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List of nicknames of United States Presidents

 

List of nicknames of United States Presidents

This is a list of nicknames of Presidents of the United States which were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter.

Presidential nicknames

George Washington

Full name: George Washington

  • The American Cincinnatus[1] Like the famous Roman, he won a war, then became a private citizen instead of seeking power or riches as a reward. He became the first President General of the Society of the Cincinnati, formed by Revolutionary War officers who also "declined offers of power and position to return to his home and plough."[2]
  • The American Fabius[3] For his Fabian military strategy during the Revolutionary War
  • The Father of His Country[4][5]

John Adams

Full name: John Adams, Jr.

  • The Colossus of Independence[6][7][8] Given for his leadership in Congress in 1776.
  • Old Sink or Swim For the speech in which he vowed "To sink or swim; to live or die; survive or perish with my country"
  • His Rotundity[9]

Thomas Jefferson

Full name: Thomas Jefferson

James Madison

Full name: James Madison

  • Little Jemmy[13] or His Little Majesty[13] At only 5' 4", he is the shortest person to serve as president.[14]
  • Father of the Constitution[15][16]

James Monroe

Full name: James Monroe

John Quincy Adams

Full name: John Quincy Adams

  • Old Man Eloquent or The Abolitionist famed for routinely bringing up the slavery issue against Congressional rules, and for his role later on in the Amistad case. He is the only American President to be elected to the House of Representatives after his Presidency. The nickname gained currency as a result of his campaign against slavery waged as a Congressman, and as the attorney in the Amistad case.[19]

Andrew Jackson

Full name: Andrew Jackson

  • The Hero of New Orleans[20] for his military victory in the Battle of New Orleans
  • Old Hickory[21] Allegedly given to him by his soldiers for being as "tough as old hickory."

Martin Van Buren

Full name: Martin Van Buren

  • The American Talleyrand[22]
  • The Careful Dutchman[23] Van Buren's first language was Dutch.
  • The Enchanter[23]
  • The Great Manager[23]
  • The Master Spirit[23]
  • Martin Van Ruin[23]
  • Matty Van From "Tippecanoe Songs of 1840"[24]
  • The Mistletoe Politician[25]
  • Old Kinderhook a reference to his hometown.[26]
  • Red Fox of Kinderhook a reference to his hometown, Kinderhook, NY[27]
  • The Little Magician[28][29] given to him during his time in the state of New York, because of his smooth politics and short stature.

William Henry Harrison

Full name: William Henry Harrison

  • General Mum[30] As in the expression, "keep it mum". Because of his avoidance of speaking out on controversial issues during his election campaign
  • Tippecanoe or also Old Tippecanoe[21] A reference to Harrison's victory at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe. This nickname was used in the campaign song Tippecanoe and Tyler Too during the 1840 Presidential election.
  • Washington of the West[21] A reference to Harrison's victories at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe and 1813 Battle of the Thames.

John Tyler

Full name: John Tyler, Jr.

  • His Accidency, a nickname given by his opponents; Tyler was the first president to be elevated to the Presidency by the death of his predecessor, William Henry Harrison.[31]

James K. Polk

Full name: James Knox Polk

  • Napoleon of the Stump Because of his potent oratory during his campaign for the Tennessee state legislature.
  • Young Hickory[32] Because he was a particular protégé of "Old Hickory" – Andrew Jackson

Zachary Taylor

Full name: Zachary Taylor

  • Old Rough and Ready[33]

Millard Fillmore

Full name: Millard Fillmore

Franklin Pierce

Full name: Franklin Pierce

  • Young Hickory of the Granite Hills[34] "Young Hickory" compared his military deeds (in the Mexican-American War) with those of Andrew Jackson. "The Granite Hills" were his home state of New Hampshire
  • Handsome Frank[35]

James Buchanan

Full name: James Buchanan, Jr.

  • Old Public Functionary[36] Used by Buchanan in his December 1859 State of the Union address and adopted by newspapers.[37]
  • Old Buck From a shortening of his last name, used later in life.[37]
  • Bachelor President[37] Per his unmarried status.
  • Ten-Cent Jimmy Derogatory, as a reaction to Buchanan's campaign statement that ten cents a day was decent pay for a worker.[38]

Abraham Lincoln

Full name: Abraham Lincoln

  • The Ancient One[39] A nickname favored by White House insiders because of his "ancient wisdom"
  • The Great Emancipator [40] and The Liberator[41] For the emancipation of the slaves.
  • Honest Abe[42]
  • The Rail-Splitter[42]
  • The Tycoon[43] For the energetic and ambitious conduct of his Civil War administration
  • Uncle Abe[44] Lincoln was a kind and friendly man who in his later years came across as avuncular

