Burdwan

This article is about the municipality in West Bengal, India. For other uses, see Bardhaman (disambiguation).
Bardhaman
বর্ধমান
City / Urban Agglomeration

Bijoy Toran
Bardhaman
Bardhaman

Coordinates: 23°14′18″N 87°51′39″E / 23.23833°N 87.86083°E / 23.23833; 87.86083Coordinates: 23°14′18″N 87°51′39″E / 23.23833°N 87.86083°E / 23.23833; 87.86083

Country India
State West Bengal
District Bardhaman District
Government
 • Municipality Chairman Ainul Haque
Area
 • Total 56 km2 (22 sq mi)
Elevation 30 m (100 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 347,016
 • Density 6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 713101, 713102, 713103, 713104
Telephone code 91-0342
Vehicle registration WB42
Lok Sabha constituency Bardhaman-Durgapur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Bardhaman Dakshin
Website

Bardhaman (Pron: ˈbɑ:dəˌmən) or Burdwan (also Bardhaman; Bengali: বর্ধমান Bôrdhoman), is a city of West Bengal state in eastern India. It is the headquarters of Bardhaman district.

Bardhaman became a district capital of British India. Burdwan is an alternative name for the city, which remains in use since the British period.

The history of Burdwan is known from about 5000 BC and belonging to the Mesolithic or Late Stone Age. The origin of this name dates back to the 6th century BCE and is ascribed to Vardhaman Swami or Mahavira (599-527 BCE), the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, who spent some time in Astikagrama, according to the Jain scripture of Kalpasutra. This place was renamed as Vardhamana in his honour.

Geography

The region has an average elevation of 40 metres (131 ft). The city is situated 1100 km from New Delhi and a little less than 100 km north-west of Kolkata on the Grand Trunk Road (NH-2) and Eastern Railway. The chief rivers are the Damodar and the Banka.[1]

The origin of this name dates back to 600 BCE and is ascribed to Vardhamanswami or Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism, who spent some time in Astikagrama, according to the Jain scripture of Kalpasutra. This place was renamed as Vardhamana in his honour.

The first epigraphic reference to the name of this place occurs in a 6th-century AD copper plate found in Mallasarul village under Galsi Police Station. Archeological evidences suggest that this region, forming a major part of Radh Bengal, could be traced even back to 4000 BCE.

History

During period of Jahangir this place was named Badh-e-dewan (district capital). The city owes its historical importance to being the headquarters of the Maharajas of Burdwan, the premier noblemen of lower Bengal, whose rent-roll was upwards of 300,000. Bardhaman Raj was founded in 1657 by Sangam Rai, of a Hindu Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mughal Emperors and the British government. The East Indian Railway from Howrah was opened in 1855. The great prosperity of the raj was due to the excellent management of Maharaja Mahtab Chand (died 1879), whose loyalty to the government especially during the "Hul" (Santhal rebellion) of 1855-56 and the Indian rebellion of 1857 was rewarded with the grant of a coat of arms in 1868 and the right to a personal salute of 13 guns in 1877. Maharaja Bijaychand Mahtab (born 1881), who succeeded his adoptive father in 1888, earned great distinction by the courage with which he risked his life to save that of Sir Andrew Fraser, the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, on the occasion of the attempt to assassinate him made by freedom fighters of Bengal on 7 November 1908.

Mahtab Chand Bahadur and later Bijoy Chand Mahtab struggled their best to make this region culturally, economically and ecologically healthier. The chief educational institution was the Burdwan Raj College, which was entirely supported out of the maharaja's estate. Sadhak Kamalakanta as composer of devotional songs and Kashiram Das as a poet and translator of the great Mahabharata were possibly the best products of such an endeavour. Pratap Chandra Roy was the publisher of the first translation in the world to translate Mahabharata in English (1883–1896).[2] The society at large also continued to gain the fruits. We find, among others, the great rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and Kala-azar-famed U. N. Brahmachari as the relatively recent illustrious sons of this soil. The town became an important center of North-Indian classical music as well.

Demographics

In the 2011 census, Bardhaman Urban Agglomeration had a population of 347,016, out of which 177,055 were males and 169,961 were females. The 0–6 years population was 25,069. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 88.62.[3]

Religions in Bardhaman
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
84%
Muslims
  
14%
Jains
  
1.0%
Others†
  
1.0%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Culture

Burdwan has a multi-cultural heritage. The deuls (temples of rekha type) found here are reminiscent of Bengali Hindu architecture. The old temples bear signs of Hinduism, mostly belonging to the Sakta and Vaishnava followers.

