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Independent Albania

Independent Albania
Shqipëri
Former unrecognized country

1912–1914


Flag

Anthem
Himni i Flamurit
"Hymn to the Flag"
Territory of Independent Albania around Vlore, under the control of the provisional Government of Albania
Capital Vlora
Languages Albanian
Religion Islam, Christianity
Government Parliamentary system
Head of State
 -  1912–14 Ismail Qemali[1]
 -  1914 Fejzi Alizoti
Prime Minister
 -  1912–14 Ismail Qemali
 -  1914 Fejzi Alizoti
Legislature Assembly of Vlorë
 -  Upper house Senate of Albania
Historical era World War I
 -  Independence declared 28 November 1912
 -  Prince accepted the throne 21 February 1914
Currency franc of the Latin Monetary Union

Independent Albania was a parliamentary state established in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on 28 November 1912. Its assembly was constituted on the same day while its government and senate were established on 4 December 1912.

The delegation of Albania submitted a memorandum to the London Conference of 1913 requesting the international recognition of independent Albania. At the beginning of the conference it was decided that the region of Albania would be under the Ottoman suzerainty but with an autonomous government. The requests of Albania for its international recognition based on the ethnic rights of Albanians were rejected and the treaty signed on 30 May 1913 partitioned a major part of the independent Albania between Serbia, Greece and Montenegro, leaving the territory of Albania reduced to central Albania which was put under the protection of the Great Powers. The ambassadors of six Great Powers met again on 29 July 1913 and decided to constitute a new state, Albania, as a constitutional monarchy. Finally, with the Treaty of Bucharest being signed in August 1913 a new independent state was established—the Principality of Albania, leaving about 30–40%[2] of the ethnic Albanian population outside the borders of the new principality because they lived on the territory of Albania partitioned between its neighboring countries.

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Political system 2
  • Territory 3
  • History 4
    • Albanian Vilayet 4.1
    • First Balkan War 4.2
    • All-Albanian Congress 4.3
    • After the declaration of independence 4.4
    • London Treaty 4.5
    • After the London treaty 4.6
  • Politics 5
    • Declaration of Independence 5.1
    • Government and Senate 5.2
    • Public services 5.3
  • Economy 6
  • Aftermath 7
  • Commemorations 8
  • Gallery 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Sources 12

Name

The name of the state used in the text of declaration of independence of Albania is Shqipëria (English: Albania).[3] It is also referred to as the "independent Albania" (Albanian: Shqipëria e Mosvarme),[4] the "Albanian State"[5] (Albanian: Shteti Shqiptar) or the "independent state of Albania"[6][7] (Albanian: Shteti i pavarur shqiptar).[8]

Political system

The independent Albania established on 28 November 1912 is the first Albanian state in modern history.[9] It was a parliamentary state, not a monarchy.[10] Some sources refer to it as the Republic of Albania[11][12] or the Albanian Republic.[13]

Albania became an independent state through four constitutional decisions of the Assembly of Vlorë made on 28 November 1912:[14]

  1. Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent
  2. under a provisional government
  3. that a council of elders (senate) be elected to assist and supervise the government
  4. a commission is to be sent to Europe to defend Albanian interests among the Great Powers

Territory

The authority of the state was limited to the regions of Vlore, Berat and Lushnje.[15] The claimed territory was much larger than the territory of contemporary Albania and than the territory over which the Provisional Government exercised its power. It comprised the territories of Kosovo Vilayet, Monastir Vilayet, Shkoder Vilayet and Janina Vilayet.[16][17] The Treaty of London, signed on 30 May 1913, reduced the territory of Albanian state to its central regions after partitioning a significant part of territory claimed by Albania between the Balkan allies (a major part of the northern and western area was given to the Serbia and Montenegro while the southern region of Chameria became part of Greece).[18] Kosovo was returned to Serbia's possession at the London treaty, at the insistence of Russia.[19]

During the First Balkan War the kingdoms of Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro aspired to incorporate the entire region into their states (completely denying the Albania's independence), so most of the captured territory was occupied by their armies. Independent Albania did however exercise control over one pocket of land which included Vlore, Berat, Fier and Lushnje.[20]

