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A Mighty Fortress Is Our God

 

A Mighty Fortress Is Our God

"Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott"
Hymn by Martin Luther
"Ein feste Burg" with Luther's signature
Written c. 1529 (1529)
Text by Martin Luther
Language German
Based on Psalms 46
Melody "Ein feste Burg" by Martin Luther
Published c. 1531 (1531) (extant)
About this sound Audio  
"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Written 1853 (1853)
Text by Frederick H. Hedge (translator)

"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" (German: "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott") is one of the best known hymns by the reformer Martin Luther, who wrote many hymns. Luther wrote the words and composed the melody sometime between 1527 and 1529.[1] It has been translated into English at least seventy times and also into many other languages.[1][2] The words are a paraphrase of Psalm 46.[3]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Tune 2
  • Reception 3
    • English translations 3.1
    • Compositions based on the hymn 3.2
  • In popular culture 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8
    • Other versions 8.1

History

Rare early printing of "A Mighty Fortress."

"A Mighty Fortress" is one of the best loved hymns of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. It has been called the "Battle Hymn of the Reformation" for the effect it had in increasing the support for the Reformers' cause. John Julian records four theories of its origin:[1]

Alternatively, John M. Merriman writes that the hymn "began as a martial song to inspire soldiers against the Ottoman forces" during the Ottoman wars in Europe.[4]

The earliest extant hymnal in which it appears is that of Andrew Rauscher (1531), but it is supposed to have been in Joseph Klug's Wittenberg hymnal of 1529, of which no copy exists. Its title was Der xxxxvi. Psalm. Deus noster refugium et virtus.[1] Before that it is supposed to have appeared in the Hans Weiss Wittenberg hymnal of 1528, also lost.[5] This evidence would support its being written in 1527–1529, since Luther's hymns were printed shortly after they were written.

Tune

A Mighty Fortress, rhythmic tune
A Mighty Fortress, isometric tune

Luther composed the melody, named "Ein feste Burg" from the text's first line, in meter 87.87.55.56.7. This is sometimes denoted "rhythmic tune" to distinguish it from the later isometric variant, in 87.87.66.66.7-meter which is more widely known and used in Christendom.[6] In 1906 Edouard Rœhrich wrote, "The authentic form of this melody differs very much from that which one sings in most Protestant churches and figures in (Giacomo Meyerbeer's) The Huguenots. ... The original melody is extremely rhythmic, by the way it bends to all the nuances of the text ..."[7]

While 19th-century musicologists disputed Luther's authorship of the music to the hymn, that opinion has been modified by more recent research; it is now the consensus view of musical scholars that Luther did indeed compose the famous tune to go with the words.

Reception

Tradition states that the sixth Lutheran

  • Catherine Winkworth
  • Contemporary version/adaptation based on Juan Bautista Cabrera's classic Spanish translation

Other versions

  • Lyrics, Music, and MIDI file at Cyber Hymnal
  • Version by Thomas Carlyle
  • Psalm 46 in the King James version
  • Psalms 46–50 in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer translation (Coverdale)
  • "Ein feste Burg" sung by Austria's Daniela Stieb (in German)

External links

  • Commission on Worship of the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod. Lutheran Worship. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1982. ISBN
  • Julian, John, ed. A Dictionary of Hymnology: Setting forth the Origin and History of Christian Hymns of all Ages and Nations. Second revised edition. 2 vols. n.p., 1907. Reprint, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav and Lehmann, Helmut, eds. Luther's Works. Vol. 53, Liturgy and Hymns. St. Louis, Concordia Publishing House, 1965. ISBN 0-8006-0353-2.
  • Polack, W.G. The Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1942.
  • Rœhrich, E. Les Origines du Choral Luthérien. Paris: Librairie Fischbacher, 1906.
  • Stulken, Marilyn Kay. Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.

