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Chandigarh

Chandigarh
ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ
City
The Open Hand Monument
The Open Hand Monument
Nickname(s): The City Beautiful
Chandigarh is located in India
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Coordinates:
Country India
Region North India
Union Territory/City Chandigarh
Established 1 Nov 1966
Seat of Government Chandigarh
Government
 • Administrator of UT Shivraj Patil
 • Mayor Harphool Chandra Kalyan
 • Commissioner Vivek Pratap Singh
Area
 • City 114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Area rank 33
Elevation 350 m (1,150 ft)
Population
 • City 1,054,686
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1] 960,787
  [2]
Language
 • Official[3] Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 160xxx
Telephone code 91-172-XXX XXXX
ISO 3166 code IN-CH
Vehicle registration CH-01 to CH-04
HDI Increase
0.892
HDI Category very high
Literacy 81.9
Website .in.nicchandigarh
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area

Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Haryana and Punjab. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government of India and is not part of either state. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and was known internationally for its architecture and urban design.[4] The master plan of the city was prepared by Le Corbusier, transformed from an earlier plan by the American planner Albert Mayer.[5] Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, however, is designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry.

The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country.[6] The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study,[7] and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.[8] The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Ajitgarh-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city.[9] This is the first smoke-free city in India.[10]

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Geography and climate 3
    • Average temperature 3.1
  • Environment 4
  • Demographics 5
  • Economy 6
  • Politics 7
  • Places to Visit 8
  • Proposals 9
  • Education 10
  • Transport 11
    • Road 11.1
    • Rail 11.2
    • Air 11.3
  • Media 12
    • Newspapers 12.1
    • Television 12.2
    • Radio Stations 12.3
  • Entertainment 13
    • Sports 13.1
    • Gardens 13.2
    • Communications 13.3
  • Notable people from Chandigarh 14
  • Gallery 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • Further reading 18
  • External links 19

Etymology

The ancient 'Chandi-mandir' temple, after which Chandigarh was named.

The name Chandigarh, meaning "the Fort of Chandi",[11] is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula District.[12]

History

After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan.[13] The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[14][15]

Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents, what Le Corbusier called, the 'Second Machine Age'.[16] However, two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made; their execution, however, was never fully accomplished after starting out in 1956.[17]

On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Haryanvi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current state of Punjab. Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was made into a union territory to serve as capital of both states.[18]

Geography and climate

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44.5 m2 or 114 km2.[19] It shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are .[20] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

Chandigarh
Climate chart ()
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
33
 
16
3
 
 
39
 
20
5
 
 
30
 
25
10
 
 
9
 
32
16
 
 
28
 
35
20
 
 
145
 
36
22
 
 
280
 
31
21
 
 
308
 
30
20
 
 
133
 
30
19
 
 
22
 
29
14
 
 
9
 
24
8
 
 
22
 
19
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

The surrounding districts are Ajitgarh, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab, Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.

Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the Mediterranean Sea. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himanchal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.

Average temperature

  • Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April). Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C.
  • Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
  • Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to 44 °C. The temperatures might sometime rise to 44 °C in mid-June. Temperatures generally vary between 40 to 42 °C.
  • Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
  • Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hailstorms. The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius.
Climate data for Chandigarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
21.1
(70)
29.5
(85.1)
34.5
(94.1)
42.4
(108.3)
44.3
(111.7)
35.0
(95)
32.8
(91)
29.1
(84.4)
28.8
(83.8)
19.9
(67.8)
18.1
(64.6)
29.58
(85.23)
Average low °C (°F) 3.9
(39)
5.4
(41.7)
10.4
(50.7)
14.9
(58.8)
28.2
(82.8)
30.9
(87.6)
24.0
(75.2)
22.3
(72.1)
20.8
(69.4)
16.0
(60.8)
9.5
(49.1)
4.7
(40.5)
15.92
(60.64)
Rainfall mm (inches) 46.6
(1.835)
33.9
(1.335)
29.3
(1.154)
11.3
(0.445)
24.2
(0.953)
112.6
(4.433)
276.3
(10.878)
282.8
(11.134)
179.0
(7.047)
41.6
(1.638)
6.7
(0.264)
18.9
(0.744)
1,063.2
(41.86)
Avg. rainy days 3.8 3.9 2.6 2.4 2.5 7.1 12.9 13.3 6.1 1.9 1.3 1.9 59.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[21]