Andrew Johnson

Full name: Andrew Johnson

  • The Tennessee Tailor He worked as a tailor before going into politics.[45]

Ulysses S. Grant

Full name: Ulysses S. Grant — born Hiram Ulysses Grant but enrolled at West Point as Ulysses S. Grant through a clerical error [46]

Rutherford B. Hayes

Full name: Rutherford Birchard Hayes

James A. Garfield

Full name: James Abram Garfield

  • Boatman Jim, referencing his work on the Ohio canals in his youth.[49]

Chester A. Arthur

Full name: Chester Alan Arthur

  • Chet, shortened version of his name used by publications of that era.[50]
  • Gentleman Boss, as the dapper leader of New York State's Republican party.[50]
  • Prince Arthur,[51] and The Dude President[51] He was renowned for his fancy attire and indulgence in extravagant luxury.
  • Walrus[51] for having strange-looking facial hair (mostly used or teased by children).

Grover Cleveland

Full name: Stephen Grover Cleveland

  • His Obstinacy[52] He vetoed more bills than the first 21 presidents combined
  • Uncle Jumbo[53]

Benjamin Harrison

Full name: Benjamin Harrison

  • The Front Porch Campaigner[54] During the 1888 election, he gave nearly ninety speeches from his front porch to crowds gathered in the yard of his Indianapolis home. This nickname has been widely but erroneously attributed to William McKinley
  • The Human Iceberg[55] Although he could warmly engage a crowd with his speeches, he was cold and detached when speaking with people on an individual basis.
  • Little Ben [56] Nickname given to him by Democrats of his era because of his stature. This could also be a reference to his being the grandson of former President William Henry Harrison who had served fifty years before.

William McKinley

Full name: William McKinley, Jr.

  • The Napoleon of Protection[57] "Protection" meant high tariffs, like the one McKinley wrote in 1890.

Theodore Roosevelt

Full name: Theodore Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Full name: William Howard Taft

  • Big Chief[63]
  • Big Lub[64] Boyhood nickname

Woodrow Wilson

Full name: Thomas Woodrow Wilson

  • The Phrasemaker[65] As an acclaimed historian, Wilson had no need of speech-writers to supply his oratorical eloquence
  • The Schoolmaster[65] He was a bespectacled academic who lectured his visitors; compare to Italian Prime Minister (and former President of the European Commission) Romano Prodi's nickname Il Professore (the professor/schoolteacher).

Warren G. Harding

Full name: Warren Gamaliel Harding

Calvin Coolidge

Full name: John Calvin Coolidge, Jr.

  • Cautious Cal[67]
  • Cool Cal[68] His reelection campaign used the slogan, "Keep It Cool With Coolidge"
  • Silent Cal[69][70]

Herbert Hoover

Full name: Herbert Clark Hoover

  • The Great Engineer and The Great Humanitarian[71] He was a civil engineer of some distinction and when the Mississippi burst its banks in 1927, engulfing thousands of acres of agricultural land, he volunteered his services and did extensive flood control work. The latter nickname would later be used facetiously in reference to his perceived indifference to the hardships faced by his constituents during the Great Depression. However, the nickname dates back to 1921, when the ARA under Hoover saved millions of Russians suffering from famine. "It was such considerations that Walter Lippmann took into account when he wrote of Hoover's Russian undertaking in the New York World in May 1922: 'probably no other living man could have done nearly so much.'"[72]
  • The Chief[73] This was a nickname picked up at 23 as a geologist surveying in the Australian Outback, but it stuck for the rest of his life.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Full name: Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Harry S. Truman

Full name: Harry S. Truman

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Full name: Dwight David Eisenhower (born David Dwight Eisenhower)

John F. Kennedy

Full name: John Fitzgerald Kennedy

  • Jack[80] Kennedy was usually referred to as either "John F. Kennedy" or "Jack Kennedy", only very rarely as "John Kennedy"
  • JFK[81] Most prominent nickname and abbreviation of his full name.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Full name: Lyndon Baines Johnson

  • Bullshit Johnson[82] (Bull Johnson in public) Lyndon Johnson had a reputation for boasting at Southwest Texas State Teachers College
  • Landslide Lyndon[83] Sarcastic reference to the hotly disputed 87-vote win that took him to the Senate in 1949 which became more appropriate following his landslide victory in the 1964 presidential election.
  • Light-Bulb Lyndon[84] Nicknamed so because he hated wasting electricity, and would often storm around the White House shutting off unnecessary lights.
  • LBJ[85] He liked to be known by this abbreviation, which was used in the slogan, "All the way with LBJ"

Richard Nixon

Full name: Richard Milhous Nixon

Gerald Ford

Full name: Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr.)

