" in ancient documents) as well as the Scythians. Early Germanic and Turkic tribes were present in the area during their attacks and invasions of the Roman Empire.

From 56 AD, the coastal area around the city of Tyras was occupied by the Romans for nearly four centuries, forming part of the province of Lower Moesia. Tyras enjoyed great development during Roman times: there is a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus. But in the second half of the fourth century the area was continuously attacked by barbarians and the Roman legionaries left Tyras.

Migrating from the north, Slavs were present on the shores of the River Dniester from the second half of the 6th century. In the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribes of Tivertsi and Ulichs[22] populated larger areas, including Transnistria, followed by Turkic nomads such as the Petchenegs[23] and Cumans.

Possibly an early part of Kievan Rus', after the Mongol invasion of Europe in 1241, the territory was briefly under Mongol control (yet probably without any permanent settlements) and later under the Crimean Khanate.

Early modern period

From the 15th century, northern Transnistria (current districts of Camenca and Rîbniţa) belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,[24][25][26][27][28] and later to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1793) which encouraged the migration of peasants into the territory from the neighboring populated areas (from north and from west). Prince of Moldavia Gheorghe Duca (1665–66, 1668–72, 1678–84) built a court at Ţicanova on the east bank of the Dniester, and one at Nimirov on the Southern Bug, last mentioned in Moldavian hands in 1765.[29][30] The localities Dubăsari, Raşcov, Vasilcău, as well as four other currently in Ukraine are mentioned in 17th-18th centuries as fairs for the Dniester-Bug region. In 1769, a document dated at Bendery mentions the then title of the Mitropolitan of Moldavia as Mitropolitan of Proilavia, of Tamarova, of Hotin, and of all the borders of the Danube, of the Dniester, and the Han's Ukraine,[31] the latter being a common reference to the then sparsely populated Dniester–Southern BugDniepr area.

Before becoming part of the Russian Empire in 1792 (southern part) and 1793 (northern part) the largest groups living between the Dniester and the Bug rivers were Moldavian, Ruthenian (Ukrainian) and Tatar peasants.[32] The Russian census of 1793 of the Ochakov region (southern part of the Dniester-Bug area) mentions a totality of 67 villages, of which 49 are mentioned as Moldavian and 18 as Tatar.[33] The first candidate for the governor of the new Russian region was the Moldavian boyar of Greek ancestry Alexandru I. Mavrocordat.[34] The northern part of Transnistria had Ruthenian (Ukrainian) and Moldavian villages.

Russian Empire

In 1792, the region became part of the Russian Empire as a result of the sixth Russo-Turkish War. In that year, the general Alexander Suvorov founded modern Tiraspol as a Russian border fortress.[35] Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the current Transnistria was divided between the imperial guberniyas of Podolia, Kherson, and Bessarabia. Most of the territory which now is Transnistria was part of the larger New Russia region,[36] hence it saw a strong colonization process, with a multitude of ethnicities being settled: lands were given to enserfed peasantry from Russia and Ukraine in Nova Serbia, while Jews and Germans were brought in to facilitate economic development.

Soviet and Romanian administration

Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria (4,000 km2) as well as an adjacent area (9,000 km2) around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time formed part of Romania. One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to eventually incorporate Bessarabia. The Moldavian SSR, organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed out of a part of Bessarabia (taken from Romania on 28 June, after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact) and out of a part of the Moldavian ASSR roughly equivalent to present-day Transnistria.

In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union during the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it. Romania controlled the entire region between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, including the city of Odessa as local capital.[37]

The Romanian-administered territory – called the Transnistria Governorate – with an area of 44.000 km2 and a population of 2,3 mln inhabitants, was divided into 13 counties: Ananiev, Balta, Berzovca, Dubasari, Golta, Jugastru, Movilau, Oceacov, Odessa, Ovidiopol, Rîbniţa, Tiraspol and Tulcin. There were in this enlarged Transnistria nearly 200,000 Romanian/Moldovian-speaking residents.

The Romanian administration of "Transnistria" attempted to stabilise the situation in the area under Romanian control, implementing a process of Romanianization.[38] By March 1943, a total of 185,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews had been deported and the majority were murdered or died from other causes in ghettos and concentration camps in an area immediately north and east of the current Transnistria, which as the latter was under Romanian and partly German occupation.

