World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Ouidah

Ouidah
Whydah, Juda, Juida, Ajudá
Commune and city
Basilica of Ouidah
Basilica of Ouidah
Ouidah is located in Benin
Ouidah
Location in Benin
Coordinates:
Country  Benin
Department Atlantique Department
Area
 • Total 364 km2 (141 sq mi)
Elevation 65 m (213 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 91,688
 • Density 250/km2 (650/sq mi)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)

Ouidah , historically also called Whydah , Juda,[2] Juida by the French[3] and Ajudá by the Portuguese,[4] formally the Kingdom of Whydah (so named for the Whydah Bird of Paradise), is a city on the Atlantic coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 (141 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people.[5]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá 2
  • Notable landmarks 3
  • World Heritage Status 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

In local tradition Kpase is supposed to have founded the town.[6] This probably happened towards the end of the sixteenth century.[7] The town was originally known as Glēxwé, literally 'Farmhouse', and was part of the Kingdom of Whydah.

Whydah troops pushed their way into the African interior, capturing millions of people through tribal wars, and selling them to the Europeans and Arabs[8]. By 1716, when the massive English slave ship Whydah Gally arrived to purchase 500 slaves from King Haffon to sell in Jamaica, the Kingdom of Whydah had become the second largest slave port in the Trade Triangle.

The Kingdom was ruled by King Haffon, who received his coronation crown as a gift from Portugal, until, in 1727, the was captured by the forces of King of Dahomey. On 19 March 1727, the Boston News-Letter gave this horrific report:

"WHYDAH IN AFRICA: the beginning of this month, Agaja the king of Dahomey came down unexpectedly with an army, and soon became master of this place, and the country adjacent [Allada]; the defoliation which ensued was so great, that it is impossible to be represented! The factory at Saber, once the king's town and Seat of Trade, was burnt to the ground, and in it a great quantity of merchandise. Forty Europeans were carried into captivity, to the King of Dahomey's camp at Ardrah, but after having been detained about 14 days, seven of them were released and are now returning hither; they gave a melancholy account of their treatment. This country, which was the pleasantest in all these parts, is now laid waste by fire and sword, and made a wilderness!"

The land which constituted the Kingdom of Whydah became a mere city in the new Kingdom of Dahomey. The Portuguese, English, Dutch and French all constructed forts in the city to protect their interests in slaving. The Portuguese had reached the town which they called Ajudá in 1580 and the Portuguese Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá, now housing The Whydah [Ouidah] Museum, dates from 1721 and remained with Portugal until 31 July 1961.

Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá

The fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá, late 19th century

The Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá (in English Fort of St. John the Baptist of Ouidah) is a small fortress built by the Portuguese in Ouidah on the coast of Dahomey (originally Ajudá, from Hweda, on the Atlantic coast of modern Benin), reached by the Portuguese in 1580, after which it grew around the slave trade, for which the Slave Coast was already renowned. In 1680 the Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe was authorized to erect a fort. In 1721, after having been abandoned for some years, it was reconstructed and named São João Baptista de Ajudá.The Fort, built on land given to Portugal by King Haffon of Whydah, remained under Portuguese control from 1721 until 1961.

The Historical Museum of Ouidah
Pirate Bartholomew Roberts at Ouidah, with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background

The fort had an important impact in Benin, greatly contributing to both the Portuguese and African slave trade. Its importance is attested by the fact that the Portuguese language was the only foreign language that the Kings of Dahomey authorised. Portuguese descendants were also important in the political structure of the kingdom and some established Portuguese-Brazilian families, such as the de Sousa / de Souza whose descendants still exist in Benin, Togo and Ghana, were powerful and abided by private law. In January 1722 the pirate Bartholomew Roberts ("Black Bart") sailed into the harbour and captured all the eleven ships at anchor there.

Following the abolition of the legal slave trade in 1807, the fort, which had before been one of the major slave ports, gradually lost its importance and although Portugal continued to claim it as one of its possessions, formal occupation and administration were abandoned on several occasions. It was only when French presence in the region started threatening Portugal's interests that the settlement was again permanently manned. This didn't prevent the French conquest of Dahomey (1891–1894). After this, São João Baptista de Ajudá – now reduced to the territory actually within the walls of the fort – lost what remained of its importance.

Football in Ouidah

The fort was reoccupied by Portugal in 1865. In this period it served as a base for a brief Portuguese attempt to create a protectorate in the Kingdom of Dahomey of which the city of Hweda (Ajudá – Ouidah) was part (1885–1887).

Until its annexation by Dahomey in 1961, São João Baptista de Ajudá was probably the smallest recognized separate modern political unit, initially around 1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) and later reduced to only 2ha (5 acres), at which time, according to the census of 1921, it had 5 inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese sovereignty, who tried to burn it rather than surrendering it. When the fort was captured, they were hastily escorted to the Nigerian border and expelled from the country.

Only in 1975, after the Portuguese Estado Novo regime had been overthrown due to the Carnation Revolution at Lisbon, did the annexation of the fort by Dahomey (now renamed Benin) gain official Portuguese recognition. This was followed by the fort's restoration, which was paid for by Portugal. The fort is a small square with towers at the four corners. It comprises a church and officers' quarters. The Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá now houses a museum.

Bruce Chatwin’s book The Viceroy of Ouidah (1980) is a fictional retelling of the life of Francisco Félix de Sousa, the Sousa family founder in Benin, and of his powerful local descendants, dealing also with the slave trade with Brazil. The novel inspired Werner Herzog’s movie Cobra Verde (1987).

The population evolution of Ouidah is as follows:

Year Population[9]
1979 25 459
1992 64 433
2002 77 832
2008 (estimate) 90 042

Notable landmarks

Door of No Return

Other attractions in Ouidah include a restored mansion of Brazilian slavers the Maison du Brésil art gallery, a voodoo python temple, an early twentieth century basilica and the Sacred Forest of Kpasse, dotted with bronze statues.

The Route des Esclaves, by which slaves were taken to the beach, has numerous statues and monuments, including the Door of No Return, a memorial arch.

The Market Center of Ouidah, which was established by Scouts more than 20 years ago, trains young people in agricultural skills, thus helping to reverse the exodus towards the cities.

Ouidah is the spiritual capital of the Vodun religion, and hosts an annual international Vodun conference.[10]

Other landmarks include:

World Heritage Status

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on 31 October 1996 in the Cultural category.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". 
  2. ^ Kein, Sybil, Creole, p227
  3. ^ Tome Vingt-Cinquieme, contenant La Suite de l'Histoire d'Afrique, p. 313, at Google Books
  4. ^ http://www.red.unb.br/ textos/article/viewArticle/5714
  5. ^ "Communes of Benin". Statoids. Archived from the original on 2012-04-30. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving 'Port', 2004, p.21
  7. ^ Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving 'Port', 2004, p.24-25
  8. ^ Ouidah Museum, Benin - "Depart pour D'Autres 'Ceux', Convoi De negres: homes, femmes et enfants, conduits enchaines par des metis Arabes"
  9. ^ "Benin". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  10. ^ "The Voodoo Day: Benin welcomes magicians from all over the world". 1 November 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  11. ^ La ville d'Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l'Esclave – UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  • WorldStatesmen- Benin not quite worked in yet
  • La ville d'Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l'Esclave – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

External links

  • Door of No Return

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.