World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Animal fat

Article Id: WHEBN0000188557
Reproduction Date:

Title: Animal fat  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pork rind, Veganism, Artificial marbling, Animal fats, Biolipid
Collection: Animal Fats
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Animal fat

Lard
Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback.
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated 38–43%:
Palmitic acid: 25–28%
Stearic acid: 12–14%
Myristic acid: 1%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated 56–62%
Monounsaturated 47–50%:
Oleic acid: 44–47%
Palmitoleic acid: 3%
Polyunsaturated Linoleic acid: 6–10%[1]
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz) 3,770 kJ (900 kcal)
Melting point backfat: 30–40 °C (86–104 °F)
leaf fat: 43–48 °C (109–118 °F)
mixed fat: 36–45 °C (97–113 °F)
Smoke point 121–218 °C (250–424 °F)
Specific gravity at 20 °C (68 °F) 0.917–0.938
Iodine value 45–75
Acid value 3.4
Saponification value 190–205
Unsaponifiable 0.8%

Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides. Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from rendered tissue fats obtained from livestock animals like pigs, chickens and cows. Dairy products also yield popular animal fat and oil products such as cheese, butter, and milk.

Certain substances such as goose fat produce a higher smoke point than other animal fats, but are still lower than many vegetable oils such as olive or avocado. [2]

In consumer meat products in the U.S., animal remains are found to be classified as Animal fats once the particle size of bone solids is more than 3 percent, protein content is less than 14 percent and or the product contains over 30 percent pure fat content.[3]

Animal fats are commonly consumed as part of a western diet in their semi-solid form as either milk, butter, lard, schmaltz, and dripping or more commonly as filler in factory produced meat, pet food and fast-food products.[4] Dairy products are animal secretions which contain varying levels of water, oils, fats and animal cells from circulatory and lymphatic systems such as blood and mammary glands.

Culinary uses

Many animal fats and oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:

  • Shortening – to give pastry a crumbly texture.
  • Texture – oils can serve to make other ingredients stick together less.
  • Flavor – some may be chosen specifically for the flavor they impart.
  • Flavor base – oils can also "carry" flavors of other ingredients, since many flavors are present in chemicals that are soluble in oil.

Secondly, oils can be heated, and used to cook other foods. Oils suitable for this purpose must have a high flash point.

See also

References

  1. ^ National Research Council. (1976). Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products.; p. 203. Washington, DC: Printing and Publishing Office, National Academy of Science. ISBN 0-309-02440-4
  2. ^ The Goose Fat Information Service, Goosefat.co.uk/, 2012-03-19, retrieved 2012-03-19 
  3. ^ Definitions and Standards of Identity, FDA.gov, 1978-06-13, retrieved 2012-03-16 
  4. ^ Meat Products with High Levels of Extenders and Fillers, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States, retrieved 2012-03-16 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.