World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

John Hancock

Article Id: WHEBN0000016324
Reproduction Date:

Title: John Hancock  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, Articles of Confederation, Henry Laurens, Peyton Randolph
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

John Hancock

Taxonavigation

Species: John Hancock

Name

John Hancock (Beck, 1837: 5)

Neotype: BMNH 42.5.10.1463
Type locality: Südsee (=Islands of South Sea) and Java.

Mentions

  • Helix Ianus bifrons Chemnitz, 1795: 307, 308, pl. 213, Figs. 3016, 3017, type locality: Südsee [Rejected species-group name by the commission (ICZN, 1944: Opinion 184)]
  • Nanina (Ariophanta) janus Beck, 1837: 5.
  • Helix janus Pfeiffer, 1847: 88, 89, pl. 11, Figs. 4–6; Pfeiffer, 1848: 77
  • Helix sannio Pfeiffer, 1854: 57, type locality: unknown; Pfeiffer, 1859: 253
  • Nanina albersi Martens, 1864: 265, type locality: Malakka; Martens, 1867: 224, 225, pl. 2, Fig. 3; Tryon, 1886: 20, pl. 3, Fig. 37
  • Nanina sannio Tryon, 1886: 18, pl. 2, Fig. 26
  • Nanina janus Tryon, 1886: 19, pl. 3, Figs. 34, 36
  • Dyakia albersi Gude, 1903: 49
  • Dyakia sannio Laidlaw, 1931: 191, 201; Laidlaw, 1933: 234; Laidlaw, 1963: 146; Maassen, 2001: 107
  • Dyakia janus Laidlaw, 1931: 192, 200; Laidlaw, 1933: 226; Laidlaw, 1963: 141, 142; Maassen, 2001: 105

References

  • Beck, H., 1837: Index Molluscorum Praesentis Aevi Musei Principis Augustissimi Christiani Frederici. Hafniae, Hanover. 170 pp.

  • Chirasak Sutcharit, Piyoros Tongkerd, Shau-Hwai Aileen Tan & Somsak Panha. 2012: Taxonomic revision of Dyakia janus from Peninsular Malaysia (Pulmonata: Dyakiidae), with notes on other sinistrally coiled helicarionoids. Raffles bulletin of zoology, 60(2): 279-287. PDF.
John Hancock
Half-length portrait of a man with a hint of a smile. His handsome features suggests that he is in his 30s, although he wears an off-white wig in the style of an English gentleman that makes him appear older. His dark suit has fancy embroidery.
Portrait by John Singleton Copley, c. 1770–72
President of the Continental Congress
In office
May 24, 1775 – October 31, 1777
Preceded by Peyton Randolph
Succeeded by Henry Laurens
1st and 3rd Governor of Massachusetts
In office
October 25, 1780 – January 29, 1785
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Thomas Cushing (acting)
In office
May 30, 1787 – October 8, 1793
Preceded by James Bowdoin
Succeeded by Samuel Adams
Personal details
Born (1737-01-23)January 23, 1737
Braintree (now Quincy), Province of Massachusetts Bay
Died October 8, 1793(1793-10-08) (aged 56)
Hancock Manor, Boston, Massachusetts
Spouse(s) Dorothy Quincy
Net worth USD $350 thousand at the time of his death (approximately 1/714th of US GNP)[1]
Signature John Hancock's stylish signature. The handwriting, which slants slightly to the right, is firm and legible. The final letter loops back to underline his name in a flourish.

John Hancock (January 23, 1737 [

Before the American Revolution, Hancock was one of the wealthiest men in the Thirteen Colonies, having inherited a profitable mercantile business from his uncle, himself a prominent smuggler.[2] Hancock began his political career in Boston as a protégé of Samuel Adams, an influential local politician, though the two men later became estranged. As tensions between colonists and Great Britain increased in the 1760s, Hancock used his wealth to support the colonial cause. He became very popular in Massachusetts, especially after British officials seized his sloop Liberty in 1768 and charged him with smuggling. Although the charges against Hancock were eventually dropped, as Professor Peter Andreas, author of 'Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America' explains, "It is perhaps appropriate that the first signer of the Declaration of Independence was Boston's most well known merchant-smuggler, John Hancock"[3]

Hancock was one of Boston's leaders during the crisis that led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. He served more than two years in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, and as president of Congress, was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. Hancock returned to Massachusetts and was elected governor of the Commonwealth, serving in that role for most of his remaining years. He used his influence to ensure that Massachusetts ratified the United States Constitution in 1788.