After the Red Army reconquered the area in 1944, Soviet authorities executed, exiled and/or imprisoned (in gulags) many thousands of Romanian/Moldavians in the following months and years: the only ones who survived were in the area of actual Transnistria (from 1945 again part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic) just east of the Dniester river. Indeed a campaign was directed towards the rich Moldavian peasant families, which were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia as well. For instance, in just two days, July 6 and July 7, 1949, a plan named "Operation South" saw the deportation of over 11,342 Moldavian families by the order of the Moldovian Minister of State Security, I. L. Mordovets.[39]

Secession

In the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union allowed political liberalization at a regional level. This led to the creation of various informal movements in the Moldavian SSR, and the resurgence of pro-Romanian nationalism among ethnic Moldovans.[40] The most prominent of these movements was the Popular Front of Moldova. In the spring of 1988, PFM demanded that the Soviet authorities declare Moldovan the only state language, return to the use of the Latin alphabet, and recognize the shared ethnic identity of Moldovans and Romanians. The more radical factions of the Popular Front espoused extreme anti-minority, ethnocentric and chauvinist positions,[41][42] calling for minority populations, particularly the Slavs (mainly Russians and Ukrainians) and Gagauz, to leave or be expelled from Moldova.[43]

On 31 August 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR adopted Moldovan as the only official language with Russian retained only for secondary purposes, returned Moldovan to the Latin alphabet, and declared a shared Moldovan-Romanian linguistic identity. As plans for major cultural changes in Moldova were made public, tensions rose further. Ethnic minorities felt threatened by the prospects of removing Russian as the official language, the possible future reunification of Moldova and Romania, and the ethnocentric rhetoric of the Popular Front. The Yedinstvo (Unity) Movement, established by the Slavic population of Moldova, pressed for equal status to be given to both Russian and Moldovan.[44]


The nationalist Popular Front won the first free parliamentary elections in the Moldavian SSR in the spring of 1990,[45] and its agenda started slowly to be implemented. On 2 September 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a Soviet republic by an ad hoc assembly, the Second Congress of the Peoples' Representatives of Transnistria. Violence escalated when in October 1990 the Popular Front called for volunteers to form armed militias to stop a Gagauz autonomy referendum. In response, volunteer militias were formed in Transnistria. In April 1990, nationalist mobs attacked ethnic Russian members of parliament, while the Moldovan police refused to intervene or restore order.[46]

In the interest of preserving a unified Moldavian SSR within the USSR and preventing the situation escalating further, then Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, while citing the restriction of civil rights of ethnic minorities by Moldova as the cause of the dispute, declared the Transnistria proclamation to be lacking legal basis and annulled it by presidential decree on 22 December 1990.[47][48] Nevertheless, no significant action was taken against Transnistria and the new authorities were slowly able to establish control of the region.

War of Transnistria

Main article: War of Transnistria

The War of Transnistria followed armed clashes on a limited scale which broke out between Transnistrian separatists and Moldova as early as November 1990 at Dubăsari. Volunteers, including Cossacks, came from Russia and Ukraine to help the separatist side.[49] In mid-April 1992, under the agreements on the split of the military equipment of the former Soviet Union negotiated between the former 15 republics in the previous months, Moldova created its own Defence Ministry. According to the decree of its creation, most of the 14th Soviet Army's military equipment was to be retained by Moldova.[50] Starting from 2 March 1992, there was concerted military action between Moldova and Transnistria. Throughout early 1992 the fighting intensified. The former Soviet 14th Guards Army entered the conflict in its final stage, opening fire against Moldovan forces;[50] since then, Moldova has exercised no effective control or influence on Transnistrian authorities. A ceasefire agreement was signed on 21 July 1992 and has held to the present day.

Further negotiations

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement. Under OSCE auspices, on 8 May 1997, the Moldovan President Petru Lucinschi and the Transnistrian president Igor Smirnov, signed the "Memorandum on the principles of normalizations of the relations between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria", also known as the "Primakov Memorandum", sustaining the establishment of legal and state relations, although the memorandum's provisions were interpreted differently by the governments of Moldova and Transnistria.

In November 2003, Dmitry Kozak, a counselor of the Russian president Vladimir Putin, proposed a memorandum on the creation of an asymmetric federal Moldovan state, with Moldova holding a majority and Transnistria being a minority part of the federation.[51] Known as "the Kozak memorandum", it did not coincide with the Transnistrian position, which sought equal status between Transnistria and Moldova, but gave Transnistria veto powers over future constitutional changes; this encouraged Transnistria to sign it. Vladimir Voronin was initially supportive of the plan, but refused to sign it after internal opposition and international pressure from the OSCE and US, and after Russia had endorsed the Transnistrian demand to maintain a Russian military presence for the next 20 years as a guarantee for the intended federation.[52]

Talks were started in 2006 to deal with the problems, but without results for many years. In February 2011 the so-called "5 + 2 Talks" (thus named because they were carried out by Transnistria, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia and OSCE, plus the US and the EU as external observers) were started again in Vienna.[53]

Geography


Transnistria is landlocked and borders Bessarabia (i.e. the rest of Moldova, for 411 km) to the West, and Ukraine (for 405 km) to the East. It is a narrow valley stretching in the North-South direction along the bank of the Dniester river, which forms a natural boundary along most of the border with (the rest of) Moldova. Tiraspol, the capital and largest city of Transnistria, has about 160,000 inhabitants.

