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Political Committee of National Liberation

Free Greece
Ελεύθερη Ελλάδα
Eleftheri Ellada
National Liberation Front and Communist Party of Greece dominated government (unrecognized internationally)

1944
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Eleftheria i Thanatos"
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
"Freedom or Death"

"Thanatos sto Fasismo"
Θάνατος στο Φασισμό
"Death to Fascism"

Anthem
Ýmnos is tin Eleftherían
Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
"Hymn to Freedom"
Capital Athens (official), Koryschades (Evrytania) (headquarter of PEEA)
Languages Greek/Demotic Greek
Religion Greek Orthodox
Political structure Provisional government, Democratic republic, Socialist state
Chairman of PEEA
 •  March 10, 1944–April 18, 1944 Evripidis Bakirtzis (KKE)
 •  18 April 1944–9 October 1944 Alexandros Svolos (SKE)
Legislature National Council
Historical era World War II
 •  Established 10 March 1944
 •  Disestablished 9 October 1944
Currency Greek drachma (₯)

The Political Committee of National Liberation (}

}}: Πολιτική Επιτροπή Εθνικής Απελευθέρωσης, Politiki Epitropi Ethikis Apeleftherosis, PEEA), commonly known as the "Mountain Government" (}

}}: Κυβέρνηση του Βουνού), was a Communist Party-dominated government established in Greece in 1944 in opposition to both the collaborationist German-controlled government at Athens and to the royal government-in-exile in Cairo. It was integrated with the Greek government-in-exile in a national unity government at the Lebanon conference in May 1944.

Background

Establishment

The PEEA was established on 10 March 1944 by the leftist National Liberation Front (EAM)/Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS) movement, which was then in control of much of the country. Its aims, according to its founding charter, were, "to intensify the struggle against the conquerors ... for full national liberation, for the consolidation of the independence and integrity of our country (...) and for the annihilation of domestic fascism and armed traitor formations".

The PEEA's authority was significantly reinforced after the establishment of the National Council (}

}}: Εθνικό Συμβούλιο) in 1944. The National Council was an assembly elected by secret elections organised by the PEEA in late April 1944 in both the liberated parts of Greece and the still-occupied cities, mainly Athens. Approximately one million people took part in these elections, which are notable for the fact that for the first time in Greece, women were allowed to vote. The Council first converged in Koryschades, a mountain village of Evrytania, from 14 to 27 May 1944. Its main act was voting a resolution, an extract of which is quoted:

The PEEA's first president was Evripidis Bakirtzis, the former leader of National and Social Liberation (EKKA). On April 18 Alexandros Svolos, a prominent professor of constitutional law of the University of Athens, took his position and Bakirtzis became vice-president. Not only communist leaders but also many progressive bourgeois, who had nothing to do with communist ideas, participated in the PEEA.

ELAS not only resisted German and Italian occupation forces but also re-organised life in

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