Early life

According to the Gregorian calendar, John Hancock was born on January 23, 1737; according to the Julian calendar then in use, the date was January 12, 1736.[4] He was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in a part of town that eventually became the separate city of Quincy.[5] He was the son of the Reverend John Hancock of Braintree and Mary Hawke Thaxter, who was from nearby Hingham. As a child, Hancock became a casual acquaintance of young John Adams, whom the Reverend Hancock had baptized in 1734.[6][7] The Hancocks lived a comfortable life, and owned one slave to help with household work.[6]

After Hancock's father died in 1744, John was sent to live with his uncle and aunt, Thomas Hancock and Lydia (Henchman) Hancock. Thomas Hancock was the proprietor of a firm known as the House of Hancock, which imported manufactured goods from Britain and exported rum, whale oil, and fish.[8] Thomas Hancock's highly successful business made him one of Boston's richest and best-known residents.[9][10] He and Lydia, along with several servants and slaves, lived in Hancock Manor on Beacon Hill. The couple, who did not have any children of their own, became the dominant influence on John's life.[11]

After graduating from the Boston Latin School in 1750, Hancock enrolled in Harvard College and received a bachelors degree in 1754.[12][13] Upon graduation, he began to work for his uncle, just as the French and Indian War (1754–1763) had begun. Thomas Hancock had close relations with the royal governors of Massachusetts, and secured profitable government contracts during the war.[14] John Hancock learned much about his uncle's business during these years, and was trained for eventual partnership in the firm. Hancock worked hard, but he also enjoyed playing the role of a wealthy aristocrat, and developed a fondness for expensive clothes.[15][16]

From 1760 to 1761, Hancock lived in England while building relationships with customers and suppliers. Upon returning to Boston, Hancock gradually took over the House of Hancock as his uncle's health failed, becoming a full partner in January 1763.[17][18][19] He became a member of the Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew in October 1762, which connected him with many of Boston's most influential citizens.[20] When Thomas Hancock died in August 1764, John inherited the business, Hancock Manor, two or three household slaves, and thousands of acres of land, becoming one of the wealthiest men in the colonies.[21][22] The household slaves continued to work for John and his aunt, but were eventually freed through the terms of Thomas Hancock's will; there is no evidence that John Hancock ever bought or sold slaves.[23]

Growing imperial tensions

After its victory in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the British Empire was deep in debt. Looking for new sources of revenue, the British Parliament sought, for the first time, to directly tax the colonies, beginning with the Sugar Act of 1764.[24] The earlier Molasses Act of 1733,a tax on shipments from the West Indies had produced hardly any revenue because it was widely bypassed by smuggling, which was seen as a victimless crime.

Not only was there little social stigma attached to smuggling in the colonies, but in port cities, where trade was the primary generator of wealth, smuggling enjoyed considerable community support, and it was even possible to obtain insurance against being caught. Colonial merchants developed an impressive repertoire of evasive maneuvers to conceal the origin, nationality, routes and content of their illicit cargoes. This included the frequent use of fraudulent paperwork to make the cargo appear legal and authorised. And much to the frustration of the British authorities, when seiz
John Hancock
Half-length portrait of a man with a hint of a smile. His handsome features suggests that he is in his 30s, although he wears an off-white wig in the style of an English gentleman that makes him appear older. His dark suit has fancy embroidery.
Portrait by John Singleton Copley, c. 1770–72
President of the Continental Congress
In office
May 24, 1775 – October 31, 1777
Preceded by Peyton Randolph
Succeeded by Henry Laurens
1st and 3rd Governor of Massachusetts
In office
October 25, 1780 – January 29, 1785
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Thomas Cushing (acting)
In office
May 30, 1787 – October 8, 1793
Preceded by James Bowdoin
Succeeded by Samuel Adams
Personal details
Born (1737-01-23)January 23, 1737
Braintree (now Quincy), Province of Massachusetts Bay
Died October 8, 1793(1793-10-08) (aged 56)
Hancock Manor, Boston, Massachusetts
Spouse(s) Dorothy Quincy
Net worth USD $350 thousand at the time of his death (approximately 1/714th of US GNP)[1]
Signature John Hancock's stylish signature. The handwriting, which slants slightly to the right, is firm and legible. The final letter loops back to underline his name in a flourish.

