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Proto-fascism

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Title: Proto-fascism  
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Proto-fascism

Photograph of Gabriele d'Annunzio in 1921, d'Annunzio was an Italian nationalist and poet who is considered a proto-fascist.

Proto-fascism refers to the direct predecessor ideologies that influenced and formed the basis of fascism.[1][2] A prominent proto-fascist figure is Gabriele d'Annunzio, the Italian nationalist whose politics influenced Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism.[3] Proto-fascist political movements include the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), the German National Association of Commercial Employees (DHV), and the German National People's Party (DNVP).[4]

References

  1. ^ Barbara Spackman. Fascist virilities: rhetoric, ideology, and social fantasy in Italy. Pp. 78.
  2. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. Pp. 94.
  3. ^ Barbara Spackman. Fascist virilities: rhetoric, ideology, and social fantasy in Italy. Pp. 78.
  4. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. Pp. 94.
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