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President of the Council of Ministers of Italy

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Title: President of the Council of Ministers of Italy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Presidency, The Olive Tree (political coalition), Lamberto Dini, SISMI, SISDE, CESIS, Prodi II Cabinet, COPASIR, Prodi I Cabinet, Palazzo Chigi
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President of the Council of Ministers of Italy

President of the Council of Ministers of Italy
Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri della Repubblica Italiana
Flag of the President of the Council of Ministers
Residence
Palazzo Chigi
Appointer President of the Republic
Inaugural holder Camillo Benso di Cavour
Formation 17 March 1861
Website www.governo.it



The Prime Minister of Italy, officially the President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic[1] (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the head of government of the Italian Republic.

While the office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems, the Italian prime minister has less authority than some of his counterparts. The prime minister is not authorized to request the dissolution of the Parliament of Italy or to dismiss ministers, and must receive a vote of approval from the Council of Ministers—which holds effective executive power—to execute most political activities.

The office was established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the current Constitution of Italy. The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election. Commonly referred to in Italy as premier, the right title of the office holder is Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri, or just Presidente del Consiglio. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office.

History

The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in the constitution, the Albertine Statute. The candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. In its first 60 years of existence (1861-1921), Italy changed its prime minister 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party alone. With the proclamation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition and 26 men assumed the office in 67 years.

Functions

In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the cabinet, the prime minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic.

Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that "the prime minister directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers". This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state, as it is strongly influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent.

Often the prime minister's activity consists more in mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The prime minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a cabinet reshuffle (rimpasto), or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure.

Timeline

Kingdom of Italy

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from: 08/12/1862 till: 24/03/1864 color:blue text:"Farini" fontsize:10
from: 24/03/1863 till: 28/09/1864 color:blue text:"Minghetti" fontsize:10
from: 28/09/1864 till: 20/06/1866 color:blue text:"La Marmora" fontsize:10
from: 20/06/1866 till: 10/04/1867 color:blue text:"Ricasoli" fontsize:10
from: 10/04/1867 till: 24/10/1867 color:red text:"Rattazzi" fontsize:10
from: 27/10/1867 till: 14/12/1869 color:blue text:"Menabrea" fontsize:10
from: 14/12/1869 till: 10/07/1873 color:blue text:"Lanza" fontsize:10
from: 10/07/1873 till: 25/03/1876 color:blue text:"Minghetti" fontsize:10
from: 25/03/1876 till: 24/03/1878 color:red text:"Depretis" fontsize:10
from: 24/03/1878 till: 19/12/1878 color:red text:"Cairoli" fontsize:10
from: 19/12/1878 till: 14/07/1879 color:red text:"Depretis" fontsize:10
from: 14/07/1879 till: 29/05/1881 color:red text:"Cairoli" fontsize:10
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from: 29/06/1898 till: 24/06/1900 color:blue text:"Pelloux" fontsize:10
from: 24/06/1900 till: 15/02/1901 color:red text:"Saracco" fontsize:10
from: 15/02/1901 till: 03/11/1903 color:red text:"Zanardelli" fontsize:10
from: 03/11/1903 till: 12/03/1905 color:red text:"Giolitti" fontsize:10
from: 12/03/1905 till: 28/03/1905 color:blue text:"Tittoni" fontsize:10
from: 28/03/1905 till: 08/02/1906 color:red text:"Fortis" fontsize:10
from: 08/02/1906 till: 29/05/1906 color:blue text:"Sonnino" fontsize:10
from: 29/05/1906 till: 11/12/1909 color:red text:"Giolitti" fontsize:10
from: 11/12/1909 till: 31/03/1910 color:blue text:"Sonnino" fontsize:10
from: 31/03/1910 till: 30/03/1911 color:blue text:"Luzzati" fontsize:10
from: 30/03/1911 till: 21/03/1914 color:red text:"Giolitti" fontsize:10
from: 21/03/1914 till: 18/06/1916 color:blue text:"Salandra" fontsize:10
from: 18/06/1916 till: 29/10/1917 color:blue text:"Boselli" fontsize:10
from: 23/10/1917 till: 23/06/1919 color:red text:"Orlando" fontsize:10
from: 23/06/1919 till: 15/06/1920 color:orange text:"Nitti" fontsize:10
from: 15/06/1920 till: 04/07/1921 color:red text:"Giolitti" fontsize:10
from: 04/07/1921 till: 26/02/1922 color:pink text:"Bonomi" fontsize:10
from: 26/02/1922 till: 31/10/1922 color:blue text:"Facta" fontsize:10
from: 31/10/1922 till: 25/07/1943 color:black text:"Mussolini" fontsize:10
from: 25/07/1943 till: 18/06/1944 color:ind text:"Badoglio" fontsize:10
from: 18/06/1944 till: 19/06/1945 color:pink text:"Bonomi" fontsize:10
from: 21/06/1945 till: 08/12/1945 color:green text:"Parri" fontsize:10
from: 10/12/1945 till: 10/07/1946 color:yellow text:"De Gasperi" fontsize:10