History

Albanian Vilayet

Albanian rebels capturing Skopje in August 1912

Until September 1912, the Ottoman government intentionally kept Albanians divided within four ethnically heterogeneous vilayets to prevent Albanian national unification.[21] The reforms introduced by Young Turks provoked the Albanian Revolt of 1912 which lasted in the period from January to August 1912.[22] In January 1912, Hasan Prishtina, Albanian deputy in Ottoman parliament, publicly warned members of the parliament that the policy of Young Turks government is leading to a revolution in Albania.[23] The revolt was successful and until August 1912 rebels managed to gain control over whole Kosovo vilayet (including Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Priština and even Skopje), a part of the Scutari Vilayet (including Elbasan, Përmet and Leskovik), Konitsa in Janina Vilayet and Debar in Monastir Vilayet.[24] The Ottoman government ended the Albanian revolt on 4 September 1912 by accepting all demands related to establishing the unified autonomous system of administration and justice for Albanians within one vilayet—the Albanian vilayet.[25]

First Balkan War

The success of the Albanian revolt sent a strong signal to the neighboring countries that the Ottoman Empire was weak.[26] Besides, the Kingdom of Serbia opposed the plan for an Albanian vilayet, preferring a partition of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire among the four Balkan allies.[27] In the meantime the conquered territory was agreed to have status of the Condominium.[28]

Albanian leaders, including Boston. They decided that Albanians should "unite fully with the Ottoman government against enemies of the Empire" because "if Turkey is defeated, Balkan states would shred Albania.".[29] That decision was risky, because if Ottoman was defeated, the Albanian participation in the Balkan war on the Ottoman side would serve as justification for Balkan allies to partition Albania as an Ottoman province.[30] Albanians who were mobilized in Ottoman army fought for their country rather than for the Ottoman Empire.[31]

During the First Balkan War the combined armies of the Balkan allies overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, and achieved rapid success. They occupied almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire including the territory of Albanian Vilayet[32]

At the beginning of November 1912, Albanian leaders appealed to Emperor of Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary, explaining the difficult situation in their country because parts of the four vilayets were also claimed by Balkan League who were present on the disputed lands.[33] Austria-Hungary and Italy strongly opposed the arrival of Serbian army on the Adriatic Sea because they perceived it as a treat to their domination of the Adriatic and feared that Serbian Adriatic port could become a Russian base.[34] Ismail Qemali, who had been an Albanian deputy in the Ottoman parliament, secured the support of Austria-Hungary for autonomy of Albania within the Ottoman Empire, but not for the independence.[35]

All-Albanian Congress

Ismail Qemali invited the representatives of all parts of Albanian Vilayet to attend the All-Albanian Congress[36][37] held in Vlorë on November 28, 1912.[38] At the beginning of the session, Ismail Qemali referred to the threatened Albanian rights gained during the Albanian revolts in the previous four years, and explained to the participants of the congress that they should do whatever was necessary to save Albania.[39] After his speech they began by checking the documents[40] because it was decided that each kaza of Albanian Vilayet would be counted as one vote, regardless of the number of its delegates.[41] Participants of this congress are regarded as Founding Fathers of Albania.

After the declaration of independence

Caricature published in February 1913 shows Albania defending itself from neighboring countries. Montenegro is represented as a monkey, Greece as a leopard attacking Ioannina and Serbia as a snake. Text in Albanian: "Flee from me! Bloodsucking beasts!"

The first notification about the proclaimed independence was sent to the command of Serbian Army in Ohrid.[42] On 29 November 1912, the army of the Kingdom of Serbia captured besa) to maintain harmony in occupied territory.[46]

The international relations of Albania began to function on a state level after it was proclaimed independent and the first diplomatic efforts of its government were requests for the international recognition of the Albanian state.[47] In December 1912, a delegation of Albania submitted a memorandum to the London Conference of 1913 insisting on the ethnic rights of Albanians and requested an international recognition of the independent Albania composed of Kosovo, western Macedonia including Skopje and Bitola and the whole territory of Epirus up to Arta.[48]

Participants of the congress in Trieste

About 120 notable politicians and intellectuals from Albania attended the Albanian Congress of Trieste from 27 February to 6 March 1913 and requested from the Great Powers a recognition of the political and economical independence of Albania.[49][50] Isa Boletini and Ismail Qemali travelled to London in March 1913 to obtain Britain's support for their new country.[51] On March 6 Ioannina was captured by forces of the Kingdom of Greece.[52] In March 1913 a group of 130 (or 200) soldiers of the Kingdom of Serbia were killed near Prizren by Albanian irregulars in act of revenge for repression of Serbian army.[53]

In April 1913 the army of the Kingdom of Serbia retreated from Durrës but remained in other parts of Albania. On the other hand, Kingdom of Montenegro managed to capture Shkodër on 23 April 1913 after six months of siege. However, when the war was over, the Great Powers did not award the city to the Kingdom of Montenegro, which was compelled to evacuate it in May 1913.