  • Jerry[87]
  • Mr. Nice Guy[88][89] Because of his clean-cut and non-partisan image

Jimmy Carter

Full name: James Earl Carter, Jr.

  • Jimmy He was the first President to use his nickname in an official capacity.[90]
  • The Peanut Farmer[91] He owned a peanut farm and fostered this image in his early campaigns, as a contrast to elite Washington insiders.

Ronald Reagan

Full name: Ronald Wilson Reagan

  • Dutch Shortly after his birth, his father said he looked like a "fat little Dutchman"; reinforced when he wore a Dutch boy haircut (see pageboy) as a youngster.[92][93][94]
  • The Great Communicator[95] In reference to Reagan's ability to communicate.[96]
  • The Gipper After his role as in the film Knute Rockne, All American. Gipp's exhorted his teammates to "Win one for the Gipper".[97]
  • The Teflon President [98] Coined by Rep. Patricia Schroeder because nothing negative "stuck to" him (like a Teflon skillet); he remained blame-free in the eyes of the American people.[96]

George H. W. Bush

Full name: George Herbert Walker Bush

  • 41,[99] Papa Bush,[100] and similar names. All nicknames that were used after his son George Walker Bush became the 43rd president, to differentiate between the two.
  • Poppy, a nickname used from childhood on.[101][102]

Bill Clinton

Full name: William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III)

George W. Bush

Full name: George Walker Bush

Barack Obama

Full name: Barack Hussein Obama II

  • No Drama Obama[114] For his cautious and error-free presidential campaign in 2007–2008.[115]

