World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Richard Brodie (footballer)

Article Id: WHEBN0015760481
Reproduction Date:

Title: Richard Brodie (footballer)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Crawley Town F.C., Gateshead F.C., Brodie, Whickham F.C., Leo Fortune-West, Alex Lawless, 2006–07 York City F.C. season, Richard Brodie, 2009–10 Luton Town F.C. season, 2009–10 Crewe Alexandra F.C. season
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Richard Brodie (footballer)

Richard Brodie
England C2(0)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of 14:28, 27 November 2013 (UTC).
† Appearances (Goals).

Richard Jon Brodie (born 8 July 1987) is an English footballer who plays for Southport as a striker, on loan from Gateshead.

Brodie started his career with Whickham and, after being their top scorer in the 2005–06 season, moved to Newcastle Benfield in 2006. He trialled with York City after impressing the club when he played against them in an FA Cup tie for Benfield and signed with the team in January 2007. He finished the 2006–07 season with one goal and played in the Conference National play-off semi-finals, with York being beaten by Morecambe. He started the 2007–08 season with only three goals during 2007, but went on to finish the season with 14 goals, which was his first full term at the club.

Early in the 2008–09 season he was loaned out to Barrow and scored four goals during a one-month period. He finished the season as York's top scorer with 19 goals and featured for them in the 2009 FA Trophy Final at Wembley Stadium. The next season saw Brodie play in the 2010 Conference Premier play-off Final at Wembley and again finish as top scorer, this time with 34 goals. He moved to Crawley Town in August 2010 for an undisclosed fee, with whom he won the Conference Premier title in the 2010–11 season. He then joined Fleetwood Town on a season-long loan, winning a second Conference Premier title in as many seasons. He also earned two caps for the England C team from 2008 to 2009.

Club career

Early career

Brodie was born in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear and grew up in the town as a Sunderland A.F.C. supporter.[3][4] He attended Whickham School and played football for the Gateshead district side as a teenager.[5][6] He later played youth football with Whickham Fellside Juniors from the age of 10 to 16,[7] Redheugh Boys Club, scoring six goals in a 14–2 victory over Consett Badgers in March 2004,[8] and the Durham County under-18 team, featuring in the FA County Youth Cup in November.[9] Brodie started his senior career in 2004 after making substitute appearances for Whickham in the semi-professional Northern League Division Two before playing for them permanently at the age of 17.[7][10] He scored a hat-trick for Whickham in a 5–3 victory over Marske United in November 2005.[11] He scored 21 league goals in 35 appearances for Whickham and was their top scorer in the 2005–06 season.[10][12]

Brodie moved to Northern League Division One side Newcastle Benfield in the summer of 2006 and he became a popular player at the club.[12][13] This move came after impressing Benfield manager Paul Baker in a game between the teams, during which Brodie was "looking after himself with his elbows".[14] While playing semi-professionally, Brodie took a part-time apprenticeship in joinery and later worked as a full-time joiner.[7][15] He scored the first goal for Benfield in a friendly against Newcastle United in September, which finished as a 4–3 defeat.[16] Brodie scored the second goal in a 2–0 victory over Cammell Laird with a direct free kick from 25 yards.[17] He helped Benfield to victory in an FA Vase tie against Castle Vale in December by scoring their second goal in a 2–0 victory, which set up a fifth round tie against Truro City.[18] He was taken on trial at FA Premier League team Bolton Wanderers and he played for them in a juniors tournament in France, which ended unsuccessfully after he was played out of position at centre-back.[19] He scored three goals in 11 league appearances during his time with Benfield.[10]

York City

After impressing against Conference National side York City in a FA Cup fourth qualifying round tie, Brodie trialled with the North Yorkshire club and played in their reserve team, whilst also being allowed to play for Benfield in the FA Vase.[12] He eventually signed for York on transfer deadline day, 31 January 2007, on a contract until the end of the 2006–07 season for a nominal fee.[20][21] He scored two minutes into his York debut with the third goal in a 4–0 victory away to Altrincham on 10 February 2007, having entered the game as a 64th minute substitute.[22][23] He was sent off during a North Riding Cup game for York's reserves against Scarborough in February,[24] but a suspension did not come into place until 14 days later, meaning he was able to play league-leaders Dagenham & Redbridge.[25] He played in both legs of York's promotion play-off semi-final defeat to Morecambe 2–1 on aggregate and finished the season with 14 appearances and one goal,[23] after which the club exercised their option to extend his contract for the 2007–08 season in May 2007.[21]

