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Biphobia

 

Biphobia

Bisexual Pride Flag

Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and bisexual people as a social group or as individuals. People of any sexual orientation can experience or perpetuate such feelings of aversion. Biphobia is a source of discrimination against bisexuals, and may be based on negative bisexual stereotypes or irrational fear.

Contents

  • Etymology and use 1
  • Negative stereotypes 2
    • Denialism 2.1
    • Promiscuity 2.2
  • Mental and sexual health effects 3
  • Bisexual erasure 4
  • Monosexism 5
  • Intersectional perspective 6
  • In the media 7
    • General 7.1
    • Criticism of a study 7.2
  • Case studies 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Etymology and use

Biphobia is a portmanteau word patterned on the term homophobia. It derives from the English neo-classical prefix bi- (meaning "two") from bisexual and the root -phobia (from the Greek: φόβος, phóbos, "fear") found in homophobia. Along with transphobia, homophobia and biphobia are members of the family of terms used when intolerance and discrimination is directed toward LGBT people.

Biphobia need not be a phobia as defined in clinical psychology (i.e., an anxiety disorder). Its meaning and use typically parallel those of xenophobia.

The adjectival form biphobic describes things or qualities related to biphobia, whereas the noun biphobe is a label for people thought to harbor biphobia.[1]

Negative stereotypes

While biphobia and homophobia are distinct phenomena, they do share some traits: with attraction to one's own gender being a part of bisexuality, the heterosexist view of heterosexuality being the only true attraction applies to bisexual people as well as to gay people. However, bisexuals are also stigmatized in other ways.

Denialism

The belief that bisexuality does not exist stems from binary views of sexuality, that people are assumed to be exclusively homosexual (gay/lesbian) or heterosexual (straight), with bisexuals either closeted gay people wishing to appear heterosexual,[2] or experimenting with their sexuality,[3][4][5] and cannot be bisexual unless they are equally attracted towards men and women.[6] Maxims such as "People are either gay, straight or lying" embody this dichotomous view of sexual orientations.[6] Bisexuals often face this type of discrimination from the heterosexual community, but are frequently eyed with suspicion by homosexuals as well, usually with the notion that bisexuals are able to escape oppression from heterosexuals because of their attraction towards the opposite gender. This leaves some that identify as bisexual to be perceived as "not enough of either" or "not real".[7]

Resulting negative stereotypes represent bisexuals as confused, undecided, dabblers, insecure, experimenting or "just going through a phase".[8] Attractions toward both sexes are considered fashionable as in "bisexual chic" or gender bending. This fashionability effects bisexual males, as they are often invalidated more than females in terms of their sexuality not being viewed as "hot". Another discriminatory tendency that often effects exclusively males is the stereotype that women can be bisexual, but men cannot. Relations are dismissed as a substitute for sex with members of the "right" sex or as a more accessible source of sexual gratification. Situational homosexuality due to sex-segregated environments or groups such as the armed forces, schools, sports teams, religious orders, and prisons is another facet of explaining why someone is allegedly temporarily gay.

Promiscuity

The strict association of bisexuality with promiscuity stems from a variety of negative stereotypes targeting bisexuals as mentally or socially unstable people for whom sexual relations only with men, only with women or only with one person is not enough. These stereotypes may result from cultural assumptions that "men and women are so different that desire for one is an entirely different beast from desire for the other" ("a defining feature of heterosexism"), and that "verbalizing a sexual desire inevitably leads to attempts to satisfy that desire."[9]

As a result, bisexuals bear a social stigma from accusations of cheating on or betraying their partners, leading a double life, being "on the down-low", and spreading sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS. They are characterized as being "slutty", insatiable, "easy", indiscriminate, and in the case of women, nymphomaniacs. Furthermore, they are strongly associated with polyamory, swinging, and polygamy,[10] the last being an established heterosexual tradition sanctioned by some religions and legal in several countries. People of any sexual orientation can change partners, practice serial monogamy or have multiple casual sex partners or multiple romantic relationships. The fact that bisexuals are potentially sexually attracted to both men and women does not mean that they must simultaneously engage in sexual relationships with both men and women to be satisfied, they can be happily married or in an exclusive relationship with one person of either gender.

Mental and sexual health effects

The mental and sexual health effects of biphobia on bisexuals are numerous. Studies show that bisexuals are often trapped in between the binaries of hetero vs homosexuality, creating a form of invalidation around their sexual identity. This often leads to recognized indicators of mental health issues such as low self-esteem and self-worth. These indicators and pressures to 'choose' a sexual identity can, in many cases, lead to depression as they may feel they live in a culture that does not recognize their existence.[11]

While doing research on sexual tendencies of women who have sex with women, one study, from the Journal of Bisexuality, concluded that bisexual women are more likely to engage in various high risk behaviors and were more at risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.[12] These behaviors have been attributed to the unlikeliness of bisexuals to discuss their sexuality and proper protection with health professionals for fear of judgement or discrimination, leaving them uneducated.[13]