The Kankaleswari Kali is also located in the city of Burdwan. Burdwan witnessed, experienced and survived numerous violent conflicts, mainly due to Mughal, Pashtun and Maratha invaders. The town of Bardhaman was visited by notables of the Delhi Sultanate from Raja Todarmal to Daud Karnani, from Sher Afghan and Kutub-ud-din to Ajimuswan to the future Mughal emperor Shah Jahan while he was still a rebel.Bardhman also has a number of Bengali Christians. Although Christians are a minority, still there are many churches in Barthman.

Places of interest






  • The famous Shrine of Sarvamangala, said to contain the remnant of Sati's body, the umbilicus, is situated here. Aside this, there are quite a number of temples and Sivalingams.
  • The Curzon Gate built in honour of the visit of Lord Curzon.
  • The palaces and gardens of the maharaja Golapbag. Golap Bag, or the Garden of Rose, of Bardhaman, is a favourite tourist haunt. It is the Botanical and Zoological garden established by the King Bijoy Chand Mahatab in 1884. Famous botanist Dalton Hooker came here and listed 128 types of trees. At present there are numerous mango, casuarina, eucalyptus and other trees in the garden. The University of Bardhaman also takes classes in the complex. Distance from railway station is about two and half km.
  • At Nawab Hat, On the Burdwan-Siuri NH, some 4 kilometers from rail station, is a group of 108 Siva lingam temples built in 1788 popularly known as 108 Shiva Temple. Rani Bishnukumari (queen of Burdwan) ordered to build this temple. Here each year a week long festival is celebrated on the occasion of "Maha-Shivratri".
  • Shrine and Pir Bahram and Sher Afghan.
    • Meghnad Saha planetarium: Bardhaman have a planetarium named after India's eminent scientist Meghnad Saha. It is the second planetarium of the state after Kolkata's "Birla planetarium".
  • Ramana Bagan: It is the forest office of Bardhaman sub-division. It is placed at east side of Golapbag. This forest is pointed as sanctuary. This is also called deer park. Deers, tigers, crocodiles, and different kinds of birds make this place beautiful.
  • There is a science museum in Burdwan called the "Science Center" situated at Golapbag Road near Burdwan University. It offers insight into the animal kingdom, the environment, application of laws of physics etc.
  • Tomb of Sher Afghan: The Tomb of Sher Afghan, the last of the Afghan jagirdars in Bardhaman, is located at Pir Beharam near Rajbati (Burdwan Royal Palace). Sher Afghan married Nurjahan. He revolt against Mughal Samrat and to control this, Mughal Samrat Jahangir had sent Kutubuddin. Both were died at war in 1610 AD and both were buried at the burial ground of Pir Baharam. Distance from railway station is about two and half km.
  • Konkaleswari Kali Mandir: The ashram is situated in Kanchan-Nagar is an icon of skeleton with a famous Kali temple. The goddess is made of stone and the temple is of 200 years old.

The Holy shrine as a Shakti Peeth

Main articles: '''Daksha Yaga''' and Shakti Peethas

The Konkaleshwari Temple is reverred as one of the sacred shrines of Shakta sect (Shaktism) of Hinduism. It is believed that the shrine is a Shakti Peetha. Shakti Peethas are abode of Parashakti originated when the body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi fell down, when Lord Shiva carried it and wandered throughout in sorrow. There are 51 Shakti Peeth in South Asia connecting it to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit. Each temple have shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava. Sati Devi's lips are believed to have fallen here. The Shakti is addressed as "Phullara" and the Bhairava as "Vishvesh".The mythology of Daksha yaga and Sati's self immolation is the story behind the origin of Shakti Peethas. It lead to the development of the concept of Shakti Peethas and there by strengthening Shaktism. Enormous mythological stories in puranas took the Daksha yaga as the reason for its origin.[4][5][6]

Food

  • Sitabhog and Mihidana are two famous sweets of Burdwan, introduced first in honor of the Raj family. Shaktigarh's Langcha is another local specialty.
  • Rice is the staple food of Bengal and is main agricultural produce of Burdwan district. Bardhaman is called the rice bowl of West Bengal.
  • Fish is also the favorite curry item of Bardhaman as well as West Bengal.

The new Burdwan

Burdwan city, the heart of the district is also growing. With an increasing number of people opting for better residential spaces and higher living standards. The Government of West Bengal is trying to bring in many new projects to facilitate the growth of Burdwan Township. Two large developments on a Public Private Partnership are coming up on the NH 2 connecting Kolkata and Delhi, on which Burdwan city lies.One of these is a Bus Terminus, with retail and other hospitality services.The other is a Mini Township at Goda, Burdwan. Also on the highway, this 250 acres mini township is being Developed by Bengal Shrachi Housing Dev. Ltd. The Burdwan Development Authority is also playing a role in these projects. Sanskriti lokamancha in a court compound, new administrative building, and Spandan sports complex are some of the new initiatives of the BDA.