Brodie made his first appearance of the 2007–08 season after being introduced as a 61st minute substitute against Cambridge United on 11 August 2007, but was unable to help the team as they suffered a 2–1 defeat.[26] His first goal of the season came with the opener in a 3–2 defeat to Rushden & Diamonds on 30 August 2007, and this was followed up with a goal in the following game, a 2–2 draw with Altrincham.[27][28] Having not scored since, he received abuse from some sections of the York support at Bootham Crescent during the 6–0 victory over Rushall Olympic in the FA Cup fourth qualifying round on 27 October 2007.[29] Following this, manager Billy McEwan said "I was disappointed to hear the young players like Richard Brodie getting stick. How can we develop young players if we don't support them?"[30] Brodie and Onome Sodje scored in extra time to give York victory in the Conference League Cup Fourth round Northern Section against Stafford Rangers on 22 December 2007, which set a new club record of six successive away victories.[31] Brodie went on to score two goals in stoppage time to give York a 4–3 victory over Droylsden,[32] which drew praise from manager Colin Walker.[33]

He suffered an ankle injury in a reserve match against Darlington on 8 January 2008 and eventually returned to the side for the 2–2 draw against Altrincham 11 days later.[27][34] He was dropped from the side against Halifax Town in favour of loanee Leo Fortune-West, and even though manager Walker assured Brodie that he was in the club's long-term plans,[35] Brodie reacted angrily to being substituted for Fortune-West against Ebbsfleet United in March.[36] He finished his first full season at York with 14 goals in 48 appearances and the club took up their option of extending his contract until the end of the 2008–09 season in April 2008.[27][37] Newly promoted Conference North side Gateshead made an inquiry for Brodie in June 2008, which was rejected by York.[38] Gateshead later had a four-figure bid for the player turned down, which would have been doubled if they would have won promotion to the Conference Premier the following season.[39]

Following Martyn Woolford's departure from York, Brodie played on the left wing in the 1–0 victory against Crawley Town on the opening day of the season.[40] His first goal of the season came after being set up by Simon Rusk in a 2–2 draw with Northwich Victoria.[41][42] After coming on as a substitute in the 68th minute, he was sent off in the 76th minute in a 3–1 defeat against Wrexham in October, after initially being shown a yellow card for kicking the ball away and then receiving a second card for a tackle on Carl Tremarco, which resulted in him being suspended for York's match against Woking.[43][44][45]

Barrow loan

He joined fellow Conference Premier side Barrow on a one-month loan on 23 October 2008,[46][47] after having made 15 appearances and scored three goals for York up to that point during the 2008–09 season.[41] After Brodie scored two goals on his debut for Barrow in a 4–0 victory against Tamworth in the fourth qualifying round of the FA Cup,[48] Barrow's joint-manager Darren Sheridan said "He did well and he gives us more options for the team. It was a great debut from him and we know there is still more to come in the next few games".[49] This performance led to him being nominated as player of the round for the fourth qualifying round, but it was eventually awarded to Sam Hatton of AFC Wimbledon.[50] Barrow revealed that they were hoping to sign him permanently in the January transfer window if his loan spell at the club were to be successful.[49] He made his league debut for Barrow in a 3–1 victory over Forest Green Rovers and he scored against Gateshead in the Conference League Cup third round for Barrow, with the game finishing 3–1 after extra time.[48] His third FA Cup goal for Barrow came with the opener in a 4–0 victory over Eastbourne Borough in a first round replay.[48] It was agreed for Brodie's loan at the club to be extended following the match,[51] but York decided to overturn this decision a day later.[52] He made his final appearance for Barrow in a 1–0 defeat to Weymouth, finishing the spell with seven appearances and four goals.[48] He later ruled out the possibility of rejoining Barrow in January, saying he was committed to playing for York.[53]