Environment

Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations. Ashoka, cassia, mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species.[22] Deer, sambars, barking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, Rock Garden, Terrace Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.

Demographics

As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 960,787 with metro population of 1,025,682,[2] making for a density of about 9258 (7900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre.[24][25] Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 829 females for every 1,000 males[2] –which is the lowest in the country, up from 777 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.[2] 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.[2]

Economy

Legislative Assembly by Le Corbusier

The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's Paradise".[26] Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[27] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.

Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.[28][29]

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like Beijing.[30]

Politics

Chandigarh, being a Union Territory is not entitled to a state-level election, thus State Assembly elections are not held here and it is directly controlled by the Central government. However, one seat is contested here for the General Elections held after every five years.

The following Members of Parliament are elected till date from Chandigarh constituency:

Election Member Party
1967 Chand Goyal Bharatiya Jana Sangh
1971 Amar Nath Vidyalankar Indian National Congress
1977 Krishna Kant Janata Party
1980 Jagannath Kaushal Indian National Congress
1984 Jagannath Kaushal Indian National Congress
1989 Harmohan Dhawan Janata Dal
1991 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
1996 Satya Pal Jain Bharatiya Janata Party
1998 Satya Pal Jain Bharatiya Janata Party
1999 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2004 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2009 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2014 Kirron Kher Bharatiya Janata Party

The city is controlled by a civic administration. In the Municipal Corporation, BJP candidate Davesh Moudgil defeated Congress' Sheela Phool Singh by 19-16 votes for the post of Deputy Mayor. One vote was declared invalid. At present, there are 12 Councillors of Congress, 11 of BJP-SAD, two of Bahujan Samaj Party and one Independent in the 36-member Chandigarh Municipal Corporation according to December 2014.[31]

Places to Visit

The garden is most famous for its sculptures made from recycled ceramic, Rock Garden
Sukhna Lake
Government Museum & Art Gallery
Musical Fountain, Sector 17, Chandigarh
Le Corbusier Centre, Sector 19

Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:[32]

Name Location Notes
Sukhna Lake Sector 1, Chandigarh
New Lake Sector 42, Chandigarh
Rock garden Sector 1, Chandigarh Built by Nek Chand Saini
Leisure valley Sector 10, Chandigarh
Rose Garden Sector 16, Chandigarh
Capitol Complex Sector 1, Chandigarh
City Centre Sector 17, Chandigarh
Open hand monument Sector 1, Chandigarh
Garden of Silence Sector 1, Chandigarh Present inside Sukhna Lake
Cactus Garden Sector 5, Panchkula Present in Chandigarh Tricity, not proper Chandigarh.
National Gallery of Portraits
Garden of Fragrance Sector 36, Chandigarh
Le Corbusier Centre Sector 19, Chandigarh
Government Museum and Art Gallery Sector 10, Chandigarh
International Doll Museum Sector 23, Chandigarh
Butterfly Park Sector 26, Chandigarh
Elante Mall Industrial Area, Phase I, Chandigarh
Valley of Animals[33] Sector 49, Chandigarh
Japanese garden Sector 31, Chandigarh

Several other famous tourist destinations like Pinjore Gardens, Morni Hills, Nada Sahib, Kasauli lie in its vincity.