Education

University

The University of Burdwan was formally inaugurated on 15 June 1960, by Sukumar Sen, an ICS, as its first Vice-chancellor. It was after the abolition of the Zamindari system in the fifties that Uday Chand Mahtab, the last representative of the Burdwan Raj, showed his magnanimity in leaving almost his entire property of Burdwan at the disposal of the state government. This, coupled with the initiative of the then Chief Minister of West Bengal, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, facilitated the establishment of this university. Presently, the administrative works are mostly done at Rajbati (the palace of Barddhamana Maharaja) campus; on the other hand, academic activities center around the Golapbag campus mainly. With social responsibilities in mind, the university actively patronised the construction of a Science Centre and a Planetarium, named as Meghnad Saha Planetarium.

Colleges

  • College of Art & Design
  • AMEX -An Institute of Professional Studies
  • Bishnu Goswami Arts College
  • Burdwan Homoeopathic Medical College
  • Burdwan Institute of Management and Computer Science (BIMS)
  • Burdwan Institute of medical and life sciences(BIMLS)
  • Burdwan Medical College
  • Burdwan Raj College
  • Cyber Research & Training Institute (Burdwan)
  • Maharaj Bijoy Chand Institute of Engineering & Technology - Polytechnic College
  • Maharajadhiraj Uday Chand Women's College (Website)
  • Oriental Institute Of Science & Technology(OIST)
  • University Institute of Technology, Burdwan University
  • University Law College
  • Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan

Schools

  • Shastri Hindi Primary School
  • Acharya Durga Prasanna Bidya Mandir(NL- Boronilpur Bazar)
  • Bardhaman Banipith School
  • Bardhaman Harisava Hindu Girls High School
  • Bidyarthi Bhaban High School
  • Bidyarthi Girls School
  • Burdwan CMS High School (Main), B. C. Road - West Bengal Board
  • Burdwan CMS High School (Morning), Golapbag - West Bengal Board
  • Burdwan High Madrasa
  • Burdwan Maharani Adhirani Girls School-West Bengal Board of Secondary Education
  • Burdwan Municipal Girls' High School - West Bengal Board
  • Burdwan Municipal High School - West Bengal Board
  • Burdwan Nehru Vidya Mandir Hindi High School(H.S.)under West Bengal Board of Secondary Education
  • Burdwan Railway Vidyapith
  • Burdwan Ramashis Hindi High School under West Bengal Board of Secondary Education
  • Burdwan Rose Garten School
  • Burdwan Rose Garten School - English Medium
  • Burdwan South Point School - English Medium Kindergarten
  • Burdwan Sri Ramkrishna Saradapith Uchha Vidyala - West Bengal Board
  • Burdwan Town School - West Bengal Board
  • Dinanathdas High School - Bengali Medium
  • East West Model School - ICSE and ISC
  • Harijan School
  • Holy Rock School - ICSE
  • Ichlabad High School - Bengali Medium(West Bengal Board)
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Burdwan - CBSE
  • Kshetia High School
  • Modern Public School (Co-Ed) English Medium
  • Raj Collegiate School - West Bengal Board
  • Rathtala Manohardas Vidyaniketan (Boys) - Bengali Medium
  • Rathtala Manohardas Vidyaniketan (Girls) - Bengali Medium
  • Sadhumati Balika Bidyalaya
  • St. Xaviers School - ICSE and ISC

Climate

The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Aw" (Tropical Savanna Climate).

Climate data for Burdwan, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26
(78.8)
27.5
(81.5)
34.5
(94.1)
37.4
(99.4)
32.6
(90.7)
34.9
(94.9)
32
(90)
32.3
(90.1)
32.4
(90.3)
32
(89.6)
28
(82.4)
26
(78.8)
31.3
(88.38)
Average low °C (°F) 12
(53.6)
15
(59)
20
(68)
24.9
(76.8)
25.9
(78.6)
26
(78.8)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24.7
(76.5)
17.5
(63.5)
12.5
(54.5)
21.13
(70.02)
Precipitation mm (inches) 18
(0.7)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
48
(1.9)
130
(5)
244
(9.6)
348
(13.7)
312
(12.3)
290
(11.4)
157
(6.2)
28
(1.1)
5
(0.2)
1,651
(64.9)
Avg. rainy days 4 3 4 6 10 18 23 22 18 11 3 1 123
Source: Weather2 [7]

References

External links

  • , The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 9, p. 102.
  • Official website of Bardhaman District
  • Bardhaman Utsav (Annual cultural programme of Bardhaman)
  • Others Best Archeological Heritage spot Of Bardhaman By Bardhaman Raj
  • Bardhaman Municipality
  • Bardhaman darshan (Official tourism website)
  • Information portal of Bardhaman District

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