World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Call and response

Article Id: WHEBN0000355981
Reproduction Date:

Title: Call and response  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: African-American culture, Go-go, African-American music, Kan ha diskan, She'll Be Coming 'Round the Mountain
Collection: African Culture, African-American Culture, Communication Theory
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Call and response

Call and response is a form of "spontaneous verbal non-verbal interaction between speaker and listener in which all of the statements ('calls') are punctuated by expressions ('responses') from the listener."[1]

In African cultures, call-and-response is a pervasive pattern of democratic participation—in public gatherings, in the discussion of civic affairs, in religious rituals, as well as in vocal and instrumental musical expression (see call and response in music). It is this tradition that African bondsmen and bondswomen have transmitted over the years in various forms of expression—in religious observance; public gatherings; even in children's rhymes; and, most notably, in music in its multiple forms: gospel, blues, rhythm and blues, jazz, hip-hop and go-go. In contemporary African American worship services, where call and response is pervasive, a pastor will call out to his congregants to engage an enthusiastic response. For example:

Can I get an Amen?
Raise your hands and give Him praise! or Give Him Glory.

Call and response is inherently connected to the historical African religious roots, which served as the foundation for African American religious thought and behavior. It was even noticed by slave masters as early as the arrival of the first slave ships in Virginia in the 17th century.

While slave masters worked diligently to convert their slaves to Christianity, the African slaves still practiced their own form of religious celebration which was called Slave Christianity. Several analysts assessed the ecstatic spirituality of these slaves and noted two major actions during this celebration:

  • Ring shout: a metamorphosis of exuberant song and dance at the height of tribal or religious celebration, with movement in a counterclockwise circle (the direction the sun moves south of the equator)
  • Call and response

References

  1. ^ Foster, Michèle (2001), "Pay Leon, Pay Leon, Pay Leon, Paleontologist: Using call-and-response to facilitate language mastery and literacy acquisition among African American Students", in Lanehart, Sonja, Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, Varieties of English Around the World, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.