In May 1913, delegates of Albania in London requested a British sovereign and considered offering the Albanian throne to Aubrey Herbert.[54]

London Treaty

Various borders for Albania proposed during the London Conference of 1912–13

The Great Powers did not fulfill the requests for recognition of Albania.[55] At the beginning of the London conference in December 1912 the ambassadors of all six Great Powers rejected the plan for establishing an independent Albania.[56] Instead, they decided that Albania would be under Ottoman suzerainty but with an autonomous government.[57] After it became obvious that Ottoman Empire would lose all of Macedonia and its territorial connection with Albania, the Great Powers realized they had to change their decision.[58]

The Treaty of London, signed on 30 May 1913, partitioned significant part of territory claimed by Albania between the Balkan allies reducing the territory of Albania to its central regions.[59]

After the London treaty

In September 1913 independent Albania secretly supported and helped Ohrid–Debar Uprising because Ismail Qemali thought that independent Albania was too weak to openly confront the Kingdom of Serbia.[60] Qemali ordered simultaneous attack of the Albanian forces led by Isa Boletini and Bajram Curri to the region of Prizren.[61] Peshkopi has been captured on 20 September 1913.[62] Local Albanians and Bulgarians expelled the Serbian army and officials, creating a front line 15 km east of Ohrid. A local administration was set up in Ohrid.[63] The Serbian Army of 100,000 regulars suppressed the uprising in several days. Thousands were killed, and tens of thousands of local inhabitants fled for Bulgaria and Albania to save their lives. According to the Report by the International Commission of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace the number of Albanians who took refuge was 25,000.[64]

On 16 October 1913, Essad Pasha Toptani—who also had been an Albanian deputy in the Ottoman parliament—established the Republic of Central Albania with its administrative centre in Durres.[65] Toptani's state was also short-lived and unrecognized, with its territory bounded by rivers Mat in the North and Shkumbin in the South. It further partitioned already truncated territory of Albania. Toptani contested the status of the provisional government and denied that Qemali's government was legitimate, emphasizing that it was "the personal creation of a number of men."[66][67] In July 1913 Ismail Qemali attempted to calm Toptani by appointing him Minister of Interior, but with no avail.[68] Toptani was also, like Qemali little earlier, forced by Great Powers to step away on 1 February 1914.[69]

In November 1913 the Albanian pro-Ottoman forces had offered the throne of Albania to the Ottoman war minister of Albanian origin, Izzet Pasha.[70] The Ottoman Empire sent agents to encourage a revolt, hoping to restore Ottoman suzerainty over Albania.[71] Izzet Pasha sent major Beqir Grebenali, another ethnic Albanian, to be one of his chief representatives in Albania. The Provisional Government of Albania under control of Ismail Qemali captured and executed major Beqir Grebenali.

Politics

Ismail Qemali and his cabinet during the celebration of the first anniversary of independence in Vlorë on 28 November 1913.

Declaration of Independence

At the beginning of the session Ismail Qemali emphasized that the only way to prevent division of the territory of Albania between the Balkan allies was to establish it as independent state, separated from Ottoman Empire.[72] Qemali's proposal was unanimously accepted and it was decided to sign the declaration of independence of Albania in the name of the constituted Assembly of Vlorë (Albanian: Kuvendi i Vlorës) which members were representatives of all the regions of Albania.[73] By the declaration of Albanian independence the Assembly of Vlorë rejected the autonomy granted by the Ottoman Empire to the Albanian Vilayet, projected a couple of months earlier.[74] The consensus was made for the complete independence.[75]

The sitting was then suspended and members of newly constituted National Assembly went to the house of Ismail Qemali who raised the flag of Skanderbeg on the balcony of his house, in front of the gathered people.[77]

Government and Senate

The establishment of the government was postponed for the fourth session of the Assembly of Vlorë, held on 4 December 1912, until representatives of all regions of Albania arrived to Vlore.[78] During that session members of the assembly established the Provisional Government of Albania.[79] It was a government that consisted of ten members, led by Ismail Qemali, until his resignation in 22 January 1914.[80] Assembly established the Senate (Albanian: Pleqësi) with advisory role to the government, consisted of 18 members of Assembly.[81]


Independent Albania

Principality of Albania

Albanian Republic

Albanian Kingdom

Albania under Italy

Albania under Germany

Communist Albania

Republic of Albania
1912–14 1914–25 1925–28 1928–39 1939–43 1943–44 1944–92 since 1992

Ismail Qemali was appointed as the first prime minister of independent Albania.[82] On the same session held on 4 December 1912 the assembly appointed the other members of the government:[83]

Public services

Post stamp of the independent Albania, 16 June 1913.

