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Disabled sports

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Disabled sports

Iris Pruysen competes in the long jump at the 2014 Paris Athletics Paralympic Meeting.

Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many disabled sports are based on existing able bodied sports, modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports. Disability exists in four categories: physical, mental, permanent and temporary.

Contents

  • Organization and history 1
  • Sports 2
  • Inclusion 3
    • Unified sports 3.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Organization and history

Organized sport for athletes with a disability is generally divided into three broad disability groups: the deaf, people with physical disabilities, and people with intellectual disabilities. Each group has a distinct history, organization, competition program, and approach to sport.

Formal international competition in deaf sport began with the 1924 Paris Silent Games, organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds, CISS (The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf). These games evolved into the modern Deaflympics, governed by the CISS. The CISS maintains separate games for deaf athletes based on their numbers, their special communication needs on the sports field, and the social interaction that is a vital part of sports.[1]

Organized sport for persons with physical disabilities existed as early as 1911, when the "Cripples Olympiad" was held in the U.S.A. One of the successful athletes was Walter William Francis, a Welshman, who won both the running and wrestling championships.[2] Later, events often developed out of rehabilitation programs. Following the

  • International Paralympic Committee
  • Disabled Sports USA
  • Disabled Sports UK
  • Deaflympics
  • Special Olympics

External links

  1. ^ "International Committee of Sport for the Deaf". Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "Skipper Francis at Thames", Thames Star, New Zealand, 17 Oct 1913 http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=THS19131017.2.25
  3. ^ "Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  4. ^ "The History of Special Olympics". Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  5. ^ Megan Crandall, "BLM Enters Into Memorandum of Understanding with Disabled Sports USA", US Bureau of Land Management Press Release, December 24, 2011
  6. ^ Chris Durso, "Leading By Example: Kirk Bauer Able-Bodied", Convene Magazine, June, 2010
  7. ^ Candus Thomson, "Disabled veterans vow to conquer Mount Kilimanjaro", Baltimore Sun, July 31, 2010
  8. ^ "Archive News". INAS-FID. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2010. During the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) General Assembly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the IPC membership today decided in favour of the re-inclusion of athletes with an intellectual disability (ID athletes) in competitions, including the Paralympic Games. 
  9. ^ "Special Olympics members break away". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 2007-04-26. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  10. ^ AB40V - Lausanne - Switzerland. "Le Sport avant tout, avec ou sans handicap - Info Stades, Salle polyvalentes, Fédération Sportives, Clubs, Championnats... tout le Handisport". Wheelchair.ch. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  11. ^ Daignault, Louis. "Integration Battle Heats Up At CommonWealth Games". Access Guide Canada. Canadian Abilities Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  12. ^ rickhansen.com "2004 IOC decision". 
  13. ^ Van Ooyen and Justin Anjema, Mark; Anjema, Justin (25 March 2004). "A Review and Interpretation of the Events of the 1994 Commonwealth Games" (PDF). Redeemer University College. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "Commonwealth Games Federation - Commonwealth Sports - Elite Athletes With A Disability (EAD)". Thecgf.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  15. ^ FIFA erlaubt Steirer Einsatz mit Prothese, orf.at, 2013-05-13.
  16. ^ "Self Determination Theory: An Approach to Human Motivation & Personality". Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  17. ^ http://www.specialolympics.org/unified-sports.aspx

References

See also

"Unified sports" involve teams with an equal number of disabled and non-disabled participants.[17]

Unified sports

The Self-Determination Theory has been one of the most proven theories on how athletes participate in competitions of this level. Studies have supported this theory especially in intellectually or developmentally disabled athletes.[16] Studies have continued to question the motivation for joining such competitions like the Special Olympics as well as the Paralympic Games. The Motivations for joining the Special Olympics uncover themes among individuals and families for their participation or abstention from these Olympic programs.

2013 the FIFA decided that Austrian footballer Martin Hofbauer can continue to play competitive football with prosthetics after he lost his right lower leg due to cancer. [15]

have competed as equals against able bodied athletes at various events including the Olympic Games. Oscar Pistorius and track athlete Natalie du Toit became the first athlete with a disability to carry her country's flag in the Opening Ceremonies of an integrated games. Individual athletes such as swimmer Chantal Petitclerc, where Canadian 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games This policy has continued with the [14] they were included as full members of their national teams, making these the first fully inclusive international multi-sport games.2002 Manchester Commonwealth Games and at the [13],exhibition events in 1994 Within the Commonwealth Games, athletes with a disability were first included in [12] in the Olympic movement remains controversial.disability Since 1984, the Olympics have included exhibition events for Paralympic athletes. However, integration of full medal events has not taken place, and the status of athletes with a [11] Beginning in the late 1980s and early 1990s, work began within several countries and organizations to include athletes with disabilities in the able-bodied sport system. This included adding events for athletes with disabilities to major games such as the

Inclusion

A wide range of sports have been adapted to be played by people with various disabilities, as well as several that are unique to disabled athletes. Within each movement, different sports are practised at different levels; for example, not all sports in the Paralympic movement are part of the Paralympic Games. In addition, many sports are practiced by persons with a disability outside the formal sports movements.

Wounded Warrior Chuck Sketch participates in swim practice on Feb. 14, 2012 at United States Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.
A wheelchair racer during the Marathon International de Paris (Paris Marathon) in 2014.

Sports

Since 1988, the International Olympic Committee have chosen to validate Disabled Sports (physical disabilities) and incorporate it as a part of the Games: the staging of the Paralympic Games immediately follows the Olympic Games. This scheduling helps to foster greater interest in disabled sports. An investigation published on a Swiss website has shown that more and more International Sports Federations list disabled athletes than any other sportsmen or sportswomen.[10]

In 2007, a group of San Diego County, S4EA has grown from this base to satellite programs in Ventura and Temecula, California.

In 2006, the action sports. This annual event held in the summer in Orlando, FL includes competitions in skateboarding, wakeboarding, rock climbing, mountain biking, surfing, moto-x and kayaking. Various organizations, such as Paradox Sports, have arisen to help empower and inspire disabled people through equipping and welcoming them into the extreme sports community.

In 1986, the International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disability (INAS-FID) was formed to support elite competition for athletes with intellectual disabilities. This was established in contrast to the more participative, "sport for all" approach of Special Olympics. For a time, athletes with intellectual disabilities were included in the Paralympic Games. After a cheating scandal at the 2000 Summer Paralympics, where a number of athletes participating in intellectual disability events were revealed to not be disabled, INAS-FID athletes were banned from Paralympic competition, but the ban on intellectually disabled athletes has since been lifted.[8]

Sport for persons with physical disabilities began to be organized in the US in the late 1960s through United States, serving more than 60,000 wounded warriors, youth and adults annually.[7]

Sport for persons with intellectual disabilities began to be organized in the 1960s through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver, beginning in 1962. In 1968 the first international Special Olympics were held, in Chicago. Today, Special Olympics provides training and competition in a variety of sports for persons with intellectual disabilities.[4]

[3]

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