Return to York

He made his first appearance for York following his return a day after making his final appearance for Barrow, coming on as a 61st minute substitute for Liam Shepherd in a 2–2 draw at home to Crawley.[41][54] Brodie scored York's equaliser in the following game against Salisbury City with a goal in the 83rd minute, which finished as a 1–1 draw in Martin Foyle's first game as manager.[41][55] After picking up a yellow card against Salisbury, his fifth of the season for York, he was handed a one-match suspension which saw him miss the match against Grays Athletic.[56] He scored with an effort from 25 yards on his return against Histon, which finished as a 1–1 draw.[57] A brace against Northwich in the FA Trophy first round saw York progress with a 2–0 victory, with Foyle rating Brodie's first as the "goal of the season".[58] Foyle also stated his desire for Brodie to stay at York, after continued reports of interest from Barrow.[59] Brodie scored from a direct free kick against Altrincham on 28 December to give York a 1–0 lead, although the game was eventually lost 2–1.[60] Barrow joint-manager David Bayliss said he was unlikely to table a bid for Brodie during the January transfer window, claiming "If we had a hell of a lot of money we could maybe get him away but we haven't".[61] Foyle responded to this by saying he had no intention of selling Brodie.[62]

Brodie scored the winning goal for York in a 2–1 victory over Oxford United in an FA Trophy second round match, ensuring the team's progression to the third round.[41] This was followed up with two goals against Lewes; a volley into the top corner and a low shot into the bottom corner, which helped the team to a 3–0 victory.[63] He scored York's first goal in a 2–1 victory over AFC Telford United in the FA Trophy semi-final second leg, with the tie being won 4–1 on aggregate, which saw the team reach the final at Wembley Stadium.[64] A yellow card picked up against Kidderminster Harriers in March resulted in Brodie being handed a two-match suspension, meaning he would miss games against Grays and Oxford, after being booked on 10 occasions during the season.[65] Brodie returned to the team for the 2–1 defeat to Northwich on 11 April 2009, and during this match he was fouled in the penalty area and so won York's penalty kick, which was scored by Mark Robinson.[66] In the following game two days later, against former club Barrow, he was denied a goal on several occasions in a 0–0 draw.[67] Brodie scored and assisted the team's two goals as they beat Forest Green 2–1 and went on to score against Weymouth in a 2–1 victory, which ensured York's survival in the Conference Premier.[68][69] He started in the 2009 FA Trophy Final at Wembley on 9 May 2009, which York lost 2–0 to Stevenage Borough.[41] He finished the season as York's top scorer with 19 goals in 46 appearances,[41] after which the club exercised their option to extend his contract for the 2009–10 season in May 2009.[70]

Gateshead made an undisclosed five-figure bid for Brodie in May 2009, but this was rejected by York.[71] He signed a new two-year contract with York in June 2009.[72] He scored York's goal on the opening day of the 2009–10 season against Oxford, which concluded as a 2–1 defeat.[73] After a run of entering three games as a substitute, he started against Gateshead away and scored York's first goal with a strike from 12 yards in a 2–1 victory.[73][74] He then scored two goals with a header and a penalty in the following game against Histon as York won 3–1.[75] Brodie won a penalty against Crawley after being fouled by Dominic Collins, which he scored six minutes into the game, before passing the ball to Michael Gash, who scored the second goal in a 2–0 victory.[76] Following the match, Foyle commented on their partnership, saying "They are doing well together because Michael leads the line very well and Richard looks to hit the flanks."[77] Brodie then scored both goals in York's 2–0 win over Kettering Town, who were second in the league at that point, on 12 September 2009, which pushed York up to fourth in the Conference Premier.[78] After receiving a yellow card against Oxford in October 2009 for kicking the ball away, which was his fifth booking of the season, he was handed a one-match suspension for York's game against Luton Town.[79] York claimed the booking was the result of mistaken identity, with Adam Smith being the player who performed the offence, and an appeal with The Football Association was lodged.[80] The ban was overturned and he played for York in a 1–1 draw, assisting Neil Barrett's goal for York with a pass.[81]

