World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Artemisia absinthium

Article Id: WHEBN0000975338
Reproduction Date:

Title: Artemisia absinthium  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Artemisia (genus), Absinthe, Herbsaint, Pastis, Thujone
Collection: Absinthe, Artemisia (Genus), Flora of North Dakota, Medicinal Plants of Africa, Medicinal Plants of Asia, Medicinal Plants of Europe, Plants Described in 1753
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Artemisia absinthium

Artemisia absinthium
Artemisia absinthium growing wild in the Caucasus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. absinthium
Binomial name
Artemisia absinthium
L.[1]
Synonyms[2][3]
  • Absinthium bipedale Gilib., not validly published
  • Absinthium majus Geoffr.[2]
  • Absinthium majus Garsault, not validly published
  • Absinthium officinale Lam.[2]
  • Absinthium officinale Brot.
  • Absinthium vulgare (L.) Lam.
  • Artemisia absinthia St.-Lag.
  • Artemisia arborescens var. cupaniana Chiov.
  • Artemisia arborescens f. rehan (Chiov.) Chiov.
  • Artemisia baldaccii Degen
  • Artemisia doonense Royle
  • Artemisia inodora Mill.
  • Artemisia kulbadica Boiss. & Buhse
  • Artemisia pendula Salisb.
  • Artemisia rehan Chiov.
  • Artemisia rhaetica Brügger

Artemisia absinthium (absinthium, absinthe wormwood, wormwood, common wormwood, green ginger or grand wormwood) is a species of Artemisia, native to temperate regions of Eurasia[4] and Northern Africa and widely naturalized in Canada and the northern United States.[5] It is grown as an ornamental plant and is used as an ingredient in the spirit absinthe as well as some other alcoholic drinks.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Toxicity 2
  • Cultivation 3
  • Uses 4
  • Etymology 5
  • Cultural history 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Description

Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (2 ft 7 in–3 ft 11 in) (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole). Its flowers are pale yellow, tubular, and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula), which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn; pollination is anemophilous. The fruit is a small achene; seed dispersal is by gravity.[5]

It grows naturally on uncultivated, arid ground, on rocky slopes, and at the edge of footpaths and fields.

It is also used as the plant matter for Synthetic Cannabis.

Toxicity

Artemisia absinthium contains thujone, a GABAA receptor antagonist that can cause epileptic-like convulsions and kidney failure when ingested in large amounts.[6]

Cultivation

Artemisia absinthium. Inflorescences

The plant can easily be cultivated in dry soil. It should be planted under bright exposure in fertile, mid-weight soil. It prefers soil rich in nitrogen. It can be propagated by ripened cuttings taken in Spring or Autumn in temperate climates, or by seeds in nursery beds. Artemisia absinthium also self-seeds generously. It is naturalised in some areas away from its native range, including much of North America and Kashmir Valley of India.[7]

This plant,[8] and its cultivars 'Lambrook Mist'[8] and 'Lambrook Silver'[9] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Uses

It is an ingredient in the spirit absinthe, and is used for flavouring in some other spirits and wines, including bitters, vermouth and pelinkovac. In the Middle Ages, it was used to spice mead, and in Morocco it is used as tea.[10] In 18th century England, wormwood was sometimes used instead of hops in beer.[11]

Etymology

Artemisia comes from [12] In Hellenistic culture, Artemis was a goddess of the hunt, and protector of the forest and children. absinthum comes from the Ancient Greek ἀψίνθιον.

The word "wormwood" comes from Middle English wormwode or wermode. The form "wormwood" is attributable to its traditional use as a vermifuge.[13] Webster's Third New International Dictionary attributes the etymology to Old English wermōd (compare with German Wermut and the derived drink vermouth), which the OED (s.v.) marks as "of obscure origin".

Cultural history

Nicholas Culpeper insisted that wormwood was the key to understanding his 1651 book The English Physitian. Richard Mabey describes Culpeper's entry on this bitter-tasting plant as "stream-of-consciousness" and "unlike anything else in the herbal", and states that it reads "like the ramblings of a drunk". Culpeper biographer Benjamin Woolley suggests the piece may be an allegory about bitterness, as Culpeper had spent his life fighting the Establishment, and had been imprisoned and seriously wounded in battle as a result.[14]

William Shakespeare referred to Wormwood in his famous play Romeo and Juliet: Act 1, Scene 3. Juliet's childhood nurse said, "For I had then laid wormwood to my dug" meaning that the nurse had weaned Juliet, then aged three, by using the bitter taste of Wormwood on her nipple.

John Locke, in his 1689 book titled An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, used wormwood as an example of bitterness, writing that "For a child knows as certainly before it can speak the difference between the ideas of sweet and bitter (i.e. that sweet is not bitter), as it knows afterwards (when it comes to speak) that wormwood and sugarplums are not the same thing."[15]

Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used medicinally in Europe, and is believed to stimulate the appetite and relieve indigestion.[16]

References

  1. ^  
  2. ^ a b c Christian Rätsch (25 April 2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Inner Traditions/Bear. p. 69.  
  3. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of all Plant Species". 
  4. ^ L.Artemisia absinthiumAltervista Flora Italiana, Assenzio vero,
  5. ^ a b Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 848. 1753.Artemisia absinthiumFlora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 519 Common wormwood, armoise absinthe,
  6. ^ Olsen RW (April 2000). "Absinthe and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors" . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (9): 4417–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.9.4417 . PMC 34311 . PMID 10781032
  7. ^ Shafi et al., 2012
  8. ^ a b "Artemisia absinthium 'Lambrook Mist' AGM". APPS.RHS.org.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Artemisia absinthium 'Lambrook Silver' AGM". APPS.RHS.org.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  10. ^ Grieves, M. (1931). "Wormwood, Common". Botanical.com – A Modern Herbal. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-12. 
  11. ^  
  12. ^ "absinthium".  
  13. ^ "Wormwood". NYU Langone Medical Center. EBSCO Publishing. July 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Richard Mabey (2010). Weeds. The Story of Outlaw Plants. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 102–103.  
  15. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/10615
  16. ^ Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (2009). L., Herba"Artemisia absinthium"Community Herbal Monograph on (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 

External links

  • Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Artemisia absinthium
  • Erowid Wormwood Vault- information on the use and preparation of wormwood, along with user experiences.
  • Shafi G, Hasan TN, Syed NA, Al-Hazzani AA, Alshatwi AA, Jyothi A, Munshi A (2012). "Artemisia absinthium (AA): a novel potential complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer". Molecular Biology Reports 39 (7): 7373–7379.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.