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Kirshenbaum

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Title: Kirshenbaum  
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Subject: Infobox IPA/testcases, Bilabial clicks, Dental clicks, Lateral clicks, Palatal clicks
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Kirshenbaum

Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. This way it allows typewriting IPA-symbols by regular keyboard. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci.lang and alt.usage.english. It is named after Evan Kirshenbaum, who led the collaboration that created it.

The system uses almost all lower-case letters to represent the directly corresponding IPA character, but unlike X-SAMPA, has the notable exception of the letter 'r'. Examples where the two systems have a different mapping between characters and sounds are:

Sound IPA X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum
alveolar trill r r r
alveolar approximant ɹ r\ r
near-open front unrounded vowel æ { &
open back rounded vowel ɒ Q A.
open-mid central unrounded vowel ɜ 3 V"
primary stress ˈ " '
secondary stress ˌ % ,

Contents

  • Kirshenbaum charts of consonants and vowels 1
    • Consonant chart 1.1
    • Vowel chart 1.2
      • Vowel modifiers and diacritics 1.2.1
  • Background 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Kirshenbaum charts of consonants and vowels

This chart is based on information provided in the Kirshenbaum specification.,[1][2] It may also be helpful to compare it to the SAMPA chart or X-SAMPA chart.

Consonant chart

Kirshenbaum chart of consonants (the paired signs are voiceless/voiced consonants)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal Alveolar laterals
Bilabial Labio‐
dental
Dental Alveolar Retro‐
flex
Palato‐
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Labio‐
velar
Pharyn‐
geal
Glottal
Manner of articulation
Nasals m M n[ n n. n^ N n" n
Stops p b t[ d[ t d t. d. c J k g q G t d ?
Fricatives P B f v T D s z s. z. S Z C C x Q X g" w w H H h s z
Approximants r r[ r r. j j g" w h
Laterals l[ l l. l^ L
Trills b r r"
Flaps   *   *. *
Ejectives p` t[` t` c` k` q`
Implosives b` d` d` J` g` G`
Clicks p! t! c![3] c![3] k! l!

The IPA consonant chart, for comparison, uses many symbols that are less widely supported:

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
↓ Manner Bilabial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
/ Epiglottal
Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n̼̊ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ̥ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v tθ̠ dð̠ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ɢʁ ʡħ ʡʕ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ ʔ̞
Approximant ɸ˕ ʋ θ̞ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̮
Trill ʙ r ɽr̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̥˔ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral flap ɺ̼ ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̮ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Simple clicks ʘ ʘ̬ ʘ̃ ǀ ǀ̬ ǀ̃ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ̃
ǂ ǂ̬ ǂ̃ ǁ ǁ̬ ǁ̃ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǃ̃˞
Other clicks ʘ̃ˀ ʘˀ ˀʘ̃ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qχ ʘ͡qʼ ʘ͡qχʼ ¡ ʞ
Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥ 
Ejectives ʈʼ ʡʼ
θʼ ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
tsʼ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ tɕʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ̊ ɥ ɫ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m ɧ
t͡p d͡b n͡m q͡ʡ
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible or not distinctive.

Vowel chart

Kirshenbaum simplified chart of vowels
(the paired signs are unrounded/rounded vowels; symbols in parentheses designate vowels that exist in some oral languages, but do not have IPA signs)
Front Central Back Rhotic
Close i y i" u" u- u
Near-close I I. (U-) U
Close-mid e Y @ @. o- o R
Mid @ R
Open-mid E W V" O" V O
Near-open & &" (no symbols)
Open a. (a" A".) A A.

The IPA vowel chart, by comparison, uses many symbols that are less widely supported:

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Vowel modifiers and diacritics

Modifiers and diacritics follow the symbol they modify.

Modifier/diacritic Meaning
~ Nasalized
: Long
- Unrounded
. Rounded
" Centralized
Murmured
Rhoticized

Stress is indicated by ' for primary stress, and , for secondary stress, placed before the stressed syllable.

Background

The Kirshenbaum started developing in August 1992 through a usenet group, after "being fed up with describing the sound of words by using other words"[4] It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription.

  • It should be possible to represent all symbols and diacritics in the IPA.
  • The previous guideline notwithstanding, it is expected that (as in the past) most use will be in transcribing English, so where tradeoffs are necessary, decisions should be made in favor of ease of representation of phonemes which are common in English.
  • The representation should be readable.
  • It should be possible to mechanically translate from the representation to a character set which includes IPA. The reverse would also be nice.[5]

The developers decided to use the existing IPA alphabet, mapping each segment to a single keyboard character, and adding extra ASCII characters optionally for IPA diacritics.

An early (1993), different set in ASCII was derived from the pronunciation guide in Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, which uses straight letters to describe the sound.[6]

References

  1. ^ http://www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Evan_Kirshenbaum/IPA/faq.html
  3. ^ a b Kirshembaum assigned c! to IPA ʗ, which he used indifferently for both alveolar ǃ and palatal ǂ clicks.
  4. ^ Kirschenbaum.net
  5. ^ Usenet IPA/ASCII transcription
  6. ^ Earlier ASCII version: Merriam-Webster's

External links

  • Kirshenbaum specification (PDF file)
  • Tutorial and guide with sound samples
  • History
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