Bibliography

  1. ^ a b c d e f Julian, John, ed., A Dictionary of Hymnology: Setting forth the Origin and History of Christian Hymns of all Ages and Nations, Second revised edition, 2 vols., n.p., 1907, reprint, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957, 1:322–25
  2. ^ W. G. Polack, The Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal, Third and Revised Edition (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1958), 193, No. 262.
  3. ^ a b Marilyn Kay Stulken, Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981), 307–08, nos. 228–229.
  4. ^  
  5. ^ Jaroslav Pelikan and Helmut Lehmann, eds., Luther's Works, 55 vols. (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1957–1986), 53:283.
  6. ^ Cf. The Commission on Worship of the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Lutheran Worship, (St. Louis: CPH, 1982), 992, 997.
  7. ^ E. Rœhrich, Les Origines du Choral Luthérien. (Paris: Librairie Fischbacher, 1906), 23 (italics original): "La forme authentique de cette mélodie diffère beaucoup de celle qu'on chante dans la plupart des Églises protestantes et qui figure dans les Huguenots". ... La mélodie originelle est puissamment rythmée, de manière à se plier à toutes les nuances du texte ..."
  8. ^ Psalmer och sånger (Örebro: Libris; Stockholm: Verbum, 1987), Item 237, which uses
  9. ^ Cantica Nova
  10. ^ , auf: luther2017.deLutherchoral „Ein feste Burg“ – Religion, Nation, Krieg
  11. ^ James R. Payton Jr., Getting the Reformation Wrong. Correcting Some Misunderstandings, page 82.
  12. ^ Not in Handels Solomon (1749): J. E. Gardiner, in his liner notes to his 1984 recording of the oratorio, stated the usage of the melody in No. 56, the double chorus 'Praise the Lord'. It is however another melody by Martin Luther: a passage from the Sanctus of the german mass (Deutsche Messe) "Holy is god, the Lord Zebaoth" ("Heilig ist Gott, der Herre Zabaoth") See also http://www.credenda.org/archive/issues/15-2musica.php
  13. ^ Luther: An opera about a man between God and the Devil – Composed by Kari Tikka at .fi.kolumbuswww
  14. ^ Volker Tarnow. "Luther lebt: Deutsche Momente" in Die Welt, 5 October 2004
  15. ^ 8F23 Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?
  16. ^ Cyber hymnal: "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"

References

See also

In popular culture

Psalm 46 by John Zdechlik. The hymn also features in Luther, an opera by Kari Tikka that premiered in 2000.[13][14] In 2007, Bradley Joseph arranged an instrumental version on his album, Hymns and Spiritual Songs.

Max Reger; his Choral Fantasy "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott", Op. 27 and a much shorter Chorale, Op. 67, No. 6.

The hymn has been used by numerous composers, including [12]

A Mighty Fortress is Our God – F.H. Hedge (English) translation

The German text of Ein feste Burg sung to the isometric, more widely known arrangement of its traditional melody.

Problems playing these files? See .

Compositions based on the hymn

Most North American Lutheran churches have not historically used either the Hedge or Carlyle translations. Traditionally, the most commonly used translation in Lutheran congregations is a composite translation from the 1868 Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book ("A mighty fortress is our God, a trusty shield and weapon"). In more recent years a new translation completed for the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship ("A mighty fortress is our God, a sword and shield victorious") has also gained significant popularity.

The most popular English version is A mighty fortress is our God, a bulwark never failing and was translated by Frederick H. Hedge in 1853. Another popular English translation is by Thomas Carlyle and begins A safe stronghold our God is still.

The first English translation is by Myles Coverdale in 1539 with the title, Oure God is a defence and towre. The first English translation in "common usage" was God is our Refuge in Distress, Our strong Defence in J.C. Jacobi's Psal. Ger., 1722, p. 83.[1]

English translations

In Germany, A Mighty Fortress Is Our God was historically also used as a patriotic paean which is why it was regularly sung at nationalistic events such as the Wartburg Festival in 1817.[10] This patriotic undertone of the hymn emanates from its importance for the Reformation in general which was regarded by the Protestants not only as a religious but as a national movement delivering Germany from Roman oppression.[11] Furthermore, the last line of the fourth stanza of the German text reads: "Das Reich muss uns doch bleiben" which is generally translated into English as "Kingdom" or "City of God" whilst it may also mean: the Holy Roman Empire must remain with the Germans.

The hymn's enduring popularity in Western Christendom has breached boundaries set in the Reformation as it is now a suggested hymn for Catholic Masses.[9] It currently appears in the second edition of the Catholic Book of Worship, published by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, though its adoption is not without controversy.

. Swedish socialist movement In the late 19th century the song also became an anthem of the early [8]

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