Graphs and matrices play a vital role in the analysis and study of several of the real world problems which are based only on unsupervised data. The fuzzy and neutrosophic tools like fuzzy cognitive maps invented by Kosko and neutrosophic cognitive maps introduced by us help in the analysis of such real world problems and they happen to be mathematical tools which can give the hidden pattern of the problem under investigation. This book, in order to generalize the two ...

Matrix theory has been one of the most utilised concepts in fuzzy models and neutrosophic models. From solving equations to characterising linear transformations or linear operators, matrices are used. Matrices find their applications in several real models. In fact it is not an exaggeration if one says that matrix theory and linear algebra (i.e. vector spaces) form an inseparable component of each other. The study of bialgebraic structures led to the invention of n...

Matrices provide a very powerful tool for dealing with linear models. Bimatrices which we are going to define in this chapter are still a powerful and an advanced tool which can handle over one linear model at a time. Bimatrices will be useful when time bound comparisons are needed in the analysis of the model.

The algebraic structure, linear algebra happens to be one of the subjects which yields itself to applications to several fields like coding or communication theory, Markov chains, representation of groups and graphs, Leontief economic models and so on. This book has for the first time, introduced a new algebraic structure called linear bialgebra, which is also a very powerful algebraic tool that can yield itself to applications. With the recent introduction of bimatric...

In this section we give the definition of linear algebra and just state the few important theorems like Cayley Hamilton theorem, Cyclic Decomposition Theorem, Generalized Cayley Hamilton Theorem and give some properties about linear algebra.

For most of the 20th century, both relativity and star travel fascinated this writer. The reasons Albert Einstein concluded there is an absolute barrier at the speed of light seemed at first clear, then later not so clear upon closer examination. "The speed of light relative to what?" I often asked anyone who would listen. The common response was, "Light needs no specification of that kind; its speed is the same no matter who measures it." "That's true." I would respo...

One's reach should exceed one's grasp. Thus we reach for Alpha Centauri with a round-trip manned and womanned mission as the proposed overarching goal under a clear plan of exploration - a grand experiment described in later chapters. Whether or not we succeed in grasping the goal under this or under any plan is not as important as it is to set a definite plan and work towards its goal. The plan outlined here is in two phases: Phase one has a high probability of succe...

Performantele matematicii actuale,ca si descoperirile din viitor isi au,desigur, inceputul in cea mai veche si mai aproape de filozofie ramura a matematicii, in teoria numerelor. Matematicienii din toate timpurile au fost, sunt si vor fi atrasi de frumusetea si varietatea problemelor specifice acestei ramuri a matematicii. Regina a matematicii, care la randul ei este regina a stiintelor, dupa cum spunea Gauss, teoria numerelor straluceste cu lumina si atractiile ei, fa...

In 1996 the author wrote reviews for "Zentralblatt fUr Mathematik" for books [11 and [21 and this was him first contact of with the Smarandache's problems. In [1] Florentin Smarandache formulated 105 unsolved problems, while in [21 C. Dumitrescu and V. Seleacu formulated 140 unsolved problems. The second book contains almost all problems from [11, but now everyone problem has unique number and by this reason the author will use the numeration of the problems from [2]...

The creation of a book is an act that requires several preconditions. I) An interesting and worthwhile subject; 2) A fair, yet demanding editor.; 3) Someone willing to put the words on paper. Given the existence of these three items, the leap to making the book a good one becomes the responsibility of the author. The Smarandache function is simultaneously a logical extension to earlier functions in number theory as well as a key to many future paths of exploration. As...

As one of the oldest of mathematical disciplines, the roots of number theory extend back into antiquity. Problems are often easy to state, but extremely difficult to solve. Which is the origin of much of their charm. All mathematicians, amateurs and professionals alike, have a soft spot in their hearts for the "purity" of the integers. When "Fermat's Last Theorem" was finally proven after centuries of effort, the result was discussed on many major news shows in the U...

