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Cleopatra III of Egypt

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Title: Cleopatra III of Egypt  
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Subject: Cleopatra IV of Egypt, Ptolemaic dynasty, Cleopatra Selene II, Antiochus II of Commagene, Berenice III of Egypt
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Cleopatra III of Egypt

Cleopatra III
Queen of Egypt
Spouse Ptolemy VIII of Egypt (uncle and step-father)
Issue Ptolemy IX
Ptolemy X
Cleopatra IV
Cleopatra Selene I
Tryphaena
Dynasty Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy VI of Egypt
Mother Cleopatra II of Egypt
Born c. 160 – 155 BC
Died 101 BC

Cleopatra III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; 161–101 BC) was a queen of Egypt 142–101 BC.

Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X. She is attested as Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. According to Strabo she was sometimes known as Cleopatra Kokke when discussed in relation to her son Ptolemy X.[1]

Younger years

Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII of Egypt ruled together with her parents from ca 170 to 164 BC at which point he expelled Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VI of Egypt. But he was soon forced to abdicate.[2] Cleopatra III’s parents retook the throne and remained in power for almost 20 years until 145 BC. It was during this time that Cleopatra III was born (sometime between 160 and 155 BC), a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and possibly Berenice.[3][4]

After the death of her father Ptolemy VI from injuries sustained when falling from his horse during the battle of Oinoparas against Alexander Balas, Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII became the King of Egypt again.[3]

Joint rule with her mother and husband

Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra III’s mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, and married Cleopatra III in ca 139 BC. Cleopatra II rebelled against Ptolemy VIII in ca 132 BC and Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband, but was able to return to Alexandria in 127 BC.[2]

Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children:[1][4]

Wall relief of Cleopatra III, Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VIII before Horus

In ca. 124 BC Cleopatra III and her husband were joined again by her mother Cleopatra II as a joint ruler.

Joint rule with her sons

After the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX.[2]

Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. After 6 years of joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Cleopatra III by Chris Bennett
  2. ^ a b c Ptolemy VIII by Chris Bennett
  3. ^ a b Ptolemy VI by Chris Bennett
  4. ^ a b Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
Preceded by:
Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II
Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt
First Reign
with Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II
Succeeded by:
Cleopatra II
Preceded by:
Cleopatra II
Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt
Second Reign
with Ptolemy VIII, Cleopatra II, Ptolemy IX, and Ptolemy X
Succeeded by:
Ptolemy X

Sources

Roth, Lea. (2007). Cleopatra°. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 754. 

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