A week after the independent Albania was proclaimed, its first Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs was established with Lef Nosi as its minister. Independent Albania took over the Ottoman post offices and placed significant efforts to make the Albanian postal service identifiable.[84] Post offices of the independent Albania used the Ottoman postal seals until the end of April and the beginning of May 1913, when they were replaced by the postal seals of Albania with the name of the place in the upper part of the seal and the name of the state, Albania (Shqipenie), in the bottom part.[85] On 5 May 1913 the first postage stamps of Albania were put into circulation. On 7 July 1913 Albania submitted an official request to the Universal Postal Union (UPU) for membership.[86] The request was rejected, and Albania would become a member of UPU only in 1922.[87]

After Albania achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, its legal system continued to function under the Ottoman Civil Code (Mejelle) for some time.[88]

Since 28 November 1912 until 1926 the Albanian government did not mint any currency. Transactions occurred in gold and silver coins of other countries, whereas the official unit of account was the franc of the Latin Monetary Union.[89]

Until 1912, the education system in Albania depended on religious institutions. Muslims attended Ottoman schools, the Orthodox population attended Greek or Armenian schools, Catholics attended Italian or Austrian schools, whereas in the districts near Slavic states, the population attended Serbian or Bulgarian schools.[90] When Albania was declared independent in 1912 its government took measures to close foreign schools and to open Albanian ones.[91] From 1912 to 1914, there was not much opportunity and time for progress of national education, because of the political instability and the breakout of World War I.[92] The first laic school was opened in Shkoder in 1913.

Isa Boletini with men from Kosovo in the streets of Vlorë in 1912

Group of fighters from Kosovo led by Isa Boletini were the first nucleus of the armed forces of Albania[93] established on 4 December 1912.[94] The Ottoman forces backed the government of Independent Albania until the beginning of 1913, although the Ottomans did not recognize its independence.[95]

Law enforcement forces (gendarmerie and Albanian Police) of the independent Albania were established on 13 January 1913.[96] About 70 former Ottoman officers were engaged as officers of the law enforcement units of the independent Albania. The first director of the Albanian Police was Halim Gostivari, whereas the first commanders of the gendarmerie were Alem Tragjasi, Hysni Toska, Sali Vranishti, and Hajredin Hekali. The Albanian Police uniforms was colored in gray and green, and the collars were red and black.[97]

Economy

The economy of Albania after it became independent state in 1912 was based on primitive agriculture and livestock, with no significant industry, and little international trade.[98] Starting in 1912, Albania began activities aimed at implementing an agrarian reform, which would transfer ownership of the arable land from the big landowners to the peasants.[99]

Aftermath

Borders of the Principality of Albania, recognized by the Treaty of Bucharest.

The Treaties of London and Bucharest dealt with the final territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the Balkan Wars.[100] After the London treaty has been signed the ambassadors of six Great Powers decided to constitute a new state, Albania, as hereditary principality.[101][102]

The International Commission of Control to take care of the administration of the newly established principality until the arrival of the new monarch.[104][105] The first law enforcement agency of the new principality was the International Gendarmerie.

The treaty of Bucharest, signed on 10 August 1913, established internationally recognized Albania as an independent state.[106] The creation of Albanian state in 1913[107] after the Balkan Wars was their only political result.[108]

After a display of independence of Qemali's government, the Great Powers were angered and the International Commission of Control forced Qemali to step aside and leave Albania.[109]

William, Prince of Albania and his wife Princess Sophie of Albania arriving in Durrës, Albania on 7 March 1914.

