World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Fireteam

Article Id: WHEBN0000166656
Reproduction Date:

Title: Fireteam  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Section (military unit), Sub-subunit, Designated marksman, Corporal, Military organization
Collection: Military Units and Formations by Size
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Fireteam

Standard NATO military map symbol for a friendly infantry "Fireteam".

A fireteam is a small military sub-subunit of infantry designed to optimize bounding overwatch and fire and movement tactical doctrine within a hostile urban environment. Depending on mission requirements, it generally consists of four or fewer soldiers and are usually grouped by two or three fireteams into a squad or section in coordinated operations, which is led by a squad leader.[1]

Fireteams are the second smallest organized unit in the militaries that use it; the smallest being three or fewer soldier support or specialist teams (such as anti-tank teams, machine gun teams, mortar teams, sniper teams, EOD teams, or military working dog teams) that are designed to operate independently.

Fireteams are the primary unit upon which modern infantry organization is based in the British Army, Royal Air Force Regiment, Royal Marines, United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Air Force Security Forces, Canadian Forces, and Australian Army.

Contents

  • Concept 1
  • National variations 2
    • British 2.1
    • Canadian 2.2
    • French 2.3
    • United States 2.4
      • Army 2.4.1
      • Marine Corps 2.4.2
    • Other 2.5
  • History 3
    • World War I 3.1
    • Interbellum 3.2
    • World War II 3.3
  • Fire and maneuver team 4
    • Finland 4.1
    • France 4.2
    • Sweden 4.3
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Concept

The concept of the fireteam is based on the need for tactical flexibility in infantry operations. A fireteam is capable of autonomous operations as part of a larger unit. Successful fireteam employment relies on quality small unit training for soldiers, experience of fireteam members operating together, sufficient communications infrastructure, and a quality non-commissioned officer corps to provide tactical leadership for the team.

These requirements have led to successful use of the fireteam concept by more professional militaries. It is less useful for armies employing massed infantry formations, or with significant conscription. Conscription makes fireteam development difficult, as team members are more effective as they build experience over time working together and building personal bonds.

The creation of effective fireteams is seen as essential for creating an effective professional military as they serve as a primary group. Psychological studies by the United States Army have indicated that the willingness to fight is more heavily influenced by the desire to avoid failing to support other members of the fireteam than by abstract concepts. Historically, nations with effective fireteam organization have had significantly better performance from their infantry units in combat than those limited to operations by larger units.

In combat, while attacking or maneuvering, a fireteam generally spreads over a distance of 50 metres (160 ft), while in defensive positions the team can cover up to the range of its weapons or the limits of visibility, whichever is less. In open terrain, up to 500 metres (1,600 ft) can be covered by an effective team, although detection range limits effectiveness beyond 100 metres (330 ft) or so without special equipment. A team is effective so long as its primary weapon remains operational.

National variations

British

Infantry units of the British Army, Royal Marines and RAF Regiment use the fireteam concept. An infantry section of eight men contains two fireteams, Charlie and Delta, each comprising an NCO (Corporal or Lance Corporal) and three Privates.

The fireteam is generally used as a subdivision of the section for fire and maneuver rather than as a separate unit in its own right, although fireteams or fireteam sized units are often used for reconnaissance and special operations.

Canadian

In the Canadian Army 'fireteam' refers to two soldiers paired for fire and movement. Two fireteams form an 'assault group' and two assault groups form a section of eight soldiers.

French

The French Section (Groupe de Combat – "Combat Group") is divided into two Teams. The "Fire Team" (Equipe de feu) is based around the section-level automatic rifle or light machinegun. The "Shock Team" (Equipe de choc), made up of riflemen armed with rifle grenades or disposable rocket launchers, is the reconnaissance and maneuver unit. The Teams bounding overwatch, with one element covering as the other moves. The Team leaders have handheld radios so the elements can stay in contact with each other, as well as with the Section Leader's backpack radio set. The most common symbol of the modern French junior NCO (chef d'equipe) has been a radio hanging around their neck.

United States

Army

The United States Army particularly emphasizes the fireteam concept.[2]

According to US Army Field Manual 3-21.8 (Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad, formerly FM 7-8[3]) a typical United States Army fireteam consists of four soldiers:

  • Team Leader (TL): The NCO holds the rank of Sergeant or Corporal (although occasionally a team is led by a Specialist or Private First Class). Provides tactical leadership for the team at all times with a "Do As I Do" attitude; standard equipped with backpack GPS/radio set, and either an M16 rifle or M4 carbine. A Squad Leader or Assistant Squad Leader may replace the team leader at the squad or section level.
  • Rifleman (R): Is 'the baseline standard for all Infantrymen'. They are equipped with the M16 rifle or M4 carbine. The rifleman is usually assigned with the grenadier to help balance the firepower capabilities of the automatic rifleman.
  • Grenadier Rifleman (GR): Provides limited high-angle fire over 'Dead zones'. A grenadier is equipped with an M4/M16 with the M203 grenade launcher (or newer M320 grenade launcher) mounted to the weapon.
  • Automatic Rifleman (AR): Second-in-command next to Team Leader: provides overwatch and suppressive fire through force multiplication. The most casualty producing person in a fireteam, in terms of firepower and maneuverability when compared to the standard nine-man rifle squad. An automatic rifleman is equipped with a M249 light machine gun. The automatic rifleman is usually assigned with the team leader to maximize directed fields of fire and to help balance the firepower capabilities of the grenadier.

