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Parliamentary Monarchy

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Parliamentary Monarchy

Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the guidelines of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution. This form of government differs from absolute monarchy in which an absolute monarch serves as the source of power in the state and is not legally bound by any constitution and has the powers to regulate his or her respective government.

Constitutional monarchies are sometimes referred to as limited monarchies, crowned republics or parliamentary monarchies.[1][2][lower-alpha 1]

Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the monarch may have strictly ceremonial duties or may have reserve powers, depending on the constitution. Under most modern constitutional monarchies there is also a prime minister who is the head of government and exercises effective political power. There also exist today several federal constitutional monarchies. In these countries, each subdivision has a distinct government and head of government, but all subdivisions share a monarch who is head of state of the federation as a united whole.

Contemporary constitutional monarchies include: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bahrain, Cambodia, Canada, Denmark, Grenada, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom.

As of June 2013, the latest country that was completely transformed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy is Bhutan.

Constitutional and absolute monarchy

In England, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 led to a constitutional English monarchy restricted by laws such as the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, although limits on the power of the monarch ('a limited monarchy') are much older than that (see Magna Carta). At the same time, in Scotland, the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689 which placed similar limits on the Scottish monarchy. With the Hanoverian accession in Britain onwards, monarchs saw their powers pass further to their ministers, and Royal neutrality in politics became cemented from around the start of the reign of Queen Victoria (though she had her personal favorites) and enlargements to the franchise. Today, the role is by convention effectively ceremonial.[3] Instead, the British Parliament and the Government - chiefly in the office of Prime Minister - exercise their powers under 'Royal (or Crown) Prerogative': on behalf of the Monarch and through powers still formally possessed by the Monarch.[4][5] No person may accept significant public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen.[6] Constitutional monarchy occurred first in continental Europe, briefly in the early years of the French revolution, but much more widely afterwards. Napoleon Bonaparte is considered the first monarch proclaiming himself as an embodiment of the nation, rather than as a divinely-appointed ruler; this interpretation of monarchy is germane to continental constitutional monarchies. G.W.F. Hegel, in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1820), gave it a philosophical justification that concurred with evolving contemporary political theory and the Protestant Christian view of natural law. Hegel's forecast of a constitutional monarch with very limited powers whose function is to embody the national character and provide constitutional continuity in times of emergency was reflected in the development of constitutional monarchies in Europe and Japan. His forecast of the form of government suitable to the modern world may be seen as prophetic: the largely ceremonial offices of president in some modern parliamentary republics in Europe and e.g. Israel can be perceived as elected or appointed versions of Hegel's constitutional monarch; the Russian and French presidents, with their stronger powers, may also be regarded in Hegelian terms as wielding powers suitable to the embodiment of the national will.

Executive monarchy versus Ceremonial monarchy

There exist at least two different types of constitutional monarchies in the modern world - executive and ceremonial. In executive monarchies, the monarch wields significant (though not absolute) power. The monarchy under this system of government is a powerful political (and social) institution. By contrast, in ceremonial monarchies, the monarch holds little actual power or direct political influence.

Executive monarchies: Bhutan, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Morocco, Tonga, United Arab Emirates.

Ceremonial monarchies: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Cambodia, Canada, Denmark, Grenada, Jamaica, Japan, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom.

Ceremonial and executive monarchy, should not be confused with democratic and non-democratic monarchical systems. For example, Liechtenstein and Monaco are considered democratic states, yet the ruling monarchs in these countries wield significant executive power.

Modern constitutional monarchy

As originally conceived, a constitutional monarch was head of the executive branch and quite a powerful figure, even though his or her power was limited by the constitution and the elected parliament. Some of the framers of the US Constitution may have envisaged the president as an elected constitutional monarch, as the term was then understood, following Montesquieu's account of the separation of powers.[7]

The present-day concept of a constitutional monarchy developed in the United Kingdom, where the democratically elected parliaments, and their leader, the prime minister, exercise power, with the monarchs having ceded power and remaining as a titular position. In many cases the monarchs, while still at the very top of the political and social hierarchy, were given the status of "servants of the people" to reflect the new, egalitarian position. In the course of France's July Monarchy, Louis-Philippe I was styled "King of the French" rather than "King of France".

