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Giuseppe Bottai

Giuseppe Bottai
Giuseppe Bottai as Minister of Education, 1937
Governor of Rome
In office
23 January 1935 – 15 November 1936
Preceded by Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi
Succeeded by Piero Colonna
Governor of Addis Ababa
In office
5 May 1936 – 27 May 1943
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Alfredo Siniscalchi
Minister of National Education
In office
15 November 1936 – 5 February 1943
Preceded by Cesare Maria De Vecchi
Succeeded by Carlo Alberto Biggini
Personal details
Born (1895-09-03)3 September 1895
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
Died 9 January 1959(1959-01-09) (aged 63)
Rome, Italian Republic
Nationality Italian
Political party Italian Fasci of Combat
(1919–1921)
National Fascist Party
(1921–1943)
Alma mater University of Rome
Occupation Journalist, politician

Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian lawyer, economist, journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.

Contents

  • Fascism 1
  • Opposition to Mussolini 2
  • Works 3
  • References 4

Fascism

Born in Rome, he served as a volunteer in World War I, and met Mussolini in 1919, helping him establish the Fasci in Rome, and later becoming editor of Il Popolo d'Italia's Roman edition. A law graduate, he sat in the Italian Chamber of Deputies after 1921. Bottai was active in the October 1922 March on Rome that brought the fascists to power, being responsible for the violent actions of the Blackshirts under his command (who killed several persons as the March met with protests).

In 1923, Bottai founded the Critica fascista magazine, and in 1926-1929 was deputy secretary of the Corporations (the reshaped Chamber of Deputies under Mussolini's command), issuing the Carta del Lavoro legislation.

After the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Bottai was also the first Italian Governor of Addis Ababa for twenty-two days (between 5 and 27 May 1936). He was Italy's minister of Education 1936-1943, the editor of several journals, and the Mayor of Rome, initiating a number of anti-democratic and anti-semitic measures. Bottai also ordered Jewish teachers and students removed from Italy's schools and universities.

Opposition to Mussolini

Increasingly disenchanted with the Duce's leadership during World War II, Bottai sided with 19 other members of the Grand Council of Fascism, and supported Dino Grandi's July 1943 move to oust Mussolini. For that reason, he and Grandi (who had fled first to Spain, then to Portugal) were both sentenced to death in absentia by Mussolini's revived Italian Social Republic in the Verona trial (held from 8 to 10 January 1944). Meanwhile, Bottai had entered the French Foreign Legion, where he remained up to 1948, taking part in Allied campaigns in France and Nazi Germany.

An amnesty in 1947 enabled Bottai to return to Italy. Once back there, he edited the political journal A.B.C. in Rome, where he died in 1959. In 1995, the proposal to name a street in Rome after him caused controversies, and was later abandoned.

Works

  • Trade organisation in Italy under the act and regulations on collective relations in connection with employment
  • Economia fascista (1930)
  • Grundprinzipien des korporativen Aufbaus in Italien (1933)
  • Esperienza corporativa (1929-1935) (1935)
  • Corporazioni (1935)
  • Scritti giuridici in onore di Santi Romano ... (1940)
  • Funzione di Roma nella vita culturale e scientifica della nazione (1940)
  • Pagine di critica fascista (1915-1926) (1941, edited by F. M. Pacces)
  • Romanità e germanesimo : letture tenute per il Lyceum di Firenze (1941, edited by Jolanda de Blasi)
  • Von der römischen zur faschistischen Korporation (1942)
  • Köpfe des risorgimento (1943)
  • Contributi all'elaborazione delle scienze corporative : (1939-XVIII--1942-XX) (1943)
  • Vent 'anni e un giorno, 24 luglio 1943 (1949). Republished as Vent'anni e un giorno (24 luglio 1943) (1977).
  • Legione è il mio nome (1950). Republished as Legione è il mio nome : il coraggioso epilogo di un gerarca del fascismo (I memoriali) (1999, edited by Marcello Staglieno)
  • Scritti (1965, edited by Roberto Bartolozzi and Riccardo Del Giudice)
  • Diario, 1935-1944 (1982, edited by Giordano Bruno Guerri )
  • Carteggio 1940-1957, correspondence between Bottai and Don Giuseppe De Luca; edited by Renzo De Felice and Renato Moro (1989)
  • La politica delle arti: Scritti, 1918-1943 (1992, edited by Alessandro Masi).
  • Quaderni giovanili: 1915-1920 (Atti testimonianze convegni) (1996).

References

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