Proposals

Many projects have been proposed by the Chandigarh Administration. Some of them are:

  • Chandigarh Metro: It is likely to start by the year 2018 with estimated cost of around 10,900 crores including 50% funds from the governments of Punjab and Haryana and 25% from Chandigarh and Government of India. Funds from the Japan government will include approximately 56% of the cost.[34][35]
  • Film City: As a Member of parliament from Chandigarh and having connection with the film industry, Kirron Kher promised a film city for Chandigarh. After winning the seat, she said that she had difficulty in acquiring land in Chandigarh.[36] However, her proposal was accepted by the Chandigarh Administration and the film city is proposed to be set up in Sarangpur, Chandigarh.[37]

Education

There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. Other Institutions are Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hospital, Punjab Engineering College Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, DAV College, MCM DAV College for Women, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College-26, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Polytechnical College, Govt Home Science College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management etc. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.[38]

According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 107 government schools in Chandigarh and convent schools like St. Anne's Convent School-32, Carmel Convent School and Sacred Heart School.[39]

Transport

Chandigarh Airport from inside

Road

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[40] Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.

The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.[41] CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Khab, Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Leh).

Rail

Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore, Trivandrum and Amritsar. It also links other cities like Ambala, Kollam, Panipat and Kalka.

The Chandigarh Metro Rail is a proposed metro rail to serve the city locally and connect it to other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity. It is expected to start working by 2018 along with the extension of Kolkata Metro and proposed Indore Metro.

Air

Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur, Bangalore and Srinagar. Flights are available to Kullu-Manali also with Himalayan Bulls. A new international terminal is under construction. International flights are scheduled to ply from March 2015.[42]

Media

Newspapers

Chandigarh has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. The most famous languages for newspapers being English, Hindi and Punjabi. Popular English newspapers are Hindustan Times, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Tribune. Hindi newspapers are also famous like Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari and Hindi edition of The Tribune. Several Punjabi newspapers like Ajit and Punjabi editions of other newspapers. Magazines like Brunch, Champak are published with these newspapers.[43]

Television

Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Chandigarh through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. There are many news channels basically set-up in Chandigarh like News 24.

Radio Stations

There are many radio stations in Chandigarh broadcasting on the FM band including Big FM, Vividbharati etc.

Entertainment

Sports

Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams like Kings XI Punjab in The Indian Premier League (IPL). The Sector 16 Stadium provides a platform for cricketers in this region to practice and play inter-state matches. The Chandigarh Golf Club has 7,202 yard, 18 hole course known for its challenging narrow fairways, a long 613 yard long, dogleg 7th hole and floodlighting on the first nine holes.

There are many other sports grounds and complex like the Lake Sports Complex; Sports Complexes in Sectors 7, 42, 46; Table Tennis Hall, Sector 23; Hockey Centre, Sector 18; Football Centre, Sector 17; Skating Rink, Sector 10 and so on. Many personalities from this region have excelled in sports.

Gardens

It also has two gardens of international repute – the Rock Garden of Chandigarh in sector 1 and the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.

Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from Sector to Sector. It is known for its green belts in most of the sectors and other special tourist parks.[44]

Communications

Available internet providers in Chandigarh are: Bharti Airtel, Connect Broadband, Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL and Airtel 4G wifi among others. Same ISPs are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity).