The territory controlled by the PMR is mostly, but not completely, coincident with the left (eastern) bank of Dniester. It includes ten cities and towns, and 69 communes, with a totality of 147 localities (counting the unincorporated ones as well). Six communes on the left bank (Cocieri, Molovata Nouă, Corjova, Pîrîta, Coşniţa, and Doroţcaia) remained under the control of the Moldovan government after the War of Transnistria in 1992, as part of the Dubăsari district. They are situated north and south of the city of Dubăsari, which itself is under PMR control. The village of Roghi of Molovata Nouă Commune is also controlled by the PMR (Moldova controls the other nine of the ten villages of the six communes).

On the west bank, the city of Bender and four communes (containing a total of six villages) to its east, south-east, and south, on the opposite bank of the river Dniester from the city of Tiraspol (Proteagailovca, Gîsca, Chiţcani, and Cremenciug) are controlled by the PMR.

The localities controlled by Moldova on the eastern bank, the village of Roghi, and the city of Dubăsari (situated on the eastern bank and controlled by the PMR) the six villages and one city controlled by the PMR on the western bank, as well as two (Varniţa and Copanca) on the same west bank under Moldovan control, form a security zone. The security situation inside it is subject to the Joint Control Commission rulings.

The main transportation route in Transnistria is the road Tiraspol-Dubăsari-Rîbniţa. North and south of Dubăsari it passes through the lands of the villages controlled by Moldova (Doroţcaia, Cocieri, Roghi, while Vasilievca is entirely situated east of the road). Conflict erupted on several occasions when the PMR prevented the villagers from reaching their farmland east of the road.[54][55][56]

Transnistrians are able to travel (normally without difficulty) in and out of the territory under PMR control to neighbouring Moldovan-controlled territory, to Ukraine, and on to Russia, by road or (when service is not interrupted by political tensions) on two international trains, the year-round Moscow-Chişinău, and the seasonal Saratov-Varna. International air travellers rely on the airport in Chişinău, the Moldovan capital, or the airport in Odessa, in Ukraine.

Administrative divisions

Transnistria is subdivided into five districts (raions) (Russian names and transliterations are appended in parentheses):

  • Camenca (Кáменка, Kamenka)
  • Rîbniţa (Рыбница, Rybnitsa)
  • Dubăsari (Дубоссáры, Dubossary)
  • Grigoriopol (Григориóполь, Grigoriopol')
  • Slobozia (Слободзéя, Slobodzeya)

and one municipality:

Also, Bender (Tighina; Бендéры), situated on the western bank of the Dniester (in Bessarabia), geographically outside Transnistria, is not part of territorial unit Transnistria of Moldova as defined by the central authorities, but is controlled by the PMR authorities, which consider it part of PMR's administrative organization.

Political status

Transnistria is considered by the vast majority of countries as a legal part of the Republic of Moldova. Only the partially recognised states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia recognize it as a sovereign entity after it declared independence from Moldova in 1990 with Tiraspol as its declared capital.

Between 1929 and 1940, Tiraspol was the capital of the Moldavian ASSR, an autonomous republic within Ukrainian SSR, which existed from 1924 to 1940.

Although exercising no direct control over the territory, the Moldovan government passed the "Law on Basic Provisions of the Special Legal Status of Localities from the Left Bank of the Dniester" on 22 July 2005, which established part of Transnistria (territory of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic without Bender and without territories, which are under control of Moldova) as an autonomous territorial unit within the Republic of Moldova. The law was passed without any prior consultation with Transnistrian authorities, which called it a provocation and has since ignored it.

Transnistrian population – about 555,000 people (2009). 90% of the population of Transnistria are citizens of the unrecognized Transnistria.[57] Transnistrians have double or triple citizenship, including:

  • Citizens of Moldova[58] – around 300,000 people (including double citizens of Russia (around 20,000[59]) or EU states (around 80%) Romania,[60][61] Bulgaria, Czech Republic)
  • Citizens of Russia – around 150,000 people (including around 15,000 double citizens of Belarus, Israel, Turkey); without quantity of dual citizenship Russia and Moldova (around 20,000)
  • Citizens of Ukraine – around 100,000 people[62] There are around 20,000–30,000 people with dual citizenship (Moldova and Ukraine, or Russia and Ukraine) or triple citizenship (Moldova, Russia and Ukraine). They are considered in the quantity of citizens of Ukraine[63]
  • Persons without citizenship – around 20,000–30,000 people.