Following the Unification of Germany, Otto von Bismarck rejected the British model. In the constitutional monarchy established under the Constitution of the German Empire which Bismarck inspired, the Kaiser retained considerable actual executive power, while the Imperial Chancellor needed no parliamentary vote of confidence and ruled solely by the imperial mandate. However this model of constitutional monarchy was discredited and abolished following Germany's defeat in the First World War. Later, Fascist Italy could also be considered as a "constitutional monarchy" of a kind, in that there was a king as the titular head of state while actual power was held by Benito Mussolini under a constitution. This eventually discredited the Italian monarchy and led to its abolition in 1946. After the Second World War, surviving European monarchies almost invariably adopted some variant of the constitutional monarchy model originally developed in Britain.

Nowadays a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy is considered to differ from one that is a republic only in detail rather than in substance. In both cases, the titular head of state - monarch or president - serves the traditional role of embodying and representing the nation, while the government is carried on by a cabinet composed predominantly of elected Members of Parliament.

However, three important factors distinguish monarchies such as the United Kingdom from systems where greater power might otherwise rest with Parliament. These are: the Royal Prerogative under which the monarch may exercise power under certain very limited circumstances; Sovereign Immunity under which they are considered to have done no wrong under the law, and may avoid both taxation and planning permission, for example; and considerable ceremonial power where the executive, judiciary, police and armed forces owe allegiance to the Crown.

Today slightly more than a quarter of constitutional monarchies are Western European countries, including the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Luxembourg, Monaco, Liechtenstein, and Sweden. However, the two most populous constitutional monarchies in the world are in Asia: Japan and Thailand. In these countries the prime minister holds the day-to-day powers of governance, while the King or Queen (or other monarch, such as a Grand Duke, in the case of Luxembourg, or Prince in the case of Monaco and Liechtenstein) retains residual (but not always insignificant) powers. The powers of the monarch differ between countries. In Denmark and in Belgium, for example, the Monarch formally appoints a representative to preside over the creation of a coalition government following a parliamentary election, while in Norway the King chairs special meetings of the cabinet.

In nearly all cases, the monarch is still the nominal chief executive, but is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Cabinet. Only a few monarchies (most notably Japan and Sweden) have amended their constitutions so that the monarch is no longer even the nominal chief executive.

There are sixteen constitutional monarchies under Queen Elizabeth II, which are known as Commonwealth realms.[8] Unlike some of their continental European counterparts, the Monarch and her Governors-General in the Commonwealth realms hold significant "reserve" or "prerogative" powers, to be wielded in times of extreme emergency or constitutional crises, usually to uphold parliamentary government. An instance of a Governor-General exercising such power occurred during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, when the Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed by the Governor-General. The Australian senate had threatened to block the Government's budget by refusing to pass the necessary appropriation bills. On 11 November 1975, Whitlam intended to call a half-Senate election in an attempt to break the deadlock. When he sought the Governor-General's approval of the election, the Governor-General instead dismissed him as Prime Minister, and shortly thereafter installed leader of the opposition Malcolm Fraser in his place. Acting quickly before all parliamentarians became aware of the change of government, Fraser and his allies secured passage of the appropriation bills, and the Governor-General dissolved Parliament for a double dissolution election. Fraser and his government were returned with a massive majority. This led to much speculation among Whitlam's supporters as to whether this use of the Governor-General's reserve powers was appropriate, and whether Australia should become a republic. Among supporters of constitutional monarchy, however, the experience confirmed the value of the monarchy as a source of checks and balances against elected politicians who might seek powers in excess of those conferred by the constitution, and ultimately as a safeguard against dictatorship.