He scored twice for York in a 3–2 victory over League Two team Crewe Alexandra in the FA Cup first round on 7 November 2009, which included the first and final goals.[73] Following this, he was voted Player of the Round for the first round of the FA Cup.[82] In the following game he achieved his first hat-trick for York, scoring three goals in a 3–2 victory over Chester City.[83] After picking up a yellow card against AFC Wimbledon,[73] he was handed a one-match suspension, which resulted in him missing a game against Gateshead.[84] He was named the Conference Premier Player of the Month for November 2009, during which he scored six goals in five games.[85] He was watched by Peterborough United manager Mark Cooper and director of football Barry Fry, although Fry said Peterborough were not interested in signing Brodie.[86] He scored his 20th goal of the season in a 2–1 victory over Wrexham, a result that equalled the club record for successive victories in all competitions with eight.[87] This goal broke the club record for reaching 20 goals in a season in the quickest time, beating Arthur Bottom's record by six days.[88] He scored his second hat-trick of the season with York's goals in a 3–1 victory at home to Hinckley United in an FA Trophy first round replay.[89] He was involved in all of York's three goals in a 3–0 Boxing Day victory over Mansfield Town with two goals and an assist.[90] He played for York in the FA Cup third round against Premier League team Stoke City at the Britannia Stadium, which was lost 3–1.[91] He scored two goals and provided an assist in a 4–1 victory over Hayes & Yeading United, which broke the club record for consecutive league victories with eight.[92] League Two team Grimsby Town made an offer for Brodie in January 2010, with chairman John Fenty's offer being rejected as it was "nowhere near" York's valuation of the player.[93]

He was handed a two-match suspension after receiving his 10th yellow card of the season during a 1–0 home victory over Newport County in an FA Trophy second round replay on 26 January 2010.[94] He made his return in a 1–0 victory over Kettering on 6 February 2010,[73] before being handed a three-match suspension as a result of being sent off during a 1–0 defeat to Ebbsfleet after his elbow caught Dean Pooley.[95] This resulted in a head wound that required three stitches for Pooley, and York's directors and manager apologised to Ebbsfleet manager Liam Daish for the tackle.[96] Following Chester's expulsion from the Football Conference in March 2010, the three goals Brodie scored against them were discounted as their results were expunged, meaning his goal tally for the season was reduced from 27 to 24.[97] He had a penalty in a 1–0 victory away at Mansfield saved by goalkeeper Alan Marriott, with Brodie having directed this and his last seven penalties of the season to the right of the goal.[98] He scored his first goals in 12 games with two in a 4–0 victory away to Grays on 30 March 2010.[73][99] He then scored the winning goal at home to Altrincham on 5 April 2010 with a penalty in stoppage time to give York a 2–1 victory.[100] In the following game Brodie scored a first half hat-trick, two goals being penalties and the other from open play after he rounded goalkeeper James Pullen, in a 5–0 victory over AFC Wimbledon.[101] He picked up a hamstring strain against AFC Wimbledon and he was unlikely to start against Eastbourne Borough,[102] although he eventually started the match as York lost 3–1.[73] He scored two goals against former club Barrow in a 3–0 victory, a result that confirmed York's place in the play-offs.[103]

Brodie was named as York's Players' Player of the Year for the season, as well as being awarded the Keith Walwyn Golden Boot, having scored 32 goals at that point.[104] He finished the league season as the joint top scorer of the Conference Premier alongside Matt Tubbs with 26 goals.[73][105] Brodie scored the winning goal on 89 minutes to give York a 1–0 victory in their play-off semi-final first leg at home against Luton.[73] He played in the 1–0 victory at Kenilworth Road in the second leg, meaning York won the tie 2–0 on aggregate, and after the match was hit by a coin with the squad being forced to leave the ground through the back of a stand after having missiles thrown at them by a section of Luton fans.[73][106] He started in the 2010 Conference Premier play-off Final at Wembley on 16 May, which was lost 3–1 to Oxford.[73] Following the game, he said "We'll take it like men and we'll get back together and work hard and come back bigger and stronger".[107] He finished the season with 51 appearances and 34 goals, making him York's highest goalscorer in a season since Bottom scored 39 in the 1954–55 season.[73] York entered negotiations over a new contract with Brodie following the end of the season.[108] At the Football Conference's Annual Presentation Dinner, he was named the Conference's Player of the Year and a member of the Team of the Year.[109]