See also

References

  1. ^ 'Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus: The Perfect Leader?' at parconresearch.com. Accessed 211-10-04. "It's easy to see why history sometimes refers to George Washington as "the American Cincinnatus". Washington too did great things then went back to his farm".
  2. ^ "Anderson House History". Societyofthecincinnati.org. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  3. ^ Ford, Paul L. (1896) The True George Washington quotes Timothy Pickering as writing, "His great caution in respect to the enemy, acquired him the name of the American Fabius". Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  4. ^ He has gained fame around the world as a quintessential example of a benevolent national founder. Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe. Gordon Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992), pp 105–6; Edmund Morgan, The Genius of George Washington (1980), pp 12–13; Sarah J. Purcell, Sealed With Blood: War, Sacrifice, and Memory in Revolutionary America (2002) p. 97; Don Higginbotham, George Washington (2004); Ellis, 2004. The earliest known image in which Washington is identified as such is on the cover of the circa 1778 Pennsylvania German almanac (Lancaster: Gedruckt bey Francis Bailey).
  5. ^ Rediscovering George Washington - pbs.org
  6. ^ Bergh edition of the Jefferson papers, v 13 p. xxiv
  7. ^ Latham, Edward (1904). A Dictionary of Names Nicknames and Surnames of Persons Places and Things. London: George Routledge & Sons LTD. p. 63. Retrieved July 11, 2013. A surname given to John Adams ... in allusion to his earnest and persevering efforts towards colonial independence in the Continental Congress. Sometimes also called the Colossus of the Revolution. 
  8. ^ Freeman, A (1828). The Principles and Acts of Mr. Adams' Administration. Concord, New Hampshire: New Hampshire Journal Office. p. 5. Retrieved July 11, 2013. Yes, John Adams, whom Jefferson pronounced the 'Colossus of Independence,' and who died with the motto 'Independence forever!' on his lips, 'probably desired independence.' So say William Badger and Francis N. Fisk. Shall we believe them? We will — not withstanding the doubt which their expression implies. 
  9. ^ "Biography of John Adams". www.senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  In describing a bust of Adams made by Daniel Chester French, "...the folds of material at the bottom of the vest suggest the girth that led Adams to be dubbed 'His Rotundity.'"
  10. ^ Green, Thomas Marshall (1889). Historic Families of Kentucky. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. p. 73. 
  11. ^ Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource
  12. ^ Dumas Malone (1981). The Sage of Monticello. Jefferson and His Time 6. Little, Brown.  
  13. ^ a b "The enemies of the fourth President of the U.S. called him "little Jemmy," or "his little majesty," or "withered little apple-John."" Time Magazine Online, November 3, 1961, 'Mr. Madison's War'
  14. ^ Kane, Joseph (1994). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. pp. 344–45.  
  15. ^ The LOC.GOV Wise Guide : Who's the Father of the Constitution?
  16. ^ James Madison: Father of the Constitution
  17. ^ Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Monroe including, his nicknames of the "Era-of-Good-Feelings President"
  18. ^ "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)". Ipl.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  19. ^ After the White House: former presidents as private citizens Max J. Skidmore, Macmillan, 2004 195 pages, page 39
  20. ^ Boller, Jr., Paul F. (1984). Presidential Campaigns. NY, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 45.  
  21. ^ a b c Latham, Edward (1904). A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things, p.220. G. Routledge & Sons, Ltd.,
  22. ^ Boller, Jr., Paul F. Presidential Diversions. p. 63. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Widmer, Ted; Widmer, Edward L. (2005). Martin Van Buren: The American Presidents Series. Macmillan. p. 4. 
  24. ^ Norton, The Great Revolution of 1840, 1888 page 74
  25. ^ [Seven Decades of the Union: The Humanities. 
  26. ^ "What is the origin of the word 'OK'?". Oxford University Press - oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  27. ^ http://www.nps.gov/mava/historyculture/upload/Lindenwald%20Servants.pdf
  28. ^ "C-Span: Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". May 3, 1999. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  29. ^ "Today in History: December 5". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  30. ^ 'Historynet.com: From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher', American History: 1840 U.S. Presidential Campaign by David Johnson says that, "While the Democrats adopted a platform denouncing federal assumption of state debts, opposing internal improvements, and calling for separation of public money from banking institutions, Weed decided to keep Harrison quiet and emphasize his war-hero record and humble character. The Democrats took aim at Harrison's silence, calling him "General Mum.""
  31. ^ "John Tyler | The White House". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  32. ^ Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Polk, including, "Nickname: "Young Hickory""
  33. ^ Thornton, An American Glossary, Lipincott 1912 v.2 page 627
  34. ^ This was used in the title of Roy Nichols' biography, "Franklin Pierce: Young Hickory of the Granite Hills" (American Political Biography Press, August 1993) ISBN 0-945707-06-1. ISBN 978-0-945707-06-6)
  35. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=gGiN4kyvAY4C&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&dq="handsome+frank"+pierce&source=bl&ots=NoEOOiKzo4&sig=51gBrq2PAKZMRS9rTJ5xwqMr0NQ&hl=en&ei=6V6pSvKkF4LYsQOJ-qzyBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=%22handsome%20frank%22%20pierce&f=false
  36. ^ Rethinking the Old Public Functionary, By RUSSELL MCCLINTOCK, December 30, 2010.
  37. ^ a b c Townsend, Malcolm (1910). Handbook of United States Political History for Readers and Students. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Company. p. 340. 
  38. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "James Buchanan". Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  39. ^ http://www.lincolnpresenters.org/Quotes.htm Association of Lincoln Presenters, Lincoln Quotes, "LINCOLN had many nicknames such as Honest Abe, the Railsplitter, the Liberator, the Emancipator, the Ancient One, the Martyr".
