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Falange Española de las JONS

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Falange Española de las JONS

Falange Española de las JONS
Falange Española de las JONS
Founder José Antonio Primo de Rivera
Founded 29 October 1933 (1933-10-29)
Dissolved 19 April 1937 (original)
Merged into Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
Newspaper Patria Sindicalista, Arriba (historical)
Student wing Sindicato Español Universitario
Youth wing Frente de Juventudes
Ideology Falangism
Fascism
Political position Far-right
Religion Catholic Church
Colors Black, Red (flag of the Falange); Blue
Party flag
Politics of Spain
Political parties
Elections

Falange Española de las JONS (FE de las JONS), known simply as the Falange (   ), is the name assigned to several Spanish political movements and parties originating in the late 1930s, a rough contemporary of the Estado Novo, Nazism and Italian Fascism. The word Falange is Spanish for phalanx. Members of the party were called Falangists (Spanish: Falangistas).

Contents

  • Historical context 1
  • Early history 2
  • Spanish Civil War 3
  • Franco era 4
  • Post-Franco era 5
  • Symbols 6
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • External links 9

Historical context

In Spain, the Falange was a José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933, during the Second Spanish Republic. Primo de Rivera was the son of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, who governed Spain as Prime Minister in the 1920s.

Unlike other members of the Spanish right, the Falange was republican, avant-gardist, and modernist (see Early History below), in a manner similar to the original spirit of Italian Fascism. Its uniform and aesthetic were similar to contemporary European fascist and national socialist movements. After the party was coopted by Francisco Franco and consolidated with the Carlists, it ceased to have a fascist character (to the extent Fascism is considered revolutionary) inasmuch as Franco was a Monarchist, although it retained many of the external trappings of fascism.[1][2][3][4]

During the

  • Spartacus article on the Falange including a Falange manifesto
  • (Spanish) Falange Española de las JONS
  • (Spanish) Falange Auténtica
  • (Spanish) La Falange
  • (Spanish) Website of the Unión Nacional de Trabajadores, the trade union arm of the Falangist movement
  • (Spanish) José Antonio's written legacy

External links

  1. ^ "Visions of Awakening Space and Time : Dogen and the Lotus Sutra". 
  2. ^ "Franco and the Spanish Civil War". 
  3. ^ "The transformation of Spain". 
  4. ^ Payne, Stanley. "Fascism in Spain, 19231977". 
  5. ^ "SPAIN: Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera 10.27.03". 
  6. ^ See Mónica and Pablo Carbajosa, La Corte Literaria de José Antonio (Crítica; Barcelona, 2003) and Mechtild Albert, Vanguardistas de Camisa Azul tr. by Cristina Diez Pampliego and Juan Ramón García Ober (Madrid: Visor Libros, 2003).
  7. ^ Berdichevsky, Norman (September 2008). "Franco, Fascism and the Falange: Not One and the Same Thing". New English Review. 
  8. ^ Payne, S.G. The Franco Regime, 1936-1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987. p 65.
  9. ^ Payne 1987, p. 62.
  10. ^ Payne 1987, p. 176.
  11. ^ Payne 1987, p. 187.
  12. ^ Paul Preston, Franco, London: 1995, pp. 261-6
  13. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (2001), p. 903
  14. ^ Payne 1987, p. 238.
  15. ^ Payne 1987, p. 308-09.
  16. ^ Payne 1987, p. 322.
  17. ^ Payne 1987, p. 523.
  18. ^ Payne 1987, p. 527.
  19. ^ "Falange splinter group smashed by police sting - Navarran cell, unknown to mainstream far-right, attacked ETA families, bars.". El Pais - English Edition with the International Herald Tribune. El Pais. 24 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-25. 