York's Conference Premier rivals Crawley had a £125,000 bid for Brodie rejected during the summer of 2010 and scored his first goal of the season with a penalty in a 3–0 victory over Altrincham on 28 August.[110][111] However, Brodie's form for York early in the season had been unsettled by Crawley's interest in signing him, which he had been aware of for "about a month to six weeks" after Crawley manager Steve Evans made an inquiry about him in July 2010.[112][113]

Crawley Town

He eventually signed for Crawley for an undisclosed fee on 31 August 2010, the transfer being completed three minutes before the transfer deadline.[114] The fee involved was reported by The Press to be around £300,000,[115] although Crawley co-owner Bruce Winfield dismissed this figure, saying "it was nowhere near that".[116] The Non-League Paper reported the fee to be £275,500; if true, this meant a new record had been set for the highest transfer fee between two non-League clubs.[117] After signing, Brodie said "What they're trying to plan here and the aims this club have got is to be a Football League club. They've got as good a chance as anybody."[112] He made his debut as a 55th minute substitute in a 1–1 draw with Fleetwood Town on 4 September 2010.[118][119] On his first start, Brodie scored his first goal for Crawley with the second goal in a 2–0 victory at Histon on 11 September 2010.[118] Crawley rejected an offer for him from an undisclosed League Two club in January 2011.[120] Brodie struggled to force his way into the Crawley starting XI on a regular basis,[121] and finished the season with 13 goals in 45 appearances for Crawley as the club won the Conference Premier title and therefore promotion to League Two.[118]

Loan spells

Brodie signed for Conference Premier side Fleetwood Town on loan for the 2011–12 season for a "substantial five-figure loan fee" on 16 May 2011.[122] Homesickness was cited as the reason for the transfer, with Evans saying "Richard is a very talented lad but it is no secret he has failed to settle away from his family home. He is still young and this loan move will allow him to live back at home for a period and he can solely focus on his football. Home sickness is a terrible thing and in my opinion there is only one cure: Go home".[122] Brodie's first goal for Fleetwood was the team's fifth goal in the 5–2 home league win over Kidderminster on 20 September.[123] Four days later he scored both goals in a 2–2 draw against AFC Telford.[123] On 1 November he scored the opener in the 5–0 victory over Mansfield in the FA Cup fourth round qualifying replay which secured Fleetwood's place in the first round, on their way to their best ever performance in the competition.[123]

Brodie's fifth league goal for Fleetwood came on Boxing Day in the local derby against Southport when he scored a late equaliser in the 88th minute to make it 2–2 in front of a record home league attendance for Fleetwood.[124] During the away league game against the same club on 1 January 2012 Brodie scored twice, the first coming after just four minutes and the second coming in the 29th minute, which made the score 3–0 to Fleetwood.[125] Two minutes after scoring his second goal Brodie was sent off after receiving a second yellow card, although his side went on to win the game 6–0.[125]

Brodie signed for League Two side Morecambe on a six-month loan deal on 19 July 2012.[126] He made his debut in Morecambe's 2012–13 season opener as a 54th minute substitute for Jordan Burrow in the team's 2–1 victory over Championship Blackpool in the League Cup first round on 12 August 2012.[127] His first start came on 18 August 2012 in Morecambe's 3–0 victory away at Exeter City on 18 August 2012.[127] Having scored six goals in 27 games, he returned to Crawley on 2 January 2013 as Morecambe were not in a financial position to extend his loan[127][128]