There are unsettled border issues between Transnistria and Moldova. Nine villages from the Dubăsari district, including Cocieri and Doroţcaia which geographically belong to Transnistria, have been under the control of the central government of Moldova after the involvement of local inhabitants on the side of Moldovan forces during the War of Transnistria. These villages along with Varniţa and Copanca, near Bendery and Tiraspol, are claimed by the PMR. One city and six villages on the west bank are controlled by the PMR, but are considered by Moldova as a separate municipality (Bender and two villages) or part of the Căuşeni district (four villages).

Tense situations have periodically surfaced due to these territorial disputes, such as in 2005, when Transnistrian forces entered Vasilievca,[64] in 2006 around Varniţa, and in 2007 in Dubăsari-Cocieri area, when a confrontation between Moldovan and Transnistrian forces occurred, however without any casualties.

International relations

Transnistria's minister of foreign affairs is Nina Shtanski.

Politics


PMR has a multi-party system and a unicameral parliament named the Supreme Council. Its legislature has 43 members elected by Single-member district plurality.[65] The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote.

Igor Smirnov was the President of Transnistria since the declaration of independence in 1990 for four consecutive terms. He ran for president in 2011 also, but was defeated in the first round.

The majority in the Parliament of Transnistria belongs to the Renewal movement which defeated the Republic party affiliated with Igor Smirnov in 2005 and performed even better in 2010 elections. Its leader, Yevgeni Shevchuk, won the 2011 presidential elections.

There is disagreement over whether elections in Transnistria are free and fair. The political regime has been described as one of 'super-presidentialism'.[66] In the latest presidential election, the registration of opposition candidate Andrey Safonov was delayed until a few days before the vote, so that he had little time to conduct an election campaign.[67][68] Some sources consider election results suspicious. In 2001, in one region it was reported that Igor Smirnov collected 103.6% of the votes.[69] The PMR government said 'the government of Moldova launched a campaign aimed at convincing international observers not to attend' an election held on 11 December 2005 – but CIS election monitors had ignored that and had declared the ballot democratic.


The opposition Narodovlastie party and Power to the People movement were outlawed at the beginning of 2000[70] and eventually dissolved.[71][72]

A list published by the European Union bans travel to the EU for some members of the Transnistrian leadership.[73]

In 2007, the registration of a Social Democratic Party was allowed. This party, led by former separatist leader and member of the PMR government Andrey Safonov, allegedly favors a union with Moldova.

In September 2007, the leader of the Transnistrian Communist Party, Oleg Horjan, was sentenced to a suspended sentence of 1½ years imprisonment for organizing unsanctioned actions of protest.[74]

According to the 2006 referendum, carried out by the PMR government, 97.2% of the population voted in favor of "independence from Moldova and free association with Russia."[75] EU and several other countries refused to recognise the referendum results.

Transnistria border customs dispute

On 3 March 2006, Ukraine introduced new customs regulations on its border with Transnistria. Ukraine declared that it would import only goods from Transnistria with documents processed by Moldovan customs offices as part of the implementation of the joint customs protocol agreed between Ukraine and Moldova on 30 December 2005. Transnistria and Russia termed the act an "economic blockade".

The United States, the European Union and OSCE approved the Ukrainian move, while Russia saw it as a means of political pressure. On 4 March, Transnistria responded by blocking the Moldovan and Ukrainian transport at the borders of Transnistria. The Transnistrian block was lifted after two weeks. However, the Moldovan/Ukrainian block remains in place, and holds up progress in status settlement negotiations between the sides.[76] In the months after the regulations, exports from Transnistria declined drastically. Transnistria declared a "humanitarian catastrophe" in the region, while Moldova called the declaration "deliberate misinformation".[77] Cargoes of humanitarian aid were sent from Russia in response.

Russian military presence in Transnistria

A 1,200-strong Russian military contingent is present in Transnistria. The status of this contingent is disputed. The 1992 cease-fire agreement between Moldova and Transnistria established a Russian peace-keeper presence in Transnistria. Russian troops stationed in Moldova proper since the time of the USSR were fully withdrawn to Russia by January 1993.