Notable people from Chandigarh

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/prov_results_paper2_indiavol2.html". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)". Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Business Portal of India
  5. ^ https://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070816221514AARNQYJ
  6. ^ "Front Page News : Monday, July 26, 2010". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  7. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?: Rediff.com News". News.rediff.com. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  8. ^ Meghalaya Human Development Report 2008 (p. 23)
  9. ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF’s Central Plaza soon".  
  10. ^ http://www.who.int/kobe_centre/publications/smokefree_case_study_chandigarh/en/
  11. ^ http://www.cii.in/chandigarh
  12. ^ http://www.newkerala.com/states-of-india/chandigarh.php
  13. ^ http://www.citybeautiful.in/chandigarhhistory.aspx
  14. ^ Chandigarh History – History Of Chandigarh India – Origin & History of Chandigarh
  15. ^ The Official Government Website
  16. ^ Frommer's India (2010) Pippa de Bruyn, John Wiley & Sons, p613 ISBN 9780470556108
  17. ^ "Capitol Complex, as Le Corbusier wanted it, remains incomplete". Indian Express. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 
  18. ^ "1st November 1966 - Haryana Day - History - Haryana Online - North India". Haryana Online. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  19. ^ http://chandigarh.gov.in/knowchd_general.htm
  20. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Chandigarh
  21. ^ World Weather Information Service-Chandigarh, World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  22. ^ http://chandigarh.gov.in/green_suk_wild4.htm
  23. ^ "Census population" (PDF). Census of India. http://sampark.chd.nic.in. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  24. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/
  25. ^ "Census observations". Census of India. http://www.ssachd.nic.in. 
  26. ^ https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM/posts/327185860650096
  27. ^ Chandigarh's the richest of 'em all
  28. ^ http://www.cii.in/Regionpage.aspx?enc=eGTdm5V5nAehji8uvc8r9/JOHwrfX+fmCQ6xKZRBJcwNfHPk1Y9MV9guXPcPQiwD
  29. ^ http://www.cii.in/PhotoGalleryDetail.aspx?enc=aF7Ur01v+lR+C3X7MEd6q43EP4jDEa8VyWF7gZWJTEZTnhat3zcTk5sdSthQYEraUBk12qf6dekhGj3QR5WYiGwaexJkILWGl7uUYya3Uhx+t3qymrqpLVQiYHjQTnL0vehBPvqeM8P9mAdCrMscGg==
  30. ^ The Hindu Business Line
  31. ^ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-01-01/news/45764514_1_mayor-post-senior-deputy-mayor-one-vote
  32. ^ "Places to See". chandigarhtourism.gov.in. Chandigarh Tourism. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  33. ^ http://www.traveltechie.com/news/Chandigarh-Tourism-to-develop-Valley-of-Animals-in-Sector-49/209
  34. ^ http://chandigarhmetro.com/chandigarh-metro-project-cost-and-other-details/
  35. ^ http://chandigarhmetro.com/
  36. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/trying-to-get-film-city-for-chandigarh-soon-kirron-kher-114082500941_1.html
  37. ^ http://chandigarh.gov.in/admn_new_init_filmcity.htm
  38. ^ "City Beautiful". The Indian Backpacker. December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  39. ^ "Department of Education". 
  40. ^ Top Ten Towns with Highest Nos. of Car Ownership in India
  41. ^ Chandigarh Transport Undertaking ISBT
  42. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/intl-terminal-may-be-operational-by-march-next-year/
  43. ^ http://www.justdial.com/chandigarh/Newspaper/ct-10337036
  44. ^ http://stylesatlife.com/articles/parks-in-chandigarh/

Further reading

  • Evenson, Norma. Chandigarh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966.
  • Sarbjit Bahga, Surinder Bahga (2014) Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret: The Indian Architecture, CreateSpace, ISBN 978-1495906251
  • Joshi, Kiran. Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Edwin Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing in association with Chandigarh College of Architecture, 1999. ISBN 1-890206-13-X
  • Kalia, Ravi. Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Chandigarh and Planning Development in India, London: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, No.4948, 1 April 1955, Vol. CIII, pages 315–333. I. The Plan, by E. Maxwell Fry, II. Housing, by Jane B. Drew.
  • Nangia, Ashish. Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008.
  • Perera, Nihal. "Contesting Visions: Hybridity, Liminality and Authorship of the Chandigarh Plan" Planning Perspectives 19 (2004): 175–199
  • Prakash, Vikramaditya. Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.
  • Sarin, Madhu. Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience. London: Mansell Publishing, 1982.

External links

  • Chandigarh travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Chandigarh Administration Official Site
  • Chandigarh Tourism
  • Chandigarh Police
  • District Courts Chandigarh
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