In writing a book, one encounters and overcomes many obstacles. Not the least of which is the occasional case of writer’s block. This is especially true in mathematics where sometimes the answer is currently and may for all time be unknown. There is nothing worse than writing yourself into a corner where your only exit is to build a door by solving unsolved problems. In any case, it is my hope that you will read this volume and come away thinking that I have overcome eno...

A Smarandache notion is an element of an ill-defined set, sometimes being almost an accident oflabeling. However, that takes nothing away from the interest and excitement that can be generated by exploring the consequences of such a problem It is a well-known cliche among writers that the best novels are those where the author does not know what is going to happen until that point in the story is actually reached. That statement also holds for some of these problems. ...

F. Smarandache has defined many sequences of integers formed by concatenating the positive integers in specific ways. A question that is often asked about most of these sequences concerns the number of primes in the sequence. As Paul Erdos pointed out, determining how many primes are in sequences of this type is a problem that the current state of mathematical knowledge is unprepared to solve. In general, the sequences grow rather fast, so after a very short time, t...

Using the bases from three through nine to form new sequences, we can then ask the same question regarding the number of primes in the sequence. That appears to be a question just as difficult as the one for base ten numbers, and is summarized in the following statement.

Un costaud force une traInee a fuir sa villa. II entretient des relations avec une autredes relations de sang. Le gars court la gueuse jusqu' au bOI-del, ou il est -a la botte d'une prostituee dlkllaussee. Le male lui rcgarde en face son dos puis il met a nu cette femelle deja deshabillee.

Prezenta lucrare contine exercitii §i probleme de algebra, grupate pe capitole, pentru clasele superioare de licee §i §coli medii de cultura generala. Scopul ei este pregatirea matematica a elevilor din liceele de toate categoriile §i va fi utila in lucrul de sine statator. De asemenea, lucrarea poate fi folosita pentru lucrul extra§colar, deoarece cititorul va gasi in ea teoreme §i for mule importante, notiuni §i definitii de baza care nu intotdeauna sunt incluse in manualele §colare.

Teoria axiomatica a multimilor este foarte dificila pentru a fi expusa la un nivel elementar, de aceea, intuitiv, prin multime vom in1elege o colec1ie de obiecte pe care Ie vom numi elemente sau puncte ale acestei mul1imi. 0 mul1ime este definita daca sunt date elementele sale sau daca se da 0 proprietate pe care 0 au toate elementele sale, proprietate care Ie deosebe§te de elementele altei mul1imi. Ulteror mul1imile Ie vom nota cu majuscule: A, B, C, .. . , X, Y, ...

Din nevoie deoarece m aflam într'un lagr de refugiaÛi politici in Turcia Õi mi se lungiser ochii dup viza americana de emigrare, viz care se tot lsa aÕteptat pân la disperare! Aproape doi ani de nerbdri Õi descumpniri am înscris în memoria mea... Destui colegi, nerezistând, îÕi luau lumea'n cap Õi fugeau din lagr haihui prin Europa, trecând clandestin frontierele în Grecia Õi-apoi tind-o spre inima continentului în Germania, Belgia, care pe unde nimerea, ba ascunÕ...

Structura roman; a celui mai frumos pod; care a rezistat unui cutremur -; în timp ce cldirile înalte cdeau precum copacii; - destul de tare s Ûin greutatea; atâtor armate Õi caravane spre vechiul oraÕ; care st la intersecÛia Europei....

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, first published 5 July 1687. Newton also published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion ...

In the present volume there have been covered in a comprehensive and popular manner the various departments of Astronomy. Owing to its treatment in a definitely historical and descriptive manner, however, it may be possible to supplement the general review by a few brief statements of some of the results and problems that confront us in the actual work of the observational astronomy of to-day.

The astronomical beliefs of prehistoric man were doubt similar to those entertained by the Eskimo of the Arctic regions and the untutored tribes of Argentine' Republic, South Africa and Australia, tribes who, living only for the day, concern themselves but little with to- morrow and yesterday and care nothing about the universe...