On 21 October 1994, Russia and Moldova signed an agreement that committed Russia to the withdrawal of the troops in three years from the date of entry into force of the agreement;[78] this did not come into effect, however, because the Russian Duma did not ratify it.[9] The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) included a paragraph about the removal of Russian troops from Moldova's territory and was introduced into the text of the OSCE Summit Declaration of Istanbul (1999) in which Russia had committed itself to pulling out its troops from Transnistria by the end of 2002.[79] However, even after 2002, the Russian parliament did not ratify the Istanbul accords. On 19 July 2004, after it finally passed through parliament President Vladimir Putin signed the Law on the ratification of the CFE Treaty in Europe, which committed Russia to remove the heavy armaments limited by this Treaty.[80] During 2000–2001, although the CFE Treaty was not fully ratified, to comply with it, Moscow withdrew 125 pieces of Treaty Limited Equipment (TLE) and 60 railway wagons containing ammunition from the Transnistrian region of Moldova. In 2002, Russia withdrew 3 military equipment trains (118 railway wagons) and 2 of ammunition (43 wagons) from the Transnistrian region of Moldova, and in 2003, 11 rail convoys transporting military equipment and 31 transporting ammunitions. According to the OSCE Mission to Moldova, of a total of 42,000 tons of ammunitions stored in Transnistria, 1,153 tons (3%) was transported back to Russia in 2001, 2,405 tons (6%) in 2002 and 16,573 tons (39%) in 2003.

Andrei Stratan, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Moldova stated in his speech during the 12th OSCE Ministerial Council Meeting in Sofia on 6–7 December 2004 that "The presence of Russian troops on the territory of the Republic of Moldova is against the political will of Moldovan constitutional authorities and defies the unanimously recognized international norms and principles, being qualified by Moldovan authorities as a foreign military occupation illegally deployed on the territory of the state".[81][82] As of 2007 however, Russia insists that it has already fulfilled those obligations. It states the remaining troops are serving as peacekeepers authorized under the 1992 ceasefire, are not in violation of the Istanbul accords and will remain until the conflict is fully resolved.[83]

In a NATO resolution on 18 November 2008, Russia was urged to withdraw its military presence from the "Transdnestrian region of Moldova".[84]

In 2011, U.S. Senator John McCain said in a visit to Moldova that Moscow is violating the territorial integrity of Moldova and Georgia and one of the "fundamental norms" of "international behavior".[85]

Demographics


In 2004, Transnistrian authorities organized a separate census from the 2004 Moldovan Census.[86]

In total, in the areas controlled by the PMR government, there are 555,347 people, including 177,785 Moldovans (32.10%) 168,678 Russians (30.35%) 160,069 Ukrainians (28.81%) 13,858 Bulgarians (2.50%) 4,096 Gagauzians (0.74%), 507 Roma (0.09%) 1,259 Jews (0.23%) 1,791 Poles (0.32%) and 27,454 others (4.94%).[87]

Of these, 439,243 live in Transnistria itself, and 116,104 live in localities controlled by the PMR government, but formally belonging to other districts of Moldova (the city of Bender (Tighina) the communes of Proteagailovca, Gîsca, Chiţcani, Cremenciug, and village of Roghi of commune Molovata Nouă).

Moldovans are the most numerous ethnic group, representing an overall majority in the two sub-districts in the central Transnistria (Dubăsari sub-district, 50.15%, and Grigoriopol sub-district, 64.83%) a 47.82% relative majority in the northern Camenca sub-district, and a 41.52% relative majority in the southern (Slobozia sub-district). In Râbniţa sub-district they are a 29.90% minority, and in the city of Tiraspol, they constitute a 15.24% minority of the population.

Russians are the second numerous ethnic group, representing a 41.64% relative majority in the city of Tiraspol, a 24.07% minority in Slobozia, a 19.03% minority in Dubăsari, a 17.22% minority in Râbniţa, a 15.28% minority in Grigoriopol, and a 6.89% minority in Camenca.

Ukrainians are the third numerous ethnic group, representing a 45.41% relative majority in the northern Râbniţa sub-district, a 42.55% minority in Camenca, a 32.97% minority in Tiraspol, a 28.29% minority in Dubăsari, a 23.42% minority in Slobozia, and a 17.36% minority in Grigoriopol.

Bulgarians are the fourth largest ethnic group in Transnistria, albeit much less numerous than the three larger ethnicities. Most Bulgarians in Transnistria are Bessarabian Bulgarians, descendants of expatriates who settled in Bessarabia in the 18th–19th century. The major centre of Bulgarians in Transnistria is the large village of Parcani, which has an absolute Bulgarian majority and a total population of around 10,000.