Italian Republic

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from: 10/07/1946 till: 17/08/1953 color:yellow text:"De Gasperi" fontsize:10
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from: 10/02/1954 till: 06/07/1955 color:yellow text:"Scelba" fontsize:10
from: 06/07/1955 till: 15/05/1957 color:yellow text:"Segni" fontsize:10
from: 19/05/1957 till: 01/07/1958 color:yellow text:"Zoli" fontsize:10
from: 01/07/1958 till: 15/02/1959 color:yellow text:"Fanfani" fontsize:10
from: 15/02/1959 till: 23/03/1960 color:yellow text:"Segni" fontsize:10
from: 25/03/1960 till: 26/07/1960 color:yellow text:"Tambroni" fontsize:10
from: 26/07/1960 till: 21/06/1963 color:yellow text:"Fanfani" fontsize:10
from: 21/06/1963 till: 04/12/1963 color:yellow text:"Leone" fontsize:10
from: 04/12/1963 till: 24/06/1968 color:yellow text:"Moro" fontsize:10
from: 24/06/1968 till: 12/12/1968 color:yellow text:"Leone" fontsize:10
from: 12/12/1968 till: 06/08/1970 color:yellow text:"Rumor" fontsize:10
from: 06/08/1970 till: 17/02/1972 color:yellow text:"Colombo" fontsize:10
from: 17/02/1972 till: 07/07/1973 color:yellow text:"Andreotti" fontsize:10
from: 26/07/1973 till: 23/11/1974 color:yellow text:"Rumor" fontsize:10
from: 23/11/1974 till: 29/07/1976 color:yellow text:"Moro" fontsize:10
from: 29/07/1976 till: 04/08/1979 color:yellow text:"Andreotti" fontsize:10
from: 04/08/1979 till: 18/10/1980 color:yellow text:"Cossiga" fontsize:10
from: 18/10/1980 till: 28/06/1981 color:yellow text:"Forlani" fontsize:10
from: 28/06/1981 till: 01/12/1982 color:green text:"Spadolini" fontsize:10
from: 01/12/1982 till: 04/12/1983 color:yellow text:"Fanfani" fontsize:10
from: 04/08/1983 till: 17/04/1987 color:red text:"Craxi" fontsize:10
from: 17/04/1987 till: 28/07/1987 color:yellow text:"Fanfani" fontsize:10
from: 28/07/1987 till: 13/04/1988 color:yellow text:"Goria" fontsize:10
from: 13/04/1988 till: 22/07/1989 color:yellow text:"De Mita" fontsize:10
from: 22/07/1989 till: 24/06/1992 color:yellow text:"Andreotti" fontsize:10
from: 28/06/1992 till: 28/04/1993 color:red text:"Amato" fontsize:10
from: 28/04/1993 till: 10/05/1994 color:ind text:"Ciampi" fontsize:10
from: 10/05/1994 till: 17/01/1995 color:blue text:"Berlusconi" fontsize:10
from: 17/01/1995 till: 17/05/1996 color:ind text:"Dini" fontsize:10
from: 17/05/1996 till: 21/10/1998 color:red text:"Prodi" fontsize:10
from: 21/10/1998 till: 25/04/2000 color:red text:"D'Alema" fontsize:10
from: 25/04/2000 till: 11/06/2001 color:red text:"Amato" fontsize:10
from: 11/06/2001 till: 23/04/2006 color:blue text:"Berlusconi" fontsize:10
from: 17/05/2006 till: 08/05/2008 color:red text:"Prodi" fontsize:10
from: 08/05/2008 till: 16/11/2011 color:blue text:"Berlusconi" fontsize:10
from: 16/11/2011 till: 28/04/2013 color:ind text:"Monti" fontsize:10
from: 28/04/2013 till: 01/12/2013 color:red text:"Letta" fontsize:10

Living former Prime Ministers

There are nine living former Italian Prime Ministers:

See also

References

  • This article was translated from the equivalent article in Italian World Heritage Encyclopedia, retrieved 16 April 2006.

External links

  • Website of the Prime Minister of Italy
  • List of Italian Prime Ministers, with information on length of term and party membership
el:Πρωθυπουργός της Ιταλίας

la:Praeses consilii ministrorum ru:Председатель Совета Министров Италии zh:意大利总理

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