  40. ^ Wakeman, Wilber Fisk. "The Internet Archive". The Defender. American Economist of March 8th, 1912. Retrieved 12/5/2011. 
  41. ^ Fench, Charles Wallace. "Abraham Lincoln: The Liberator". New York Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved 12/05/2011. 
  42. ^ a b Dr. Paul Boyer, Dr. Sterling Stuckey (2005). American Nation: In the Modern Era. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 
  43. ^ http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/lincoln/section12.rhtml SparkNotes: Today's Most Popular Study Guides, Abraham Lincoln Study Guide, 1862-1864 – Part 2 "During a time of war, the executive always plays a stronger role than usual, and Lincoln was no exception to this rule. His uncompromising style as commander- in-chief, coupled with his ambitious domestic program to preserve and further the Union, earned him the nickname of "the tycoon"."
  44. ^ Library of Congress Presents 'America's Story from America's Library', U.S. Presidents, Abraham Lincoln , refers to a song about Lincoln called, "Hey! Uncle Abe, are you joking yet?"
  45. ^ Tennessee Tales the Textbooks Don't Tell : Jennie Ivey, Calvin Dickinson, Lisa Rand , The Overmountain Press, 2002 ISBN 1570722358200 pages page 50
  46. ^ Ulysses S. Grant , byLovell Coombs, Kessinger Publishing, 2004 268 pages page 22. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  47. ^ "Chapter 10: The Civil War, 1862". American Military History. Army Historical Series.  
  48. ^ Barnard, Harry (1954). Rutherford Hayes and his America. Newtown, Connecticut: American Political Biography Press. pp. 402–403.  
  49. ^ Boller, Jr., Paul F. (1984). Presidential Campaigns. NY, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 143.  
  50. ^ a b Reeves, Thomas C. (1975). Gentleman Boss. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 418.  
  51. ^ a b c MSN Encarta, Chester A. Arthur Quick Facts "Chester Arthur was fond of fine clothes and entertainment, earning him the nicknames 'Dude President,' 'Elegant Arthur,' and 'Prince Arthur'". Archived 2009-11-01.
  52. ^ 'Tall, Slim and Erect: Grover Cleveland' by Alex Forman
  53. ^ P.O. Box 400406. "American President: An Online Reference Resource". Millercenter.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  54. ^ Benjamin Harrison: centennial president Anne Chieko Moore, Hester Anne Hale; Nova Publishers, 2006 178 pages page 69
  55. ^ http://fs6.depauw.edu:50080/~jkochanczyk/president/harrison.html "He was known as the "Human Iceberg" because he was stiff and formal when dealing with people".
  56. ^ http://whitehouse.gov
  57. ^ Northeast Ohio Journal of History (spring 2005)online
  58. ^ The Amazon.com review of "Teddy Roosevelt at San Juan: The Making of a President" by Peggy and Harold Samuels (Texas a & M University Military History Series, September 1997 ISBN 978-0-89096-771-3) by Peggy and Harold Samuels, says that "The authors reexamine the "Hero of San Juan Hill" to find that the heroic legend was manufactured"
  59. ^ Non-Fiction Book Page have a review by Harry Merritt of The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War by Edward J. Renehan, Jr. (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512719-6) which says "Within six months, Roosevelt, "the Lion" was dead".
  60. ^ "TAMMANY DENOUNCES GOV. ROOSEVELT; Col. Gardiner's Removal Called "Infamous" and "Cowardly." EX-DISTRICT ATTORNEY WEEPS The General Committee Organizes for the Next Campaign by Electing Permanent Officers" (PDF). The New York Times. 1900-12-28. 
  61. ^ "The American Experience/TR's Legacy/Environment". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  62. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt: Icon of the American Century". Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  63. ^ Renstrom, Peter G. The Taft Court. p. 186. 
  64. ^ "William Howard Taft". Hoover.archives.gov. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  65. ^ a b William Safire, Safire's Political Dictionary (2008) p 409
  66. ^ Rubel, David (1994). Scholastic Encyclopedia of the Presidents and Their Times. New York: Scholastic Inc. p. 133. 
  67. ^ Baily, Thomas A.; & Kennedy, David M. (1994). The American Pageant (10th ed.). D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN 0-669-33892-3.
  68. ^ 'Rebirth of Cool Cal', December 1998, Reason Magazine, review of two books on Coolidge's presidency by John Miller
  69. ^ (David Greenberg)Calvin CoolidgeReview of - H.W. Brands, Washington Post, 21 January 2007
  70. ^ 'Silent Cal' Revisited - Library of Congress, 30 October 1995
  71. ^ The U.S. Department of the Interior's site for the Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region says that Hoover, "known early in his career as "The Great Engineer", was now popularized as "The Great Humanitarian" for his "relief efforts in America's stricken heartland".
  72. ^ "Hoover Institution - Hoover Digest - The Big Show in Bololand". Hoover.org. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  73. ^ "The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum". Hoover.archives.gov. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  74. ^ Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Polk, including, "Nickname: "FDR""
  75. ^ Donovan, Robert J (1996). Conflict & Crisis: The Presidency of Harry S Truman 1945-1948 (Reprint ed.). University of Missouri Press. p. 20.  
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  77. ^ Nevius, C.W. (22 Jan 2004). "Just ask Chelsea, Jenna and Barbara: Escaping the glare of the spotlight isn't easy for kids whose dads work in the Oval Office". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
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  81. ^ Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Polk, including, Nicknames: "FK, Jack
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  101. ^ Berke, Richard (May 23, 1988), "Million-Dollar Team Keeping Bush Campaign in the Money", New York Times 
  102. ^ Brown, Patricia (December 11, 1988), "The First Lady-Elect: What She Is and Isn't", New York Times 
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  105. ^ Amy Herstek (2001-01-11). "'"Clinton thanks New Hampshire for making him the 'Comeback Kid. CNN. Retrieved 2007-04-29. 
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  • DeGregario, William A. The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents. Barricade Books, 1991.
  • The White House website
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