In Bender (Tighina) and the other non-Transnistria localities under PMR control, ethnic Russians represent a 43.43% relative majority, followed by Moldovans at 26.15%, Ukrainians at 17.08%, Bulgarians at 2.89%, Gagauzians at 1.03%, Jews at 0.34%, Poles at 0.17%, Roma at 0.13%, and others at 7.78%.

At the census of 1989, the population was 679,000 (including all the localities in the security zone, even those under Moldovan control). The ethnic composition of the region has not been stable in recent history, with the most notable change being the decreasing share of Moldovan and Jewish population segments and increase of the Russian. For example, the percentage of Russians grew from 13.7% in 1926 to 25.5% in 1989 and further to 30.4% in 2004, while the Moldovan population decreased from 44.1% in 1926 to 39.9% in 1989 and 31.9% in 2004. Only the proportion of Ukrainians remained reasonably stable – 27.2% in 1926, 28.3% in 1989 and 28.8 in 2004.

Religion

PMR official statistics show that 91 percent of the Transnistrian population adhere to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, with 4 percent adhering to Roman Catholicism.[88] Roman Catholics are mainly located in Northern Transnistria, where a notable Polish minority is living.[89]

Transnistria's government has supported the restoration and construction of new orthodox churches. It affirms that the republic has freedom of religion and states that 114 religious beliefs and congregations are officially registered. However, as recently as 2005, registration hurdles were met with by some religious groups, notably the Jehovah's Witnesses.[90] In 2007, the US-based Christian Broadcasting Network denounced the persecution of Protestants in Transnistria.[91]

Economy

Transnistria has a mixed economy. Following a large scale privatization process in the late 90s,[92] most of the companies in Transnistria are now privately owned. The economy is based on a mix of heavy industry (steel production) electricity production and manufacturing (textile production) which together account for about 80% of the total industrial output.[93]


Transnistria has its own central bank, which issues Transnistrian currency, the Transnistrian ruble. It is convertible at a freely floating exchange rate but only in Transnistria.

Economic history

After World War II, Transnistria was heavily industrialised, to the point that, in 1990, it was responsible for 40% of Moldova's GDP and 90% of its electricity,[94] although it accounted for only 17% of Moldova's population. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Transnistria wanted to return to a "Brezhnev-style planned economy".[95] However, several years later, it decided to head toward a market economy.

Macroeconomics

According to the government of Transnistria, the 2007 GDP was 6789 mln Transnistrian roubles (appx US$799 million) and the GDP per capita was about US$1,500. The GDP increased by 11.1% and inflation rate was 19.3%.[96] Transnistria's government budget for 2007 was US$246 million, with an estimated deficit of about US$100 million[97] which the government planned to cover with income from privatizations.[98] Budget for 2008 is US$331 million, with an estimated deficit of about US$80 million.[99]

In 2004, Transnistria had debts of US$1.2 billion (two-thirds of which are with Russia) which was per capita about six times higher than in Moldova (without Transnistria).[100] In March 2007 the debt to Gazprom for the acquisition of natural gas has increased to US$1.3 billion. On 22 March 2007 Gazprom sold Transnistria's gas debt to the Russian businessman Alisher Usmanov, who controls Moldova Steel Works, the largest enterprise in Transnistria. Transnistria's president Igor Smirnov has announced that Transnistria will not pay its gas debt because "Transdnistria has no legal debt [to Gazprom]".[101][102] In November 2007, the total debt of Transnistria's public sector was up to US$1.64 billion.[99]

According to a 2007 interview with Yevgeny Shevchuk, the then-speaker of the Transnistrian Supreme Soviet, Transnistria is in a difficult economic situation. Despite a 30% tax increase in 2007, the pension fund is still lacking money and emergency measures must be taken.[103] However, Shevchuk mentioned that the situation is not hopeless and it cannot be considered a crisis, as a crisis means three-month delays in payment of pensions and salaries.[104]

External trade

In 2006, the Transnistrian Republican Bank reported exports of US$422.0 million and imports of US$738.4 million. Compared to 2005, export decreased 27.2% and import decreased 13.7%. The trade deficit reached US$316.3 million.[105] Over 50% of the export goes to the CIS, mainly to Russia, but also to Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova (whom Transnistrian authorities consider foreign).[92][93] Main non-CIS markets for the Transnistrian goods are Italy, Egypt, Greece, Romania, and Germany.[92] The CIS accounts for over 60% of the imports, while the share of the EU is about 23%. The main imports are non-precious metals, food products and electricity.