In 1914, after a gradual assumption of the administration of the country, the Ottoman Empire suzerainty.[111] It would be partitioned on seven administrative districts, each of which would choose three representatives for the national assembly by direct suffrage. The prince would nominate ten representatives and the heads of the all three religions (Islam, Orthodox and Catholic) would be also representatives in the national assembly, which would have four-year terms. The Council of Ministres, with executive powers, would be appointed by the prince.[112] After monarchical form of government has been installed by the International Commission of Control in 1914 the political system of Albania became a monarchy.[113]

The biggest group of Albanians who were left outside of the new state were Albanians from Kosovo, the cradle of the 19th century Albanian nationalism.[114] Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy exploited the discontent of the Albanians about the inaccurate ethnic borders.[115]

Commemorations

100 Vjet Shtet Shqiptar
(English: 100 years of the Albanian state)

Since Albania was declared independent in November 28, 1912,[116] every 28 November is commemorated by all Albanians (wherever they live in the world) as their National Day (Albanian Independence Day or Flag Day).[117] In the Republic of Albania, the day is celebrated as a public holiday. The Republic of Kosovo the day became an officially public holiday, since a 2011 decision of the Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi's cabinet.[118]

The [120] Year 2012 is a year of the centennial of the Independence of Albania.[121] The opening day of the year long celebration was on 17 January 2012 during a solemn ceremony held at the Parliament of Albania and attended by Albanian representatives from the Republic of Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Preševo and Bujanovac, who were joined together that day like they were 100 years ago.[122]

The Ministry of Tourism, Cultural Affairs, Youth and Sports announced on 22 December 2011 the "International Competition for the accomplishment in sculpture of the monumental work dedicated to the “100 anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the Albanian State: 28 November 1912 – 28 November 2012”".[123]

Gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^  
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  4. ^ Pirraku, Muhamet (19 April 2009). """Cili Është Mesazhi I Emërtimeve "SHQIPËRIA SHTETËRORE. AlbaniaPress.com : Agjensia Informative Shqiptare. Retrieved 18 February 2012. Shteti i projektuar nga Konferenca e Ambasadorëve në Londër, më 1913, si: “Principata e Shqipërisë” me shtrirjen vetëm në një pjesë të Bregdetit shqiptar, ... të më pak se një e treta e tokave të shtetit “Shqipëria e Mosvarme” e shpallur në Vlorë, më 28 nëntor 1912 (State designed by the Conference of Ambassadors in London in 1913, as: "The Principality of Albania" ... is less than a third of the territory of "Independent Albania" declared in Vlora, on November 28, 1912) 
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  18. ^ Vickers 1999, p. 70
    ... the Conference nevertheless awarded the Balkan allies large areas of Albanian-claimed territory... A major part of northern and western Albania went to Serbia and Montenegro, while Greece received the large southern region of Chameria, leaving the Albanian state reduced to the central regions ...
  19. ^ Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa; Piotr Dutkiewicz, Agnieszka Orzelska (2006), New Europe : the impact of the first decade 2, Warsaw: Institute of Political Studies; Polish Academy of Sciences, p. 37,  
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  22. ^ Gurakuqi, Romeo (November 2007). "The Highland Uprising of 1911" (php). Shoqata Dedë Gjo' Luli Association. Retrieved January 9, 2011. It was provoked by the laws passed by the new regime that claimed to loyally implement the old fiscal policy on the extremely impoverished population, impose new heavy taxes upon people, forcefully recruit Albanians for the Turkish army, continue the process of the entire population disarmament, extend its absolute power all over Albania, even over those regions that had always enjoyed certain privileges. 
  23. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000). "Albania and Albanian Identities". International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011. At a parliamentary session in January 1912, ... Albanian deputy Hasan Prishtina warned that the reactionary policy of the Young Turks' government was going to lead to a revolution in Albania. 
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  26. ^ Warrander, Gail; Verena Knaus (November 2007). Kosovo. United States of America: The Globe Pequot Press. p. 12.  
  27. ^ Josef Redlich; Baron d'Estournelles, M. Justin Godart, Walter Shucking,  
  28. ^ Josef Redlich; Baron d'Estournelles, M. Justin Godart, Walter Shucking,  
  29. ^ Ermenji 1968
    "Shoqëria e Zezë për Shpëtim". Faik Konitza, Fan Noli e të tjerë nuk besonin se do të thyhej Turqia prej Ballkanikëvet dhe nuk kishin shpresë për Shqipërinë tek mprojtja e Austrisë. Prandaj në një mbledhje të madhe që mbajti Federata Vatra, në Boston, më 7 të Tetorit, udhëheqësit e kolonisë nuk shihnin tjetër mënyrë shpëtimi veçse duke u pështetur tek Turqia. Të gjithë të pranishmit u habitën kur dëgjuan prej krerëvet të tyre se interesi dhe detyra e Shqiptarëvet ishte që "të bashkohëshin plotësisht me qeverinë otomane kundër armiqve të Perandorisë". Sepse "po të thyhej Turqia, shtetet ballkanikë do t'a coptonin Shqipërinë."
  30. ^ Ermenji 1968
    ..Ky mendim ishte i urtë nga njëra anë, por paraqiste rreziqe nga ana tjetër: sikur të thyhej Turqia, siç u thye, Shqiptarët do të pësonin fatin e saj, ose të paktën do t'iu jepnin shtetevet ballkanikë një arësye më shumë përpara fuqivet të mëdha për t'a copëtuar Shqipërinë si një krahinë turke..
  31. ^ Ermenji 1968
    ...Natyrisht, Turqia i mobilizoi Shqiptarët, por këta luftuan më fort për të mprojtur vendin e tyre kundër fqinjëvet,...
  32. ^ Jelavich 1999, p. 100
    ...Balkan armies occupied Albanian territory...
  33. ^ Pearson, Owen (2004). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History. I, Albania and King Zog: Independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. I.B. Tauris. p. 31.  
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  35. ^ Jelavich 1999, p. 100
    Kemal.. spoke with Habsburg foreign minister, Leopold von Berchtold, ... secured Habsburg support, but for Albanian autonomy rather than independence...
  36. ^ Qemali, Ismail. "Ismail Kemal bey Vlora: Memoirs". Retrieved January 23, 2011. from all parts of the country to Valona, where a national congress was to be held 
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  38. ^  
  39. ^ Nosi 2007
    ..Ismail Kemal bey... took the floor and explained... that they all must strive to do what is necessary to save Albania from the great perils it is now facing.... they began by checking the documents...
  40. ^ Nosi 2007
    ...Albanians had ... uprisings that had taken ... in particular over the last four years, to preserve their rights and customs ... all the steps needed to appease and satisfy the Albanians
  41. ^ Nosi 2007
    .. The issue of voting was then brought to the fore and, after much discussion, it was decided that each region (kaza) should have only one vote, irrespective of the number of delegates it had.....
  42. ^  
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    The plan for independent Albanian state was rejected by the ambassadors of England, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Russia and Italy at their conference on 17 December 1912 in London.
  57. ^ Petrović, Dragoljub S., Heterogenost stanovništva determinanta složenosti rešenja političkog statusa albanskog prostora (Heterogamy of the population determining the complexity of solution of the political status of the territory of Albania), archived from the original on August 6, 2011, retrieved August 6, 2011, Na početku Londonske konferencije odlučeno je da je Albanija autonomna sa svojom upravom i priznavanjem sultana Turske kao vrhovnog sizerena.... At the beginning of the conference it was decided that Albania should be autonomous with its own government but under Ottoman suzerainty. 