On 4 January 2013, Brodie joined Conference Premier side Grimsby Town on loan until the end of the 2012–13 season.[129] He made his debut the following day, starting Grimsby's 1–1 home draw with Hereford United, before scoring his first goal in a 4–2 win at home to Alfreton Town on 2 February 2013.[123] Brodie was released from his loan spell on 25 March 2013, which was the day after he missed a penalty in the 4–1 penalty shoot-out defeat against Wrexham in the 2013 FA Trophy Final at Wembley.[130] He had scored two goals in 15 appearances for Grimsby.[123]

Gateshead

Brodie was released by Crawley at the end of the season and went on trial with Hartlepool United, who had been relegated to League Two.[131] He instead signed for Conference Premier club Gateshead on a one-year contract on 15 May 2013.[132] He scored on his debut on 10 August 2013 away to Kidderminster Harriers, although Gateshead went on to lose 3–1.[123] After scoring twice in his first seven games for Gateshead, Brodie signed for Conference Premier rivals Hereford United on a one-month loan on 13 September 2013, being reunited with former York manager Foyle.[133] He made his debut later that day in Hereford's 2–0 home defeat to Aldershot Town, and scored his only goal for the club in a 1–1 draw away to FC Halifax Town on 21 September 2013.[123] He returned to Gateshead after the loan expired, having made eight appearances and scored one goal for Hereford.[134] Brodie was loaned out again on 21 November 2013, joining fellow Conference Premier club Southport initially until January 2014.[135]

International career

Brodie was named in the England C team, who represent England at non-League level, in August 2008, for a friendly against Bosnia and Herzegovina.[136] He started the game, but was substituted after 60 minutes, with the match eventually finishing as a 6–2 defeat.[4] He was named on standby for the England C team in May 2009 for the International Challenge Trophy game against the Belgium under-21 team.[137] He was given a second call-up to the team in October for the game against the Poland under-23 team in November.[138] Brodie started the game and had a goal disallowed, before being substituted on 65 minutes after picking up a foot injury.[139]

Style of play

Brodie plays as a striker and was once described as a "prolific" goalscorer.[140] After making his debut for York in 2007, Dave Flett of The Press said Brodie "looks a potent package of pace and power with a competitive streak that should strike fear into countless Conference defenders".[141] Foyle's guidance while manager at York was credited as benefiting Brodie.[142] He stated "I've worked hard trying to improve my game and I'm starting to score different types of goals" in 2009.[143] He was described as "one of non-league football's hottest properties" in 2010.[144] After signing for Crawley in 2010, manager Steve Evans said "The lad is a terrific player, he works very hard for the team and gets a goal".[145]

Career statistics

As of match played 26 November 2013.
Club Season League FA Cup League Cup Other Total
Division Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
York City 2006–07[23] Conference National 12 1 0 0 2[lower-alpha 1] 0 14 1
2007–08[27] Conference Premier 39 10 2 0 7[lower-alpha 2] 4 48 14
2008–09[41] Conference Premier 38 15 0 0 8[lower-alpha 3] 4 46 19
2009–10[73] Conference Premier 40 26 4 4 7[lower-alpha 4] 4 51 34
2010–11[111] Conference Premier 6 1 0 0 0 0 6 1
Total 135 53 6 4 24 12 165 69
Barrow (loan) 2008–09[48] Conference Premier 3 0 3 3 1[lower-alpha 5] 1 7 4
Crawley Town 2010–11[118] Conference Premier 38 11 6 1 1[lower-alpha 3] 1 45 13
Fleetwood Town (loan) 2011–12[123] Conference Premier 34 9 4 1 1[lower-alpha 3] 0 39 10
Morecambe (loan) 2012–13[127] League Two 23 5 0 0 2 0 2[lower-alpha 6] 1 27 6
Grimsby Town (loan) 2012–13[123] Conference Premier 10 2 0 0 5[lower-alpha 3] 0 15 2
Gateshead 2013–14[123] Conference Premier 8 2 0 0 0 0 8 2
Hereford United (loan) 2013–14[123] Conference Premier 8 1 0 0 0 0 8 1
Southport (loan) 2013–14[123] Conference Premier 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Career total 261 83 19 9 2 0 34 15 316 107

Honours

Crawley Town

Fleetwood Town

Individual

References

External links

  • Gateshead F.C.
  • Soccerbase
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.