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Central American Integration System

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Title: Central American Integration System  
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Subject: Central American Parliament, Foreign relations of El Salvador, Latin American integration, Central America, Caribbean Community
Collection: 1991 Establishments in North America, 1991 in Economics, Central America-4 Border Control Agreement, Continental Unions, Foreign Relations of Costa Rica, Foreign Relations of El Salvador, Foreign Relations of Guatemala, Foreign Relations of Honduras, Foreign Relations of Nicaragua, Foreign Relations of the Dominican Republic, Intergovernmental Organizations Established by Treaty, International Organizations of the Americas, Multilateral Development Banks, Organizations Based in El Salvador, Organizations Established in 1991, Politics of Central America, Supranational Unions, Trade Blocs, United Nations General Assembly Observers
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Central American Integration System

Central American Integration System
  • Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana  (Spanish)
  • (SICA)
Flag Logo
Motto: "God, Union and Liberty"
Anthem: La Granadera
The Song of the Grenadier
States in the Central American Integration System.
States in the Central American Integration System.
Official languages Spanish
Type Supranational union
Membership 8 states
8 regional observers
10 extraregional observers
Leaders
 -  President pro tempore
 -  General Secretary Juan Daniel Alemán Gurdián
Establishment
 -  Court of Cartago 20 December 1907 
 -  ODECA 14 October 1951 
 -  CACM 13 December 1960 
 -  SICA 13 December 1991 
Area
 -  Total 572,510 km2
221,047 sq mi
Population
 -  2009 estimate 51,152,936
 -  Density 89.34/km2
231.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $ 506.258 billion
 -  Per capita $9,898.17
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $ 266.213 billion
 -  Per capita $5,205.45
Website
sica.int

The Central American Integration System (peace, political freedom, democracy and economic development. SICA's General Secretariat is in El Salvador.

In 1991, SICA's institutional framework included Republic of China, Spain, Germany and Japan became extra-regional observers. SICA has a standing invitation to participate as observers in sessions of the United Nations General Assembly,[1] and maintains offices at UN Headquarters.[2]

Four countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) experiencing political, cultural and migratory integration have formed a group, the Central America Four or CA-4, which has introduced common internal borders and the same type of passport. Belize, Costa Rica, Panama and the Dominican Republic join the CA-4 for economic integration and regional friendship.

Contents

  • Headquarters 1
  • History 2
    • First Central American Court of Justice 2.1
    • Organization of Central American States 2.2
    • Revival 2.3
  • Economic integration 3
    • Unified Central American currency 3.1
  • Policy integration 4
  • Institutions 5
    • Central American Parliament 5.1
    • Central American Court of Justice 5.2
  • Organizations 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • External links 10

Headquarters

Glass-front building behind a line of flags
SICA headquarters in San Salvador

SICA was supported by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution A/48L of December 10, 1993. Under the Tegucigalpa Protocol, SICA is affiliated with the UN.

History

First Central American Court of Justice

Between November 14 and December 20, 1907, after a proposal by Mexico and the United States, five Central American nations (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) took part in the Central American Peace Conference in Washington, D.C. sponsored by United States Secretary of State Elihu Root. The five nations, all former Spanish colonies, had previously tried to form a political alliance. Their first attempt was the Federal Republic of Central America, and the most recent effort was the founding of the Republic of Central America 11 years earlier.

The participants concluded the conference with an agreement creating the Central American Court of Justice (Corte de Justicia Centroamericana). The court would remain in effect for ten years from the final ratification, and communication would be through the government of Costa Rica. It was composed of five judges, one from each member state. The court heard ten cases, five of which were brought by private individuals (and declared inadmissible) and three begun by the court. The court operated until April 1918 from its headquarters in Costa Rica; despite efforts beginning in March 1917 (when Nicaragua submitted a notice of termination of the agreement), it then dissolved.

Reasons for the agreement's failure include:

  • No effective system of judicial procedure
  • Judges were not independent of their respective governments.
  • Jurisdiction was too broad to satisfy its member states.

Organization of Central American States

White-on-blue shield, with map of Cental America and BCIE
Banco Centroamericano de Integración Economica logo

White-on-blue shield, with map of Cental America and BCIE

At the end of [3]

The Central American Common Market, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) and the Secretariat for Central American Economic Integration (SIECA) were established by the five Central American nations on December 13, 1960 at a conference in 1969 war between Honduras and El Salvador; in 1973 ODECA was suspended, and progress toward regional integration ground to a halt.