Bisexual erasure

Bisexual erasure or bisexual invisibility is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in history, academia, the news media, and other primary sources.[14][15] In its most extreme form, bisexual erasure can include denying that bisexuality exists.[16][17] It is often a manifestation of biphobia, although it does not necessarily involve overt antagonism. However, there is also increasing support, inclusion, and visibility in both bisexual and non-bisexual communities, especially in the LGBT community.[18][19][20][21][22][23]

Another place that biphobia often manifests is within the LGBTQI movement itself. While the name specifically claims inclusivity making reference to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals, queer identifying individuals, and intersex people, the needs of the BTQI community are often not prioritized in the same way that the needs of the LG community are. While the beginnings of the gay rights movement started in the late seventeen hundreds within groups of militant "sodomite-citizens" in Paris, it was not until 1997 that the UK’s first bisexual youth group was established.[24]

This marginalization also manifests regularly in terms of social acceptability of discrimination against bisexuals. For example, habits of letting biphobic comments and jokes that would not be acceptable were they about gays or lesbians go unchallenged. Another way this occurs is when people ask intrusive questions about a person’s bisexuality that would be considered offensive in relation to other’s monosexualities. While this primarily affects bisexuals on a social level this social discrimination also leads to institutional marginalization, which can result in exclusion from anti-discrimination policy.[25]

Monosexism

Monosexism is a term used to refer to beliefs, structures, and actions that promote monosexuality (either exclusive heterosexuality or homosexuality) as the only legitimate or right sexual orientation, excluding bisexual or other non-monosexual orientations.[26][27] The term may be considered analogous to biphobia.[27]

The term is primarily used in discussions of sexual orientation to denote aversion towards all non-monosexual people as a social group or as individuals. It was likely adopted in place of unisexual, which is already used in biology and would produce confusion. It is sometimes considered derogatory by the people to whom it is applied.[28]

The proportion of people who fit into the category depends on how one uses the word. If the term is used to mean exclusively monosexual in behavior, then according to

  • Bialogue/GLAAD Bisexuality Packet for Mental Health Professionals
  • Fairy Tales, by Job Brother in The Advocate September 21, 2007
  • Curiouser and curiouser by Mark Simpson
  • Bisexuality Basics, UC Riverside LGBT Resource Center, Riverside, CA

External links

  • Garber, Marjorie (1995). Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life, pp. 20–21, 28, 39.
  • Fraser, M., Identity Without Selfhood: Simone de Beauvoir and Bisexuality, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press 1999. p. 124–140.
  • The fencesitters? Suspicions still haunt the bi/homo divide - article in Xtra, Gay & Lesbian news site, 2006]

Further reading

  1. ^
  2. ^ Michael Musto, April 7, 2009. Ever Meet a Real Bisexual?, The Village Voice
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^ "It's Just A Phase" Is Just A Phrase, The Bisexual Index
  9. ^ "Bisexuals and the Slut Myth", presented at the 9th International Conference on Bisexuality
  10. ^ GLAAD: Cultural Interest Media Archived April 19, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Word Of The Gay: BisexualErasure May 16, 2008 "Queers United"
  15. ^ The B Word Suresha, Ron. "The B Word," Options (Rhode Island), November 2004
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Maria, September 24, 2009. How Far Have We Come?, BiSocial News
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ Highleyman, Liz (1995). "Identities and Ideas: Strategies for Bisexuals", from the anthology Bisexual Politics: Theories, Queries, and Visions. Haworth Press. Black Rose Web Pages.
  27. ^ a b Rust, Paula C Rodriguez (2002). "Bisexuality: The state of the union, Annual Review of Sex Research, 2002", BNET.
  28. ^ Hamilton, Alan (2000). Archived August 5, 2007 at the Wayback Machine of "LesBiGay and Transgender Glossary", Bisexual Resource Center.
  29. ^ (1999). "Prevalence of Homosexuality", The Kinsey Institute. Note that Kinsey did not use the term "bisexual", but that he uses "exclusively homosexual" and "exclusively heterosexual".
  30. ^ Rethinking Marxism: A Journal of Economics, Culture & Society, Volume 8, Issue 3, 1995, Feminist Economies, DOI:10.1080/08935699508685453, Margaret Nash, pages 66-78.
  31. ^ a b
  32. ^ a b
  33. ^ a b c d
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^ National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (July 2005). The Problems with "Gay, Straight, or Lying?" (PDF) Retrieved 24 July 2006.
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^

References

See also

Brooke, a 15-year-old girl, stated: "It’s actually appalling to see the amount of bi phobia still circling around nowadays. For example, a few weeks back I was with a few friends at Pride Glasgow. Fantastic day, honestly amazing. We were planning it for months beforehand and something I noticed whilst planning was a slight stir in the LGBT community about bisexual people attending pride. I saw a few opinions floating around, such as 'if you’re bisexual, why do you even attend pride? You have a choice whether you get to be normal and date the opposite sex, so you’re not really LGBT'. This shocked me because not only is this a totally false accusation of being able to ‘choose’, but the fact it was coming from fellow members of the LGBT community, that’s what was really a shock. The fact that people we are meant to feel most comfortable with and feel we could relate mostly to said something so hurtful and damaging to our community, was a really big step back. Me, along with a few of my bisexual friends were then sceptical about going to Pride, in case this was a common thought among LGBT people, but it turns out, it really isn’t. We went and there were hundreds of (proud I must say, and rightly so!) bisexual people, wearing flags and talking about their stories to us.”[40]