In Thailand's constitutional monarchy, the monarch is recognized as the Head of State, Head of the Armed Forces, Upholder of the Buddhist Religion, and Defender of the Faith. The current King, Bhumibol Adulyadej, is the longest reigning current monarch in the world and in all of Thailand's history.[9] Bhumibol has reigned through several political changes in the Thai government. He has played an influential role in each incident, often acting as mediator between disputing political opponents. (See Bhumibol's role in Thai Politics.) Among the powers retained by the monarch under the constitution, lèse majesté protects the image of the monarch and enables him to play a role in politics. It carries strict criminal penalties for violators. Generally, the Thai people are reverent of Bhumibol. Much of his social influence arises from this reverence and from the socio-economic improvement efforts undertaken by the royal family.

In both the United Kingdom and elsewhere, a frequent debate centres on when it is appropriate for a monarch to use his or her political powers. When a monarch does act, political controversy can often ensue, partially because the neutrality of the crown is seen to be compromised in favour of a partisan goal, while some political scientists champion the idea of an "interventionist monarch" as a check against possible illegal action by politicians. There are currently 44 monarchies, and most of them are constitutional monarchies.

List of current reigning monarchies

State Last constitution established Type of monarchy Monarch selection
 Andorra 1993 Co-Principality Selection of Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell and election of French President
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Australia 1901 Constitutional Monarchy and Federal Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 The Bahamas 1973 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Barbados 1966 Ujjwal Raj Hereditary succession
 Bahrain 2002 Kingdom
 Belgium 1831 Kingdom; Popular monarchy[lower-alpha 2] Hereditary succession
 Belize 1981 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Bhutan 2007 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Cambodia 1993 Kingdom Chosen by throne council
 Canada 1867 Constitutional Monarchy and Federal Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 Denmark 1953 Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 Grenada 1974 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Jamaica 1962 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Japan 1946 Empire Hereditary succession
 Jordan 1952 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Kuwait 1962 Emirate Hereditary succession, with directed approval of the House of Al-Sabah and majority of National Assembly
 Lesotho 1993 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed approval of College of Chiefs
 Liechtenstein 1862 Principality; Mixture of absolute and constitutional principality
 Luxembourg 1868 Grand duchy
 Malaysia 1957 Elective monarchy; Federal monarchy Selected from nine hereditary Sultans of the Malay states
 Monaco 1911 Principality
 Morocco 2011 Unitary parliamentary constitutional Monarchy Hereditary succession
 Netherlands 1815 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 New Zealand 1907 Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 Norway 1814 Kingdom
 Papua New Guinea 1975 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Saint Lucia 1979 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Solomon Islands 1978 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Spain 1978 Kingdom Hereditary succession
 Swaziland 1968 Kingdom; Mixture of absolute and constitutional monarchy Hereditary succession
 Sweden 1974 Kingdom
 Thailand 1946 Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 Tonga 1970 Kingdom
 Tuvalu 1978 Constitutional Monarchy and Federal Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
 United Arab Emirates 1971 Elective monarchy; Constitutional federation of absolute monarchies President elected by the seven absolute monarchs constituting the Federal Supreme Council
 United Kingdom 1688 Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy Hereditary succession
  Vatican City 1929 Ecclesiastical, sacerdotal and absolute elective monarchy and theocracy Elective monarchy (the Pope, as Sovereign of the Vatican City State, is elected by the College of Cardinals)

Former constitutional monarchies

Other situations

See also

Notes

References

  • Hegel, G. W. F., Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Allen W. Wood, ed., H.B. Nisbet, trans.) Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-521-34438-7 (originally published as Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel, Philosophie des Rechts, 1820).
  • Locke, John, Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration. (Ian Shapiro, ed., with essays by John Dunn, Ruth W. Grant and Ian Shapiro.) New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003 (Two Treatises first pub. 1690). ISBN 0-300-10017-5.
  • — England and the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries were parliamentary democracies.
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