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Nygaardsvold's Cabinet

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Nygaardsvold's Cabinet

Nygaardsvold's Cabinet. From left: Minister of Finance Adolf Indrebø, Minister of Defence Fredrik Monsen, Minister of Foreign Affairs Halvdan Koht, Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold, Minister of Agriculture Hans Ystgaard, Minister of Trade Alfred Madsen, Minister of Social Affairs Kornelius Bergsvik, Minister of Education Nils Hjelmtveit and Minister of Justice Trygve Lie

Nygaardsvold's Cabinet was appointed on 20 March 1935,[1] the second Labour cabinet in Norway. It brought to an end the non-socialist, minority Governments that had been dominating politics since the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1884, and replaced it with stable, Labour Governments that, with the exception of during World War II, would last until the coalition cabinet Lyng in 1963.[2]

Since the cabinet Hornsrud intermezzo in the winter of 1928, a one-month Labour Government, the Labour Party had changed from revolutionary communism to social democracy. The main reason for the change of course was the realization of that Government power could be used for reforms that could lessen the impact of the economic crisis. In the 1933 election the party used the slogans "Work for everyone" and "Country and city, hand in hand". The last time the party portrayed itself as revolutionary was the 1930 election.

The Labour Party advanced in the 1933 election, but did not get a majority. Instead they made a compromise with the Farmer Party, allowing the cabinet Nygaardsvold to enter the Council of State. The party did not get majority in the 1936 election either, and continued to govern thanks to fluctuating support from various opposition parties.

The night before 9 April 1940, the Norwegian Government was, like most other authorities in the country, surprised by the German Operation Weserübung. It chose resistance, though in a rather fumbling and unclear way, especially initially. The Government left Norway on 7 June 1940 after the capitulation and established itself in London the same day, along with King Haakon VII and Crown Prince Olav.[3]

Back in Norway, over the course of the war, four cabinets were instated by Vidkun Quisling and Josef Terboven, as the de facto Governments of Norway. The Government-in-exile is sometimes referred to as the London Cabinet. It returned to Norway on 31 May 1945. On 12 June Nygaardsvold announced his resignation, and on 25 June the pan-political first cabinet Gerhardsen took over.

Below are the four de facto Governments in Oslo during the war, either sympathising with or actually appointed by German Forces. Reichskommissar in Oslo was Josef Terboven.

Cabinet Nygaardsvold

Building in London occupied by the Norwegian government-in-exile.
Portfolio Minister Period Party
Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold 20 March 1935 - 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Agriculture Hans Ystgaard 20 March 1935 - 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Church Affairs and Education Nils Hjelmtveit 20 March 1935 - 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Defence Christian Fredrik Monsen
Adolf Indrebø
Oscar Torp
Christian Fredrik Monsen
Birger Ljungberg
Oscar Torp
20 March 1935 - 15 November 1935
15 November 1935 - 20 December 1935
20 December 1935 - 15 August 1936
15 August 1936 - 22 December 1939
22 December 1939 - 28 November 1942
28 November 1942 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Minister of Finance Adolf Indrebø
Kornelius Bergsvik
Oscar Torp
Paul Hartmann
20 March 1935 - 13 November 1936
13 November 1936 - 1 July 1939
1 July 1939 - 28 November 1941
28 November 1941 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Labour
Resistance
Minister of Foreign Affairs Halvdan Koht
Trygve Lie
20 March 1935 - 19 November 1940
19 November 1940 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Minister of Justice Trygve Lie
Terje Wold
20 March 1935 - 19 November 1939
19 November 1939 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Minister of Labour Johan Nygaardsvold
Olav Hindahl
20 March 1935 - 2 October 1939
2 October 1939 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Minister of Social Affairs Kornelius Bergsvik
Oscar Torp
Sverre Støstad
20 March 1935 - 13 November 1936
13 November 1936 - 1 July 1939
1 July 1939 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Labour
Minister of Shipping Arne Sunde 1 October 1942 - 25 June 1945 Liberal
Minister of Supply Trygve Lie
Arne Sunde
Anders Rasmus Frihagen
2 October 1939 - 19 November 1940
19 November 1940 - 1 October 1942
1 October 1942 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Liberal
Labour
Minister of Trade, Shipping, Industry, Crafts and Fisheries Alfred Madsen
Trygve Lie
Anders Rasmus Frihagen
Terje Wold
Anders Rasmus Frihagen
Olav Hindahl
Sven Nielsen
20 March 1935 - 1 July 1939
1 July 1939 - 2 October 1939
2 October 1939 - 7 June 1940
7 June 1940 - April 1942
April 1942 - 1 October 1942
1 October 1942 - 9 March 1945
9 March 1945 - 25 June 1945
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Labour
Conservative

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Friis, 1965
  3. ^ Friis, 1965

See also

Further reading

  • Erik J. Friis, "The Norwegian Government-In-Exile, 1940-45" in Scandinavian Studies. Essays Presented to Dr. Henry Goddard Leach on the Occasion of his Eighty-fifth Birthday (1965), pp 422-444
Preceded by
Third cabinet Mowinckel
Norwegian Council of State
1935–1945
Succeeded by
de facto
Quisling cabinet (1942)
de jure
First cabinet Gerhardsen (1945)
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