  58. ^ Jelavich 1999, p. 101
    The representatives first decided that an autonomous Albania under continued Ottoman rule would be organized...This decision had to be changed in the spring of 1913, when it became obvious that the Ottoman Empire would lose all of Macedonia and thus its territorial connection with Albania.
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    ... the Conference nevertheless awarded the Balkan allies large areas of Albanian-claimed territory... leaving the Albanian state reduced to the central regions ...
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  62. ^ Sinani, Rakip (2005). Dibra dhe dibranët në faqet e historisë [Dibër and the Dibrans in the Pages of History] (in Albanian). Tiranë: KTISTALINA-KH. pp. 150–160.  
  63. ^ Гоцев, Димитър. Национално-освободителната борба в Македония 1912–1915, София 1981, с. 48 (Gotsev, Dimitar. The National Liberation Struggle in Macedonia, Sofia 1981, p. 124, Огнянов, Михаил. Македония-преживяна съдба, София 2002, с. 43
  64. ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, published by the Endowment Washington, D.C. 1914, p. 182
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  66. ^ Lakshman-Lepain, Rajwantee (September 2000), Dimitras, Panayote; Papanikolatos, Nafsika; Lenkova, Mariana et al., eds., Catholics of Albania (doc), Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe - Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE), p. 28, retrieved October 6, 2011, The self-proclaimed provisional government of Ismail Qemal in Vlorë did not receive the general approval of the public and different forces from within the country (e.g. by Esad Pacha Toptani) contested the provisional government's status 
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    .. four countries in the Balkans ...agreed to divide the Empire up among themselves, including Albania...only road to salvation was to separate Albania from Turkey...According to Ismail Kemal Bey, the most urgent measures that the Albanian nation must take today are these: that Albania be independent...
  73. ^ Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës; Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Historisë, Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë. Seksioni e Shkencave Shoqërore (2004), "Essential Characteristics of the State (1912—1914)", Studia Albanica 36, Tirana: L'Institut, p. 18,  
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    TEXT:in Vlora, on the 15th/28th of November 1328/1912. Following the speech made by the President, Ismail Kemal Bey, in which he spoke of the great perils facing Albania today, the delegates have all decided unanimously that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent.
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  78. ^ Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës; Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Historisë, Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë. Seksioni e Shkencave Shoqërore (2004), "Essential Characteristics of the State (1912—1914)", Studia Albanica 36, Tirana: L'Institut, p. 18,  
  79. ^ Schmidt-Neke 1987, p. 25
    Erst auf seiner funften sitzung am 4. Dezember 1912 komplettierte der Nationalcongreß die provisorische Regierung, die folgende Zusammensetzung hatte:
  80. ^ Giaro 2007, p. 185
    ... a provisional government, consisting of ten members and led by Vlora, was formed on 4 December.
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    From its own members congress elected a senate (Pleqësi), composed of 18 members, which assumed advisory role to the government.
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  84. ^ "Postal service in Albania". Albania: http://www.postashqiptare.al. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012. the Ministry of Post Telegraph Telephone, and the minister was the notable intellectual patriot Lef Nosi. The government of that time took in administration all the post offices inherited from the Ottoman Empire and did rapid efforts for the identification of Albanian postal service. 
  85. ^ Albanološki institut u Prištini (1970), Gjurmime albanologjike, Volume 9, Issues 1-2 (in Serbian), Priština: Filozofski fakultet u Prištini. Katedra za albanologiju, pp. 123, 124, retrieved 29 January 2012, posle proglasa nezavisnosti upotrebljavane i starim turskim žigovima poništavane marke i dopisnice... i posle ... poništavane albanskim prstenastim zigovima, koji nose u gornjem delu prstena ime mesta a u donjem ime zemlje — „Shqipenie". Zamena turskih zigova novim albanskim zigovima izvrsena je pri kraju aprila i pocetkom maja 1913. 
  86. ^ "Postal service in Albania". Albania: http://www.postashqiptare.al. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012. on July 7, 1913, presented the official demand to be recruited in Universal Postal Union and International Union of Telecommunication, entrance which was performed in 1922... 
  87. ^ "Albania". Universal Postal Union. Retrieved 9 February 2012. Albania ... Date of entry into the UPU:01-03-1922 
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  91. ^ Temo, Sotir (1985), Education in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Tirana: "8 Nëntori" Pub. House,  
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  93. ^ New Albania, Tirana: New Albania, 1989, p. 15,  
  94. ^ Ministry of Defence (Albania) (5 December 2011). "Forcat e Armatosura festojnë 99-vjetorin e krijimit të tyre (Armed forces celebrate their 99th anniversary)" (in Albanin). Ministry of Defence (Albania). Retrieved 17 February 2012. Gjeneral brigade Agim Lala, pasi bëri një retrospektivë të shkurtër përsa i përket Forcave të Armatosura që nga krijimi i tyre në 4 Dhjetor të vitit 1912 (Brigadier General Agim Lala, after making a brief retrospective of the terms of the Armed Forces since their creation in December 4, 1912) 