Economic sectors

The leading industry is steel, due to the Moldova Steel Works (part of the Russian Metalloinvest holding) in Rîbniţa, which accounts for about 60% of the budget revenue of Transnistria.[75] The largest company in the textile industry is Tirotex, which claims to be the second largest textile company in Europe.[106] The energy sector is dominated by Russian companies. The largest power company Moldavskaya GRES (Kuchurgan power station) which is in Dnestrovsc and owned by Inter RAO UES,[107] and the gas transmission and distribution company Tiraspoltransgas is probably controlled by Gazprom, although Gazprom has not confirmed the ownership officially. The banking sector of Transnistria consists of 8 commercial banks, including Gazprombank. The oldest alcohol producer KVINT, located in Tiraspol, produces and exports brandy, wines and vodka.

Human rights

The human rights record of Transnistria has been criticised by several governments and international organizations[which?]. The 2007 Freedom in the World report, published by the US-based Freedom House, described Transnistria as a "non-free" territory, having an equally bad situation in both political rights and civil liberties.[108]

According to the U.S. Department of State report referring to year 2006:

Incidents

In the best-known political trial, Ilie Ilaşcu was convicted in 1993 of killing two Transnistrian officials, and initially sentenced to death by Transnistria's Supreme Court; however, this was commuted to a life prison sentence. Three other members of his group were sentenced to terms of 12 to 15 years' imprisonment, and confiscation of their property. Ilaşcu was released in 2001, after the intervention of the European Court of Human Rights against Moldova and Russia, while the other three were released in 2004 and 2007, having served the full term of their sentences. The ECHR stated that authorities had violated the right of freedom and safety of all four members of the group, and that the treatment Ilie Ilaşcu suffered qualifies as torture. As part of the ruling the court also stated that they believed that Transnistria was "under the effective authority or at least decisive influence of Russia".[109] The court also ordered Moldova and Russia – which backs Transnistria – to pay the four a total of €750,000 (US$1,000,000) in compensation for the deprivation of their freedom and for torture and inhumane treatment while in custody.[110] The members of Ilaşcu's group were forced into exile after their release from prison.

In March 2007, several opponents of Transnistria's government were arrested after they made public appeals during a protest rally against its policy.[111] On 19 March 2007, Transnistrian authorities also arrested Ştefan Urîtu, the leader of Moldovan Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, and two other local political activists. They were later released.[112]

On 13 May 2007, separatist authorities detained the mayor of Corjova Valeriu Miţul and Iurie Coţofan, a Dubăsari district councillor.[113] According to the Moldovan InfoTag news agency, Transnistrian authorities blockaded the polling station at Corjova village, not allowing residents to participate in the Moldovan elections of 3 June 2007.[114] At the same occasion, Iurie Coţofană, a local antiseparatist councilor was arrested and beaten. Valentin Beşleag, a candidate for mayoral office in Corjova was arrested in 2 June for carrying electoral material from Moldova.[115]

In April 2010, the journalist Ernest Vardanean was arrested, being accused of espionage in favour of Moldova[116]

A similar case was that of Ilie Cazac from Bender, arrested in 19 March 2010 for high treason and espionage in favour of Moldova, and of Elena Dobroviţcaia, also from Bender, who was arrested because her mother went to a hospital in Chişinău instead of presenting herself at the request of the authorities from Bender.[117] As the parents of Ilie Cazac did not receive news about him, they started a hunger strike in June 2010 in front of the Russian Embassy in Chişinău.[118][119] At the meeting with Ilie Cazac, on 2 November 2011, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay, said that the United Nations strongly backs the people detained in the Transnistrian region, noting that the UN had also advocated the release of Ilie Cazac.[120]

Media

Main article: Media in Transnistria

There is a regular mix of modern news media in Transnistria with a number of television stations, newspapers, and radio stations.

According to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) the media climate in Transnistria is restrictive and the authorities continue a long-standing campaign to silence independent opposition voices and groups.[121]

According to a U.S. Department of State report for 2006, "Both of the region's major newspapers were controlled by the authorities. There was one independent weekly newspaper in Bender and another in the northern city of Rîbniţa.... Separatist authorities harassed independent newspapers for critical reporting of the Transnistrian regime.... Most television and radio stations and print publication were controlled by Transnistrian authorities, which largely dictated their editorial policies and finance operations. Some broadcast networks, such as the TSV television station and the INTER-FM radio station, were owned by Transnistria's largest monopoly, Sheriff, which also holds a majority in the region's legislature.... In July 2005 the Transnistrian Supreme Soviet amended the election code to prohibit media controlled by the Transnistrian authorities from publishing results of polls and forecasts related to elections."[122]