In the context of a Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT)'s Infantry Rifle Companies,[4] one man from each fireteam in a rifle squad is either the Squad Leader (SL),[5] Assistant Squad Leader (ASL), the squad machine gunner (MG), the squad assistant gunner (AG), the squad RTO, the squad rifleman/compassman (R/CM), the Squad Anti-armor Specialist (RMAT), armed with the FGM-148 Javelin, or the Squad Designated Marksman (DM), who carries the M4 carbine and M14 rifle. In all cases these specialized function replaces the basic rifleman position in the fireteam.[6]

Marine Corps

US Marines on patrol in Afghanistan, 2009.

The United States Marine Corps summarizes its fireteam organization with the mnemonic "ready-team-fire-assist", the following being the arrangement of the fireteam when in a column:

Other

Many other armed forces see the squad as the smallest military unit; some countries' armies have a pair consisting of two soldiers as the smallest military unit. In others a fireteam is composed of two pairs of soldiers (fire and maneuver team) forming a fireteam. Chinese military forces traditionally use a three-man 'cell' (equivalent to fireteam) as the smallest military formation.

History

Fireteams have their origins in the early 20th century. From the Napoleonic War until World War I, military tactics involved central control of large numbers of soldiers in mass formation where small units were given little initiative.

World War I

Battle of the Somme in 1916. (This idea was later further developed in World War II.) French Chasseur units in WWI were organized into fireteams, equipped with a light machine gun (Chauchat) team and grenades, to destroy German fire positions by fire (not assault) at up to 200 meters using rifle grenades. The light machinegun team would put suppressive fire on the enemy position, while the grenadier team moved to a position where the enemy embrasure could be attacked with grenades. The Chasseur tactics were proven during the Petain Offensive of 1917. Survivors of these French Chasseur units taught these tactics to US Infantry, which used them with effectiveness at St. Mihiel and the Argonne. It was typical of a fireteam in this era to consits of four infantrymen: two assualters with carbines, one grenadier, and one sapper.

Interbellum

In the inter-war years, United States Marine Corps Captain Evans F. Carlson went to China in 1937 and observed units of the Communist Chinese National Revolutionary Army in action against the Japanese army. Carlson and Merritt A. Edson are believed to have developed the fireteam concept during the United States occupation of Nicaragua (1912–1933). At that time the US Marine squad consisted of a Corporal and seven Marines all armed with a bolt-action M1903 Springfield rifle and an automatic rifleman armed with a Browning Automatic Rifle. The introduction of the Thompson submachine gun and Winchester Model 1912 shotgun was popular with the Marines as a point-defense weapon for countering ambush by Nicaraguan guerrillas within the thick vegetation that could provide cover for a quick overrun of a patrol. A team of four men armed with these weapons had proven more effective in terms of firepower and maneuverability than the standard nine-man rifle squad.

Carlson later brought these ideas back to the US when the country entered

  1. ^ http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm3_21x8.pdf
  2. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kR8VLkzfbuU
  3. ^ http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm3_21x8.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-21-11/c01.htm#sectionii1_7
  5. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVQ6F57w8_U
  6. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zp8-ugcWh-w

References

See also

According to the Swedish Armed Forces field manual, a trained fire and maneuver team is as effective as four individual soldiers of same quality. However, the efficiency of the fire and maneuver team has been challenged by many experts as it has been claimed to be insufficient in close-quarter situations where many fighting techniques have been designed for larger units.

Sweden

In the old Colonial Forces (like the Legion Etrangere) it was a means of imposing order. The pair were responsible for each other - if one member broke the rules or deserted, the other would be punished for not preventing it.

The French Army has the concept of a Binome ("pair"). In the regular forces it is the pairing of an experienced soldier with a recruit or replacement. The new man learns from the experienced man how to properly perform the everyday tasks and responsibilities of his assignment.

France

In the Finnish Defence Forces, a squad is formed by three fire and maneuver teams (taistelupari, literally "combat pair") and a squad leader.

Finland

The concept is not widely utilized. The United States and most Commonwealth armies rely on the concept of fire teams forming a squad.

A Fire and Maneuver team is the smallest unit above the individual soldier. It consists of two soldiers with one soldier acting as senior of the two fighters (decided amongst the two or by their superior). A fireteam in turn consists of at least two fire and maneuver teams and a squad of two or more fireteams.

An example of fire and maneuver in actual combat. Here, during the Battle of Okinawa, a US Marine on the left provides covering fire for the Marine on the right to break cover and move to a different position.

Fire and maneuver team

Meanwhile, the Communist Chinese established the three-man fireteam concept as the three-man cell when they organized a regular army, and its organization seemed to have been disseminated throughout all of Asia's communist forces, perhaps the most famous of which are the PAVN/NVA (People's Army of Vietnam/North Vietnamese Army) and the Viet Cong.

The US Army Rangers and Special Service Force adopted an early Fire Team concept when on campaign in Italy and France. Each Squad sub-unit of 4 to 5 men was heavily armed. Each Fire Team was composed of a 2-man BAR automatic rifleman and assistant, a scout (marksman/grenadier) armed with a M1903 Springfield with a rifle grenade discharger, and a team leader armed with an M1 carbine or M1 SMG. Their later misuse as conventional infantry negated their special training and fighting skill and their use as "fire brigades" against larger enemy forces negated their advantages in aggressiveness and firepower.

WWII US Army squads consisted of an A-team (squad leader and two scouts), B-team (BAR Gunner, assistant and 3 rifle men) and C-team (Bazooka gunner, assistant and 3 rifle men). In an assault the A team and C team would assault, as the B-team provided suppressive fire. Suppressive fire from the BAR would be supplemented by fire from the rifles of his team as he reloaded, and could be further supplemented by platoon medium machine guns.

World War II
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.