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  96. ^ Albanian Police. "Historik i shkurtër i Policisë së shtetit shqiptar 1912–2007 (Brief History of the Albanian State Police 1912 - 2007)" (in Albanian). Albanian Police. Retrieved 17 February 2012. Pak javë pasi ishte shpallur shteti shqiptar nga Kuvendi i Vlorës, më 13 janar 1913, qeveria e Ismail Qemalit vendosi krijimin e forcave të rendit. Qeveria ngarkoi për të kryer detyrat e një xhandarmërie ... Funksione administrative i kryente policia... 
  97. ^ Albanian Police. "Historik i shkurtër i Policisë së shtetit shqiptar 1912–2007 (Brief History of the Albanian State Police 1912 - 2007)" (in Albanian). Albanian Police. Retrieved 17 February 2012. Xhandarmëria caktoi edhe uniformën e rregullt të saj gri-jeshil, jakën kuq e zi, kësulën pa strehë dhe gradat në pjesën e përparshme të jakës... 
  98. ^ Grolier Incorporated, The Encyclopedia Americana 1, Grolier Incorporated, p. 479, When Albania became independent in 1912, its chief components were primitive agriculture and livestock raising. There was no significant industry and little inter-regional or foreign trade 
  99. ^ Escolano, Julio; Geoffrey Oestreicher and Pierre Lazar; Marta Ruiz-Arranz, Mario Mansilla and Engin Dalgic (March 2005), "Land Reform and privatization in Albania, 1912—2005", Albania: Selected Issues, Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, p. 28,  
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    Despite the fact that a provisional government under Kemal was in existence, the powers refused to recognize it. Instead they established International Control Commission
  105. ^ Heaton-Armstrong, Duncan (2005). "An Uprising in the Six-Month Kingdom". Gervase Belfield and Bejtullah Destani (I.B. Tauris, in association with the Centre for Albanian Studies). p. xiv. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2012. The Great Powers... established "International Commission of Control as an interim administration until the new monarch arrived. 
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    The Threaty of Bucharest of August 1913 ... established independent Albania.
  107. ^ King, Russell; Nicola Mai, Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers (2005), The new Albanian migration, Brighton, Great Britain ; Portland, Or.: Sussex Academic Press, p. 184,  
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    The Powers were angered by this display of independence by Kemal's government, ... as a result, the International Commission forced Kemal to step aside. Kemal subsequently left Albania ...
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    International Commission prepared a draft constitution. It provided for the establishment of national assembly,...composed of three representatives from...seven administrative districts... chosen by direct suffrage,... heads of three churches and ten nominees of the prince. .... a four year... ministers ..appointed by the prince
  111. ^ Zaharia, Perikli (March 24, 2003). "The post-1989 constitutional course of south east europe". Athens: Centre for European Constitutional Law. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011. The Ottoman administrative organization , with few exceptions, remained basically unchanged. 
  112. ^ Zaharia, Perikli (March 24, 2003). "The post - 1989 constitutional course of south east europe". Athens: Centre for European Constitutional Law. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011. A Constitution (Statuti Organik) for the new State, consisting of 216 articles, was elaborated in 1914 by the International Commission. Albania was designated as a hereditary constitutional monarchy. The power of legislation was entrusted to a National Assembly, while the executive power was vested in the Council of Ministers, who were to be appointed by the Prince and accountable to him only. 
  113. ^ Barjaba, Kosta (2004), Albania's democratic elections, 1991-1997 : analyses, documents and data, Berlin: Edition Sigma, p. 188,  
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  118. ^ "Albanians celebrate Flag Day". Info Globi. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2012. Kosovo legislation does not include 28 November on the list of official holidays, however under a special decision of the Government PM Hashim Thaci,...today has been announced a holiday. 
  119. ^ Puto, Arben (1983), Les forces nationales face au diktat impérialiste dans l'organisation de l'etat Albanais (1912-1914) : rapport : conference nationale consacree au 70e anniversaire de la proclamation de l'independance de l'Albanie, 19 novembre 1982. (in French), Tiranë: 8 Nëntori,  
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  122. ^ "100th anniversary of independence". Albania: TOP Channel Shqip. 2012. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012. The Albanian Parliament opened with a solemn ceremony the 100th year of Albania’s independence. January 17th was chosen as the opening day for the celebration of the 100th anniversary of independence, since it is the day when the Albanian National hero, Gjergj Kastrioti Skenderbeu died, who symbolizes the unification of all Albanians...Representatives from Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Presheva and Bujanovci were present in the Albanian Parliament, without partial distinctions, together, as six centuries ago and as 100 years ago,. 
  123. ^ Republic of Albania, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports; National Gallery of Arts (2011). "Competition announcement". Republic of Albania, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports; National Gallery of Arts. p. 1. Retrieved 18 February 2012. Today, on 23.12.2011, in reliance on the Order of the Minister of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports No 289, dated 22.12.2011 on “Announcement of competition for the accomplishment in sculpture the monumental work dedicated to the “100 anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the Albanian State: 28 November 1912 – 28 November 2012”. 

Sources

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