Moldovan schools

Public education in the Romanian language is done using the Soviet-originated Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet. The usage of the Latin script was restricted to only 6 schools. Four of these schools were forcibly closed by the authorities, who claimed this was due to the refusal of the schools to apply for official accreditation.[123] These schools were later registered as private schools and reopened. This process may have been accelerated by pressure from the European Union.[124]

The OSCE mission to Moldova has urged local authorities in the Transnistrian city of Rîbniţa to return a confiscated building to the Moldovan Latin script school in the city. The unfinished building was nearing completion in 2004, when Transnistria took control of it during that year's school crisis.[125]

"In November 2005 Ion Iovcev, the principal of a Romanian-language school in Transnistria and active advocate for human rights as well as a critic of the Transnistrian leadership, received threatening calls that he attributed to his criticism of the separatist regime."[122]

Military

As of 2007, the armed forces and the paramilitary of Transnistria were composed of 4,500–7,500 soldiers, divided into four motorized infantry brigades in Tiraspol, Bender, Rîbniţa, and Dubăsari.[126] They have 18 tanks, 107 armoured carriers, 73 guns, 46 anti-aircraft installations, and 173 tank destroyer units. The air force is composed of 9 Mi-8T helicopters, 6 Mi-24 helicopters, 2 Mi-2 helicopters, and several airplanes of An-2, An-26 and Yak-18 models.

Arms control and disarmament

Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the Russian 14th Army left 40,000 tonnes of weapony and ammunition. In later years there were concerns that the Transnistrian authorities would try to sell these stocks internationally, and intense pressure was applied to have these removed by the Russian Federation.

In 2000 and 2001, the Russian Federation withdrew by rail 141 self-propelled artillery and other armoured vehicles and destroyed locally 108 T-64 tanks and 139 other pieces of military equipment limited by the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). During 2002 and 2003 Russian military officials destroyed a further 51 armoured vehicles, all of which were types not limited by the CFE Treaty. The OSCE also observed and verified the withdrawal of the 48 trains with military equipment and ammunition in 2003. However, no further withdrawal activities have taken place since March 2004 and a further 20,000 tons of ammunition, as well as some remaining military equipment are still to be removed.

In the autumn of 2006, the Transnistria leadership agreed to let an OSCE inspectorate examine the munitions and further access agreed moving forward.

Recent weapons inspections were permitted by Transnistria and conducted by the OSCE. The onus of responsibility rests on the Russian Federation to remove the rest of the supplies.

Transnistrian authorities declared that they are not involved in the manufacture or export of weapons. The OSCE and European Union officials stated in 2005 that there is no evidence that Transnistria "has ever trafficked arms or nuclear material" and much of the alarm is due to Moldovan government's attempts to pressure Transnistria.[127]

In 2007, foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations said that the historically low levels of transparency and continued denial of full investigation to international monitors have reinforced negative perceptions of the Transnistrian regime, although recent cooperation by Transnitrian authorities may have reflected a shift in the attitude of Transnistria.[128] Their report stated that the evidence for the illicit production and trafficking of weapons into and from Transnistria has in the past been exaggerated, although the trafficking of light weapons is likely to have occurred before 2001 (the last year when export data showed US$900,000 worth of 'weapons, munitions, their parts and accessories' exported from Transnistria). The report also states that the same holds true for the production of such weapons, which is likely to have been carried out in the 1990s primarily to equip Transnistrian forces.

The OSCE mission spokesman Claus Neukirch spoke about this situation: "There is often talk about sale of armaments from Transnistria, but there is no convincing evidence."[129]

See also

References

External links

  • Atlas of Transnistria
  • BBC News.
  • Differences between Moldova and Transnistria
  • The Economist.
  • Radio Free Europe.
  • FRIDE, February 2007.
  • 5 (Viorel Dolha).
  • Matsuzato, Kimitaka: "Canonization, Obedience, and Defiance: Strategies for Survival of the Orthodox Communities in Transnistria, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 20

Local links

  • (English) (Russian) (Romanian) (Ukrainian) PMR Presidential website
  • (English) (Russian) (Romanian) (Ukrainian) Website of the Supreme Council (Parliament) of PMR
  • (English) (Russian) Website MFA of Pridnestrovie
  • (Russian) Pridnestrovian News - Website of the official information agency of Pridnestrovie
  • (English) (Russian) (Romanian) Transnistria.md News and interviews. Moldova administration.
  • (English) (Russian) (Romanian) (Ukrainian) (Deutsch) (Français) Radio PMR. Radio-News. Pridnestrovie administration.
  • (Russian) First Pridnestrovian TV Channel - State television of Pridnestrovie
  • (Russian) (Romanian) (Ukrainian) On-line TV PMR. Video, news and interviews. Pridnestrovie administration.

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