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Fort Bowie

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Title: Fort Bowie  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Apache Pass, Cochise, Bowie, Forts in Arizona, History of Cochise County, Arizona
Collection: 1862 Establishments in the United States, 1864 Establishments in Arizona Territory, American Civil War Forts, Arizona Territory, Buildings and Structures in Cochise County, Arizona, Forts in Arizona, Forts on the National Register of Historic Places in Arizona, Historic American Buildings Survey in Arizona, History of Cochise County, Arizona, Military and War Museums in Arizona, Museums in Cochise County, Arizona, National Historic Landmarks in Arizona, National Historic Sites in Arizona, Native American History of Arizona, Protected Areas of Cochise County, Arizona, Ruins in the United States
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Fort Bowie

Fort Bowie
Apache Pass, Arizona
Fort Bowie in 1893.
Type Army fortification
Site information
Controlled by  Arizona
Condition tourist attraction
Site history
Built 1864
Built by  United States
In use 1862 - 1894
Garrison information
Occupants United States Army

Fort Bowie was a 19th-century outpost of the United States Army located in southeastern Arizona near the present day town of Willcox, Arizona. The remaining buildings and site are now protected as Fort Bowie National Historic Site.

Fort Bowie was established by the California Volunteers in 1862 after a series of engagements between the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry who first established the fort. The first Fort Bowie resembled a temporary camp rather than a permanent army post. In 1868, a second, more substantial Fort Bowie was built which included adobe barracks, houses, corrals, a trading post, and a hospital. The second Fort Bowie was built on a plateau about 500 yards (460 m) to the east of the first site. For more than 30 years Fort Bowie and Apache Pass were the focal point of military operations eventually culminating in the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama. The fort was abandoned in 1894.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Commanders 1.1
    • Garrisons of Fort Bowie 1.2
  • Fort Bowie today 2
  • Gallery 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

History

Two engagements between the

  • Travel ItineraryDiscover Our Shared HeritageAmerican Southwest, a National Park Service
  • National Park Service: Fort Bowie National Historic Site
  • Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. AZ-63, "Fort Bowie (Ruins), Bowie vicinity, Cochise County, AZ"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-A, "Fort Bowie, Cavalry Barracks"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-B, "Fort Bowie, Corrals"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-C, "Fort Bowie, Infantry Barracks"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-D, "Fort Bowie, Commanding Officer's Quarters"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-E, "Fort Bowie, Guardhouse"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-F, "Fort Bowie, Schoolhouse"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-G, "Fort Bowie, New Hospital"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-H, "Fort Bowie, Sutler's Store"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-I, "Fort Bowie, Magazine"
  • HABS No. AZ-63-J, "Fort Bowie, Stage Station (Ruins)"

External links

  1. ^ "Fort Bowie and Apache Pass" (PDF). National Survey Of Historic Sites And Buildings. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  3. ^ a b "Fort Bowie and Apache Pass". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  4. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination" (PDF). National Park Service. December 1975. 
  5. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination" (PDF). National Park Service. December 1975. 
  • Douglas C. McChristian, Fort Bowie, Arizona: Combat Post of the Southwest, 1858-1894, University of Oklahoma Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8061-3781-9, ISBN 978-0-8061-3781-0

References

Gallery

In 1958 a Western entitled Fort Bowie was made, starring Ben Johnson. The film charted one of the disputes between the US Cavalry based at the fort and the Apaches.

The remains of Fort Bowie are carefully preserved, as are the adobe walls of various post buildings and the ruins of a Butterfield Stage Station. The site is located on the unpaved Apache Pass Road which can be accessed from Interstate 10 near Bowie, Arizona or from Arizona Highway 186 just north of the entrance to Chiricahua National Monument. Access to the ruins of Fort Bowie and the visitor center is via a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) foot trail which begins at a parking area along Apache Pass Road. This trail to the old fort passes other historic sites such as Apache Spring, Siphon Canyon, the ruins of the Butterfield Stage Stop and Bascom's Camp.

The Fort Bowie and Apache Pass site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960.[3][4][5]

Fort Bowie and Apache Pass
Built 1862
NRHP Reference # 72000194[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP July 29, 1972[2]
Designated NHL December 19, 1960[3]
Fort Bowie National Historic Site
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Map showing the location of Fort Bowie National Historic Site
Location Cochise County, Arizona, United States
Nearest city Bowie, Arizona
Coordinates
Area 999.45 acres (4.04 km2)
Established July 29, 1972
Visitors 9,656 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service

Fort Bowie today

  • Company G, 5th California Infantry. July 27, 1862 - January 1863
  • Company E, 5th California Infantry. January 1863 - May, 1863
  • Company K, 5th California Infantry. May, 1864 - September, 1864
  • ?
  • Company L, 1st California Cavalry. June, 1865 - January, 1866
  • ?
  • Company L, 1st California Cavalry. March, 1866 - April, 1866

Garrisons of Fort Bowie

Commanders

The second major engagement was the Battle of Apache Pass, fought from July 15 to July 16, 1862. A Union regiment under Brigadier General James Henry Carleton was ambushed by a band of Apaches while en route from California to New Mexico where they were to confront Confederate troops. This battle led to the eventual establishment of Fort Bowie in order to protect Apache Pass and an important source of water, Apache Spring. Construction on the first Fort Bowie began in 1862 but this resembled a temporary camp rather than a permanent military fort. In 1868, a second, more substantial Fort Bowie was built on a plateau about 500 yards (460 m) to the east. For more than 30 years Fort Bowie and Apache Pass were the focal point of military operations eventually culminating in the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama. The fort was abandoned in 1894.

Apache prisoners at Fort Bowie, 1884
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