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List of consonants

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List of consonants

This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
↓ Manner Bilabial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
/ Epiglottal
Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n̼̊ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ̥ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v tθ̠ dð̠ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ɢʁ ʡħ ʡʕ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ ʔ̞
Approximant ɸ˕ ʋ θ̞ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̮
Trill ʙ r ɽr̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̥˔ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral flap ɺ̼ ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̮ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Simple clicks ʘ ʘ̬ ʘ̃ ǀ ǀ̬ ǀ̃ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ̃
ǂ ǂ̬ ǂ̃ ǁ ǁ̬ ǁ̃ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǃ̃˞
Other clicks ʘ̃ˀ ʘˀ ˀʘ̃ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qχ ʘ͡qʼ ʘ͡qχʼ ¡ ʞ
Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥ 
Ejectives ʈʼ ʡʼ
θʼ ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
tsʼ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ tɕʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ̊ ɥ ɫ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m ɧ
t͡p d͡b n͡m q͡ʡ
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible or not distinctive.

Contents

  • Ordered by place of articulation 1
    • Labial consonant 1.1
      • Bilabial consonant 1.1.1
      • Labiodental consonant 1.1.2
    • Bidental consonant 1.2
    • Coronal consonant 1.3
      • Dental consonant 1.3.1
      • Alveolar consonant 1.3.2
      • Postalveolar consonant 1.3.3
        • Palatalized postalveolar consonants 1.3.3.1
        • Retroflex consonant 1.3.3.2
    • Dorsal consonant 1.4
      • Palatal consonant 1.4.1
        • Labialized palatal consonant 1.4.1.1
      • Velar consonant 1.4.2
        • Labialized velar consonant 1.4.2.1
        • Labial–velar consonant 1.4.2.2
      • Uvular consonant 1.4.3
    • Laryngeal consonant 1.5
      • Pharyngeal consonant 1.5.1
      • Glottal consonant 1.5.2
  • Ordered by manner of articulation 2
    • Nasal (stop) consonants 2.1
    • Fricative consonant 2.2
    • Affricate consonant 2.3
    • Approximant consonant 2.4
    • Flap (tap) consonant 2.5
    • Trill consonant 2.6
    • Lateral consonant 2.7
    • Ejective consonant 2.8
    • Implosive consonant 2.9
    • Labialized consonants 2.10
    • Palatalized consonants 2.11
    • Pharyngealized consonants 2.12
    • Velarized consonants 2.13
    • Click consonant 2.14
    • Percussive consonant 2.15
  • See also 3

Ordered by place of articulation

Labial consonants

(articulated by using the lips)

Bilabial consonants

Labiodental consonants

Bidental consonants

Coronal consonants

(articulated by using the tip of the tongue)

Dental consonants

Alveolar consonants

Postalveolar consonants

Palatalized postalveolar consonants
Retroflex consonants

Dorsal consonants

(articulated with the middle of the tongue)

Palatal consonants

Labialized palatal consonants

Velar consonants

Labialized velar consonants
Labial–velar consonants

Uvular consonants

Laryngeal consonants

(articulated with the throat)

Pharyngeal consonants

Glottal consonants

Ordered by manner of articulation

Pulmonic consonants

Nasal (stop) consonants

Fricative consonants

Sibilant fricatives
Central non-sibilant fricatives
Lateral fricatives
both fricatives and approximants
Pseudo-fricatives

Affricate consonants

Sibilant affricates
Non-sibilant affricates
Lateral affricates

Approximant consonants

Flap (tap) consonants

Trill consonants

Lateral consonants

Approximants
Fricatives
Affricates
Flaps
Ejective
Clicks

Ejective consonants

Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives

Implosive consonants

Labialized consonants

Plosives
Fricatives
Approximants

Palatalized consonants

Pharyngealized consonants

Velarized consonants

Click consonants

The less common clicks, such as are found in Taa, are not included.

Simple clicks
Glottalized clicks
Pulmonic-contour clicks
Ejective-contour clicks

Percussive consonants

These are not found in any language, but occur as phonetic detail or through speech defects.

See also

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