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Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

 

Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

Italian Fasci of Combat
Fasci Italiani di Combattimento
Leader Benito Mussolini
Founded 11 December 1914
Dissolved 9 November 1921
Merger of Fasci d'Azione Internazionalista,
Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluzionaria
Split from Italian Socialist Party
Merged into National Fascist Party
Headquarters Milan, Italy
Newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia
Paramilitary wing Camicie Nere (CCNN)
Ideology Fascism
Republicanism
Sansepolcrism
National syndicalism
Political position Far-right
International affiliation None
Colors      Black
Politics of Italy
Political parties
Elections
The platform of Fasci italiani di combattimento, as published in Il Popolo d'Italia

The Italian Fasci of Combat (Benito Mussolini in 1914.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Foundation and early years 1.1
    • Consolidation 1.2
    • Renamed and last times 1.3
  • Ideology 2
  • Electoral results 3
    • Italian Parliament 3.1
  • References 4

History

Foundation and early years

It was founded as a merger of two other movements: the Fasci d'Azione Internazionalista and a previous group he started called the Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluzionaria.[1] In 1915, members of the Fasci began to officially refer to themselves as "Fascists".[2] It denounced Marxism, but asserted that it supported socialism, using the famous quote by French socialist Louis Auguste Blanqui, "He who has iron has bread" on the title page of its newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia.[3] The Fasci was republican and Mussolini spoke of his desire that the war would "perhaps see a few more crowns fall to pieces", and in April 1915 Mussolini accused Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III of being a pro-German "Philistine" and accusing him of being "foreign" and for allegedly being a "neutralist".[4]

Consolidation

Due to Mussolini's support of Italian intervention in the then-ongoing World War I, he received financial support from Ansaldo (an armaments firm) and other companies.[5] In 1917, Mussolini was allegedly supported by the British Directorate of Military Intelligence, with Mussolini supposedly being paid a £100 weekly wage; this help is said to have been authorised by Sir Samuel Hoare.[6] However, regardless of the financial support he accepted for his pro-interventionist stance, Mussolini's socialist critics noted that Mussolini was free to write whatever he wished in his newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia, without prior sanctioning by his financial backers.[7]

The first meeting of the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria was held on 24 January 1915.[8] At the meeting Mussolini declared that it was necessary for Europe to resolve its national problems - including national borders - of Italy and elsewhere "for the ideals of justice and liberty for which oppressed peoples must acquire the right to belong to those national communities from which they descended".[9] Amidst discussion on the question of irredentism, Mussolini noted from the proceedings of the members that "the difficult question of irredentism was posed and resolved in the ambit of ideals of socialism and liberty which do not however exclude the safeguarding of a positive national interest".[10]

In March 1915, Mussolini declared the movement's irredentist stance towards Trieste, in which he stated that Trieste "must be, and will be Italian through war against the Austrians and, if necessary, against the Slavs".[11] In an article on 6 April 1915, Mussolini addressed the movement's irredentist stance towards Dalmatia, arguing that Italy should not annex all of Dalmatia because claims that it had a majority of Italian speakers was "not a good enough reason to claim exclusive possession of all of Dalmatia"[12] It did support Italy annexing a vast section of Dalmatia including its entire archipelago.[13]

The Fasci received ideological influence from other members than Mussolini, such as Prezzolini, who had previously been a member of the Italian Nationalist Association.[14] Prezzolini was impressed by Mussolini, and in late 1914 joined Il Popolo d'Italia to write for it.[15]

On 11 April 1915 during an interventionist demonstration that was confronted by neutralist PSI members, Italian state police killed one man, an electrician named Innocente Marcora.[16] Both interventionists and neutralists were outraged by the man's death.[17] The Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria who by then referred to themselves as "Fascists", took part in a joint neutralist-interventionist work stoppage.[18]

Renamed and last times

On 23 March 1919, the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria was renamed in Fasci Italiani da Combattimento. In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles resulted in Italy obtaining Southern Tyrol, Trentino, Istria and Trieste from Austria. However, Italy also wanted Fiume and the region of Dalmatia on the Adriatic coast, hence they felt treated unfairly. In March 1919, Mussolini set up the Fasci di Combattimenti (the fighting group), which galvanised the support of the disgruntled, unemployed war veterans. The Arditi, (The blackshirts, from the Italian commandos) were angry about the problems in Italy. Mussolini sympathised with them, claiming he shared their war experiences, hence they joined the Fasci, eventually becoming the MVSN.

In 1921, this fascio would be transformed into the National Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF). Mussolini combined ideologies from a few different political parties. He started his political life as a socialist, eventually editor of the socialist magazine Avanti, but was expelled when he supported intervention in World War I. He then started a group called the Fascio di Combattimento (League of Combat), which at first didn't gain much popularity. In 1919, a three-party government was formed, leaning toward a democratic side of government (National Fascist Party).

Ideology

The Fasci was strongly based on Mazzinian politics, such as following Mazzini's denouncement of irreligious, non-mystic, [24]

Electoral results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1921 with National Blocs
37 / 535
Benito Mussolini

References

  1. ^ Zeev Sternhell. The Birth of Fascist Ideology. P. 303.
  2. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 52.
  3. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 42.
  4. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 52-53.
  5. ^ Dennis Mack Smith. 1997. Modern Italy; A Political History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. p. 284.
  6. ^ Kington, Tom (13 October 2009). "Recruited by MI5: the name's Mussolini. Benito Mussolini – Documents reveal Italian dictator got start in politics in 1917 with help of £100 weekly wage from MI5". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  7. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 37.
  8. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 41.
  9. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 41.
  10. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 41.
  11. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 42.
  12. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 42.
  13. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 42.
  14. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 49.
  15. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 49.
  16. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 52.
  17. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 49.
  18. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 52.
  19. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 42.
  20. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 44.
  21. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 44.
  22. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 44.
  23. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 44.
  24. ^ Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist. Pp. 44.
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