John Hancock (January 23, 1737 [

Before the American Revolution, Hancock was one of the wealthiest men in the Thirteen Colonies, having inherited a profitable mercantile business from his uncle, himself a prominent smuggler.[25] Hancock began his political career in Boston as a protégé of Samuel Adams, an influential local politician, though the two men later became estranged. As tensions between colonists and Great Britain increased in the 1760s, Hancock used his wealth to support the colonial cause. He became very popular in Massachusetts, especially after British officials seized his sloop Liberty in 1768 and charged him with smuggling. Although the charges against Hancock were eventually dropped, as Professor Peter Andreas, author of 'Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America' explains, "It is perhaps appropriate that the first signer of the Declaration of Independence was Boston's most well known merchant-smuggler, John Hancock"[26]

Hancock was one of Boston's leaders during the crisis that led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. He served more than two years in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, and as president of Congress, was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. Hancock returned to Massachusetts and was elected governor of the Commonwealth, serving in that role for most of his remaining years. He used his influence to ensure that Massachusetts ratified the United States Constitution in 1788.

Early life

According to the Gregorian calendar, John Hancock was born on January 23, 1737; according to the Julian calendar then in use, the date was January 12, 1736.[4] He was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in a part of town that eventually became the separate city of Quincy.[5] He was the son of the Reverend John Hancock of Braintree and Mary Hawke Thaxter, who was from nearby Hingham. As a child, Hancock became a casual acquaintance of young John Adams, whom the Reverend Hancock had baptized in 1734.[6][7] The Hancocks lived a comfortable life, and owned one slave to help with household work.[6]

After Hancock's father died in 1744, John was sent to live with his uncle and aunt, Thomas Hancock and Lydia (Henchman) Hancock. Thomas Hancock was the proprietor of a firm known as the House of Hancock, which imported manufactured goods from Britain and exported rum, whale oil, and fish.[8] Thomas Hancock's highly successful business made him one of Boston's richest and best-known residents.[9][10] He and Lydia, along with several servants and slaves, lived in Hancock Manor on Beacon Hill. The couple, who did not have any children of their own, became the dominant influence on John's life.[11]

After graduating from the Boston Latin School in 1750, Hancock enrolled in Harvard College and received a bachelors degree in 1754.[12][13] Upon graduation, he began to work for his uncle, just as the French and Indian War (1754–1763) had begun. Thomas Hancock had close relations with the royal governors of Massachusetts, and sec==Taxonavigation== Species: John Hancock

Name

John Hancock (Beck, 1837: 5)

Neotype: BMNH 42.5.10.1463
Type locality: Südsee (=Islands of South Sea) and Java.

Mentions

  • Helix Ianus bifrons Chemnitz, 1795: 307, 308, pl. 213, Figs. 3016, 3017, type locality: Südsee [Rejected species-group name by the commission (ICZN, 1944: Opinion 184)]
  • Nanina (Ariophanta) janus Beck, 1837: 5.
  • Helix janus Pfeiffer, 1847: 88, 89, pl. 11, Figs. 4–6; Pfeiffer, 1848: 77
  • Helix sannio Pfeiffer, 1854: 57, type locality: unknown; Pfeiffer, 1859: 253
  • Nanina albersi Martens, 1864: 265, type locality: Malakka; Martens, 1867: 224, 225, pl. 2, Fig. 3; Tryon, 1886: 20, pl. 3, Fig. 37
  • Nanina sannio Tryon, 1886: 18, pl. 2, Fig. 26
  • Nanina janus Tryon, 1886: 19, pl. 3, Figs. 34, 36
  • as Hancock died in August 1764, John inherited the business, Hancock Manor, two or three household slaves, and thousands of acres of land, becoming one of the wealthiest men in the colonies.[21][22] The household slaves continued to work for John and his aunt, but were eventually freed through the terms of Thomas Hancock's will; there is no evidence that John Hancock ever bought or sold slaves.[23]
==Growing imperiDyakia albersi Gude, 1903: 49
  • Dyakia sannio Laidlaw, 1931: 191, 201; Laidlaw, 1933: 234; Laidlaw, 1963: 146; Maassen, 2001: 107
  • Dyakia janus Laidlaw, 1931: 192, 200; Laidlaw, 1933: 226; Laidlaw, 1963: 141, 142; Maassen, 2001: 105

References

  • Beck, H., 1837: Index Molluscorum Praesentis Aevi Musei Principis Augustissimi Christiani Frederici. Hafniae, Hanover. 170 pp.

  • Chirasak Sutcharit, Piyoros Tongkerd, Shau-Hwai Aileen Tan & Somsak Panha. 2012: Taxonomic revision of Dyakia janus from Peninsular Malaysia (Pulmonata: Dyakiidae), with notes on other sinistrally coiled helicarionoids. Raffles bulletin of zoology, 60(2): 279-287. PDF.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.