Notes

See also

Symbols of Francoism:

Symbols

In 2009, police arrested five members of a Falangist splinter group calling itself Falange y Tradición. They alleged that this group which was unknown to mainstream Falangist groups, had been involved in a raft of violent attacks in the Navarre region. These attacks were primarily targeted at Basque separatist group ETA and their sympathisers.[19]

After Franco's death (20 November 1975, also known as "20-N") the monarchy of Spain was restored to the House of Bourbon in the person of King Juan Carlos and a move towards democratization began under Adolfo Suárez, a former chief of the Movimiento. The Spanish transition to democracy splintered the Falange. In the first elections in 1977, three different groups fought in court for the right to the Falangist name. Today, decades after the end of the Francoist regime, Spain still has a minor Falangist element, represented by a number of tiny political parties. Chief among these are the Falange Española de las JONS (which takes its name from the historical party), Authentic Falange, Falange Española Independiente (which later merged with the FE de las JONS), and FE - La Falange. Vastly reduced in size and power today, these Falangist-inspired parties are rarely seen publicly except on ballot papers, in State-funded TV election advertisements, and during demonstrations on historic dates, like 20 November (death of Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera and General Francisco Franco). These three parties received 27,166 votes amongst them in the Spanish general election, 2004.

Yoke and arrows, the symbol of the Catholic Monarchs.

Post-Franco era

[18] With improving relations with the United States, the "

The Falange also developed youth organizations, with members known as Flechas and Pelayos.

By the middle of the World War II, Franco and leading Falangists, while distancing themselves from the faltering European fascists, stressed the unique "Spanish Catholic authoritarianism" of the regime and the Falange. Instructions were issued in September 1943 that henceforth the Falange/FET would be referred to exclusively as a "movement" and not a "party".[16]

Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942.[14] Despite the official unification of the various Nationalist factions within the party in 1937, tensions continued between dedicated Falangists and other groups, particularly Carlists. Such tensions erupted in violence with the Begoña Incident of August 1942, when hardline Falangist activists attacked a Carlist religious gathering in Bilbao with grenades. The attack and the response of Carlist government ministers (most notably José Enrique Varela and Valentín Galarza Morante) led to a government crisis and caused Franco to dismiss several ministers. Ultimately, six Falangists were convicted of the attack and one, Juan Domínguez, was executed.[15]

After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Franco's regime. This job became a cursus honorum for ambitious politicians—new converts, who were called camisas nuevas ("new shirts") in opposition to the more overtly populist and ideological "old shirts" from before the war.

Falange party flag

Franco era

However, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all trade unions were unified under Falangist command.

None of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war.[13]

After Franco seized power on 19 April 1937, he united under his command the Falange with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista, forming Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS), whose official ideology was the Falangists' 27 puntos—reduced, after the unification, to 26. Despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange (including Hedilla) and many Carlists did not join the unified party. Franco had sought to control the Falange after a clash between Hedilla and his main critics within the group, the legitimistas of Agustín Aznar and Sancho Dávila y Fernández de Celis, that threatened to derail the Nationalist war effort.[12]

The command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla, as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, who was a Government prisoner. As a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente, (the Absent One). After being sentenced to death on November 18, 1936, Primo de Rivera was executed on November 20, 1936 (a date since known as 20-N in Spain), in a Republican prison, giving him martyr status among the Falangists. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his Parliamentary immunity, after his party did not have enough votes during the last elections.

[11] With the eruption of the

The Swan as a symbol of Grand Inquisitor Cisneros (1436–1517) based on his personal coat of arms. Shirt Shield from the Frente de Juventudes, 1950s. This shield was also worn on the uniform of the Milicias Universitarias

Spanish Civil War

Following the elections the left-wing Popular Front government persecuted the Falange and imprisoned Primo de Rivera on 6 July 1936. In turn, the Falange joined the conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, supporting the military revolt ultimately led by Francisco Franco and continuing to do so throughout the ensuing Spanish Civil War.

The Falange was not an archetypal party of the right. Sindicato Español Universitario).[9]

The year after its founding, the Falange united with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista of Onésimo Redondo, Ramiro Ledesma, and others, becoming Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Falange Españole de las JONS).

Early history
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