World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Battle of Stralsund (1809)

Article Id: WHEBN0024950552
Reproduction Date:

Title: Battle of Stralsund (1809)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Siege of Stralsund (1807), Combat of Korneuburg, Combat of Schöngrabern, Battle of Gefrees, Battles of Bergisel
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Battle of Stralsund (1809)

Battle of Stralsund
Part of Napoleonic Wars
Date 31 May 1809
Location Stralsund, Swedish Pomerania
Result French victory
Belligerents
Prussian freikorps France
Danish auxiliaries
Dutch auxiliaries
Commanders and leaders
Ferdinand von Schill   Pierre Guillaume Gratien
Johann von Ewald
Strength
2,000 6,000
Casualties and losses
>500 captured

The Battle of Stralsund on 31 May 1809 was a battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, between Ferdinand von Schill's freikorps and Napoleonic forces in Stralsund. In a "vicious street battle", the freikorps was defeated and Schill killed in action.[1]

Prelude

Stralsund, a port at the Baltic Sea in Swedish Pomerania, was surrendered to France after the siege of 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition.[1] During this war, Prussian captain Ferdinand von Schill distinguished himself by cutting off French supply lines using guerrilla tactics in 1806. In 1807, he raised a freikorps and successfully fought the French forces in what he intended to become a patriotic insurrection. When his corps was disbanded after the Peace of Tilsit on 9 July 1807, Schill was promoted to the rank of a major, decorated with the Pour le Mérite, and became a hero of German resistance and patriotic movements.[2]

In January and February 1809, the German resistance in French-held Westphalia invited Schill to lead an uprising. He agreed in April and drafted a proclamation which however was intercepted by the French, and left Berlin on 27 April when he was threatened with arrest.[3] With a freikorps of 100 hussars, Schill headed southwest towards Westphalia to stir up an anti-French rebellion, but news of the French victory in the Battle of Ratisbon made him change his plans. Schill turned northwards to secure a port,[4] hoping for relief by the British navy.[5]

Battle

Plaque at the site of Schill's death (left) and statue (right) in Stralsund

Schill entered Stralsund on 25 May with 2,000 men.[4] The freikorps was pursued by a French-led force of 6,000 Danes, Holsteiners, Dutch and French, who confronted Schill on 31 May inside of the town.[6]

The Dutch auxiliaries, about 4,000 troops, were commanded by Pierre Guillaume Gratien, another 1,500 Danish troops were under general Johann von Ewald's command.[7] Garnier's Dutch forces included the 6th and 9th infantry, 2nd kurassier and two horse artillery batteries.[8] They entered the town after storming the Tribseer Tor gate,[9] and engaged Schill's freikorps in street fights.[5] Schill was killed, and the survivors of his freikorps dispersed or captured.[6]

Aftermath

Execution of Schill´s officers (center left)

Eleven of Schill's officers were taken to Brunswick, and later executed in Wesel[10] following an order of Napoleon Bonaparte.[1] More than five hundred of Schill's men went into captivity.[5] Schill's head was sent to The Netherlands for display in Leyden's public library, and only in 1837 the head was buried in Brunswick.[11]

Schill was not alone with his plans to stir up an insurrection of the Prussian people against the French occupation. Other prominent plotters were Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick and Kasper von Dörnberg. All of them saw the Austrian resistance and the resulting War of the Fifth Coalition as a chance to expel Napoleon Bonaparte from Northern Germany as well. France however proved to be the stronger party, and Schill's defeat in the streets of Stralsund put a definite end to all plans for a popular uprising.[12]

See also

Sources

References

  1. ^ a b c Jacques (2006), p.973
  2. ^ Clark (2006), p.347
  3. ^ Clark (2006), p.348
  4. ^ a b Parkinson (2001), p.86
  5. ^ a b c Meckenstock (2004), p.435
  6. ^ a b Parkinson (2001), p.87
  7. ^ Pelet (2009 reprint), p.32
  8. ^ von Pivka (1980), p.17
  9. ^ Pelet (2009 reprint), p.33
  10. ^ Hasubek (1987), p.1118
  11. ^ Clark (2006), p.349
  12. ^ Wienecke-Janz (2008), p.142

Bibliography

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.