Revival

In 1991 the integration agenda advanced with the creation of the SICA, which provided a legal framework to resolve disputes between member states. SICA includes seven Central America nations and the Dominican Republic, which is part of the Caribbean. Central America has several supranational institutions, such as the Central American Parliament, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market. The Central America trade bloc is governed by the General Treaty for Economical Integration (the Guatemala Protocol), which was signed on October 29, 1993. The CACM has removed duties on most products throughout the member countries, and has unified external tariffs and increased trade within its members. The bank has five non-regional members: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, the Republic of China and Spain.

All SICA members are also part of the Mesoamerica Project, which includes Mexico and Colombia. In 2013 Haiti joined SICA as an associate member, and on 27 June 2013 the Dominican Republic became a full member.[5]

Economic integration

Unified Central American currency

The Central American Bank for Economic Integration has not introduced a common currency, and dollarization is possible. Central America is increasing its regional economic development, accelerating its social, political and economic integration. The region has diversified output and price and wage flexibility; however, there is a lack of business-cycle synchronization, dissimilar levels of public-sector debt, diverging inflation rates and low levels of intra-regional trade.[6] The currency that they use is Quetzal.

Policy integration

In the parliamentary body are proposals to consider regional air travel as domestic travel, to eliminate roaming fees on telephone calls and to create a regional penitentiary (affiliated with the Central American Court of Justice) to address regional trafficking and international crimes.[7]

Institutions

Central American Parliament

Parlacen was born as a parliamentary body emulating the Federal Republic of Central America, with Costa Rica an observer. It evolved from the Contadora Group, a project launched during the 1980s to deal with civil wars in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. Although the Contadora Group was dissolved in 1986, the concept of Central American integration is implicitly referenced in several countries' constitutions. The Esquipulas Peace Agreement (among other acts) agreed to the creation of a Central American Parliament composed of 20–22 directly-elected deputies from each country. Costa Rica has not ratified the agreement, and is not represented in the Parlacen. Parlacen is seen by some (including former President of Honduras Ricardo Maduro) as a white elephant.[8]

Central American Court of Justice

The CCJ's mission is to promote peace in the region and the unity of its member states. The Court[9] has jurisdiction to hear cases:

  • Between member states
  • Between a member state and a non-member state accepting the court's jurisdiction
  • Between states and a resident of a member state
  • Concerning the integration process between SICA and member states (or persons)

The court may offer consultation to the region's supreme courts. In 2005 it ruled that Nicaraguan congressional reforms (which removed control of water, energy and telecommunications from President Enrique Bolaños) were "legally inapplicable". As of July 2005, the CCJ had made 70 resolutions since hearing its first case in 1994.

Organizations

A clickable • •
  • Central American Bank for Economic Integration (Banco Centroamericano de Integración Económica, BCIE)[10]
  • Central American Common Market (CACM; Mercado Común Centroamericano, MCCA)
  • Central American Court of Justice (CCJ)[11][12][13]
  • Central American Parliament (Parlamento Centroamericano, PARLACEN)
    • Plenum
    • Board of Parliament
    • Secretariat
  • President's Summit
    • Comité Consultivo (CC-SICA)
    • Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs
    • Executive Committee (CE-SICA)
    • Vice President's Summit
    • Secretariat General (SG-SICA)[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ United Nations list of observing international organizations
  2. ^ Central American Integration System: representation in New York
  3. ^
  4. ^ General Treaty on Central American Economic Integration between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua signed at Managua, on 13 December 1960
  5. ^ Sistema de Integración Centroamericano News (in Spanish)
  6. ^ Bulmer-Thomas, Victor and A. Douglas Kincaid. Central America 2020: Towards a New Regional Development Model. USAID. EU Commission. 2000
  7. ^ http://www.el19digital.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=36949&Itemid=12
  8. ^ América Central
  9. ^ Alexander Aizenstatd. Reflejos del Derecho Comunitario Europeo en las decisiones de la Corte Centroamericana de Justicia. Revista General de Derecho Europeo No. 25 (2011)
  10. ^ Central American Bank for Economic Integration
  11. ^ Official website of the CCJ (Spanish language)
  12. ^ History of the CACJ from WorldCourts
  13. ^ CACJ history page from PICT
  14. ^

Bibliography

  • Ishmael, Odeen (July 2007). Guyana Journal (2007-07): Advancing Integration Between Caricom and Central America
  • Kimitch, Rebecca (July 15, 2005). Commission Studies Impeachment, Tico Times.

External links

  • Central American Integration System
  • Central American Parliament
  • Central American Economic Integration System
  • BCIE / CABEI
  • Decisions of the CACJ in English (1908-1917)
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