Aiden, an 18-year-old boy, claimed: "I feel like a lot of people don’t understand bisexuality and what it means to be bi. People often doubt it and because of that people doubt their own sexuality as well. Some people in society doubt that bisexuality is real and I believe this is a result of their lack of understanding of it. I sometimes feel like I have to prove my sexuality to other people. My friend is gay and his partner told me that it [my bisexuality] would pass and I’ll be gay in the end. Maybe that is his experience and could be that of some other people that they end up realising they’re gay, but that is not my experience. It is not right to assume that is the case with bisexuality as it often isn’t."[39]

Case studies allow researchers not only to gain further insight into the discrimination that bisexuals face but also to elevate the voices of bisexuals whose voices are generally ignored. A Scottish organization called LGBT Youth conducted a series of case studies interviewing various bisexual youths in the country about their experiences with biphobia[38].

Case studies

A 2005 article in the The New York Times used the word biphobic when criticizing a study about male bisexuality. The study, which was by Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chivers, and J. Michael Bailey, and took place in 2002, said that a sample of men self-identifying as bisexual did not respond equally to pornographic material involving only men, and to pornography involving only women, but instead showed four times more arousal to one than the other. The article criticized the method of measurement of arousal as too crude to capture the richness (erotic sensations, affection, admiration) that constitutes sexual attraction.[35][36][37]

Criticism of a study

Another example of biphobia is popular media occurred in the 2015 season of the TV show The Bachelorette. While vying for the attention of the Bachelorette, Kaitlyn Bristowe, two of the male contestants, Clint Arlis and JJ Lan expressed that they were gradually developing feelings for each other. Of course the show began to immediately exploit this developing relationship and frame it as though the two men where deliberately being misleading which further perpetuated the stereotype of bisexuals as "villainous tricksters out to mislead and hurt poor monosexual innocents".[34]

While biphobia is very prevalent in real life, it is even more prevalent in media. Bisexuals are rarely portrayed and when they are are often presented as one of a few "acceptable" tropes: the "Rich Bitch", the "Hippie Chick", the "Uncommitted Woman", and the "Dream Girl."[33] The ‘Rich Bitch’ character, most common in the variety of vampire sexploitation films, "analogizes socioeconomic and so-called bisexual privilege".[33] An example of the hippie chick can be found in the 1999 film Holy Smoke. This hippie chick is generally a free-spirited bohemian with loose morals and a devotion to counter cultural values that lead her to this bisexual behavior.[33] An example of the uncommitted woman is Susannah from Girl, Interrupted. The 'uncommitted Woman' character connects bisexuality to promiscuity and often times criminal or mental pathology. And lastly, the "dream Girl", who makes an appearance In David Lynch's Mulholland Drive. The "Dream Girl" "negotiates the fantasy/nightmare of bisexual subjectivity via a performative 'trying on' of gender and ethnoracial identities".[33] This limited representation of bisexuals not only uploads the various negative stereotypes ascribed to bisexuals but also presents audiences with a limited idea of what bisexuality looks like.

General

In the media

While the general bisexual population as a whole faces biphobia, this oppression is also aggravated by other factors, one of which being race. In his examination of the bisexual male perspective, entitled, Managing Heterosexism and Biphobia: A Revealing Black Bisexual Male Perspective, Grady L Garner delves into the oppression that he faces as both a black and bisexual male. He explains that the internalization of negative sociocultural messages, reactions and attitudes can be incredibly distressing as bisexual black males attempted to translate or transform these negative experiences into positive bisexual identity sustaining ones.[32] The experience of bisexual black males is infinitely different from that of bisexual white males and acknowledgement of those differences is important. As the demands and tribulations of black bisexual males appear to be comparatively more distressing than those that black and white, homo- and heterosexual individual's encounter, this acknowledgement is important and vital to the understanding of biphobia from an intersectional perspective.[32]

Intersectional perspective

Monosexism could also be attributed to the belief in sexuality as a binary. The notion of sexuality as a binary is not new. Throughout the 1980s, modern research on sexuality was dominated by the idea that that heterosexuality and homosexuality were the only legitimate sexualities, dismissing bisexuality as "secondary homosexuality".[31] These ideas persisted until the development of alternative models such as the Kinsey scale. The Kinsey scale was developed by Kinsey in 1953 and instituted a paradigm shift that completely changed the way that people looked at sexuality.[31] His was a seven point scale redefined sexuality as it allowed people to identify at various points throughout the scale with 0 being exclusively heterosexual and 7 being exclusively homosexual. The scale is now widely used and seeks to eliminate the dominance of the binary that is often the cause of biphobia.

[30] Freud thought that no one was born monosexual and that it had to be taught by parents or society, though most people appear to believe that monosexuals are in fact the majority and identify as such.[29]

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